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2019-09-17 Council PKT - Regular CITY OF Federal Way Centered on Opportunity CITY COUNCIL REGULAR MEETING AGENDA Council Chambers - City Hall September 17, 2019 — 6:30 p.m. 1. CALL MEETING TO ORDER 2. PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE 3. PRESENTATIONS a. Proclamation: Mayor's Day of Concern — September 21 ...page 4 b. Proclamation: National Recovery Month — September 2019 ...page 5 c. Mayor's Emerging Issues and Report • Severe Weather Shelter Update—Sarah Bridgeford • Recent Events: Federal Way Chamber Quarterly City Update (9/10); DaVita Groundbreaking (9/10) • Upcoming Events: Federal Way Boys &Girls Club Breakfast on Sept 17; Mayors Day of Concern Food Drive at area grocery stores on September 21; Farmers Markets—Taste of Federal Way on September 28 d. Council Committee Reports • Finance, Economic Development Regional Affairs Committee (FEDRAC) • Lodging Tax Advisory Committee (LTAC) • Land Use/Transportation Committee (LUTC) • Parks/Recreation/Human Services/Public Safety Committee (PRHSPS) • Regional Committees Report(PIC) • Deputy Mayor Report 4. CITIZEN COMMENT PLEASE COMPLETE A PINK SLIP AND TURN IT IN TO THE CITY CLERK PRIOR TO SPEAKING. When recognized by the Mayor,come forward to the podium and state your name for the record. Please limit your comments to three minutes. The Mayor may interrupt comments that exceed three minutes, relate negatively to other individuals, or are otherwise inappropriate. 5. CONSENT AGENDA Items listed below have been previously reviewed in their entirety by a Council Committee of three members and brought before full Council for approval;all items are enacted by one motion. Individual items maybe removed by a Councilmember for separate discussion and subsequent motion. a. Minutes: September 3, 2019 Regular Meeting Minutes ...page 6 b. Greenway Plan 85% Design Report and Authorization to Bid ...page 13 The City Council may add items and take action on items not listed on the agenda. City Council Meetings are wheelchair accessible; and assisted listening devices for use in the Council Chambers are available upon request to the City Clerk. Regular Meetings are recorded and televised live on Government Access Channel 21.To view Council Meetings online please visit www.cityoffederalway.com. c. Resolution: King County Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan ...page 16 d. Award Contract for Citywide Adaptive Traffic Signal Control — Traffic Control Center ... page 439 e. Authorization to Increase Project Budget for Surface Water Management (SWM) Comp Plan/CIP Update and Rate Study ...page 441 f. Surface Water Management (SWM) 2020-2027 CIP Update ...page 443 g. Wild Waves Holdings Lease Agreement ...page 492 h. Federal Way Link Extension Task Order#2 ...page 494 i. S. Dash Point SW— 85% request to bid ...page 512 j. Portable Toilet Services Contract Amendment ...page 515 k. University of Washington Extra Duty Police Services Agreement ...page 519 I. Amendment to the Interlocal Agreement with the City of Auburn for Leasing Space for the Puget Sound Auto Theft Task Force ...page 528 m. Ballistic Vest Partnership (BVP) Grant ...page 532 n. King County Registered Sex Offender Cost Reimbursement Agreement ...page 535 o. Edward Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grant (JAG) Program for FY 2017 ...page 547 6. COUNCIL BUSINESS a. Performing Arts & Event Center (PAEC) Interim Financing ...page 597 b. Council Discussion regarding the proposed King County Regional Homelessness Authority (potential action) ...page 600 7. ORDINANCES First Reading a. Council Bill #764 Relating to Snow and Ice ...page 603 ORDINANCE OF THE CITY OF FEDERAL WAY, WASHINGTON, RELATING TO DECLARING WINTER SNOW AND ICE EMERGENCIES AS SNOW ALERTS, REMOVAL OF SNOW AND ICE FROM SIDEWALKS, REMOVAL OF VEHICLES FROM CITY PRIMARY SNOW ROUTES DURING DECLARED SNOW ALERTS,AND PROHIBITING THE ABANDONMENT OF VEHICLES ON CITY STREET DURING THE SAME; AND ADDING NEW SECTIONS TO CHAPTER 4.40 AND 8.60 FWRC. • Staff Report: Desiree Winkler, Deputy Public Works Director • Citizen Comment— 3 minutes • Council Questions b. Council Bill #765 Renewal of North Lake Management District #2 ...page 611 ORDINANCE OF THE CITY OF FEDERAL WAY, WASHINGTON, RELATING TO THE RENEWAL OF THE NORTH LAKE MANAGEMENT DISTRICT NUMBER 2 AND SETTING A PUBLIC HEARING ON THE ASSESSMENT ROLL FOR THE DISTRICT. • Staff Report: Leah Myhre, SWM Water Quality Coordinator • Citizen Comment— 3 minutes The City Council may add items and take action on items not listed on the agenda. City Council Meetings are wheelchair accessible; and assisted listening devices for use in the Council Chambers are available upon request to the City Clerk. Regular Meetings are recorded and televised live on Government Access Channel 21.To view Council Meetings online please visit www.cityoffederalway.com. • Council Questions c. Council Bill #766 Surface Water Management (SWM) 2021 Rate Structure Change ...page 620 ORDINANCE OF THE CITY OF FEDERAL WAY, WASHINGTON, RELATING TO CHANGING THE POLICY AND RATE STRUCTURE FOR THE STORM AND SURFACE WATER UTILITY; AMENDING FWRC 11.40.030, 11.40.100, 11.45.010, 11.45.020, 11.45.030,AND 11.45.070; REPEALING FWRC 11.40.050, 11.40.080,AND 11.40.090; AND ADDING A NEW SECTION TO CHAPTER 11.40 FWRC. (AMENDING ORDINANCE NOS. 14-775, 07-571, 06-544, 02-433, 96-277, 91-117, AND 90-32) • Staff Report: Theresa Thurlow, Surface Water Manager • Citizen Comment— 3 minutes • Council Questions 8. COUNCIL REPORTS 9. ADJOURNMENT The City Council may add items and take action on items not listed on the agenda. City Council Meetings are wheelchair accessible; and assisted listening devices for use in the Council Chambers are available upon request to the City Clerk. Regular Meetings are recorded and televised live on Government Access Channel 21.To view Council Meetings online please visit www.cityoffederalway.com. CITY OF Federal Way PROCLAMATION "Mayor's Day of Concern for the Hungry" September 21, 2019 WHEREAS, the City of Federal Way recognizes adequate nutrition as a basic goal for each citizen; and WHEREAS, it is our fundamental belief that no parent should have to send a child to school hungry, no baby should be without the comfort of the feedings needed for mental and physical growth, no elderly person's health should be jeopardized by lack of appropriate foods; and WHEREAS, the Multi-Service Center food bank, emergency and hot meal programs, local churches, social service agencies, and hundreds of volunteers are striving each day to stem the rising tide of hunger, but still need more help; and WHEREAS, many Federal Way residents have the ability to impact hunger in their community through donations of food; and WHEREAS, we will strive to raise awareness and encourage our citizens to donate food to the hungry as winter approaches and their resources must be stretched to cover increasing fuel, electricity and rental costs—leaving even less money for monthly food purchases; and WHEREAS, the Emergency Feeding Program of Seattle & King County coordinates an annual food drive to help support the efforts of their .program and the area's food banks in fighting hunger which will be held at grocery stores throughout King County on Saturday, September 21, 2019. NOW, THEREFORE, we, the undersigned Mayor and City Council of the City of Federal Way, do hereby proclaim September 21, 2019 as the "Mayor's Day of Concern for the Hungry' in the City of Federal Way, and strongly urge all citizens to join the Emergency Feeding Program and the Multi-Service Center to nourish those who are hungry. SIGNED this 17th day of September, 2019. FEDERAL WAYMAYOR AND CITY COUNCIL Jim Ferrell,Mayor SuspqHda,Deputy Mayor d' ssefa-Da on, ouncilmember J s ohnson,Councilmember Hang V. n C ncilmember rk Kopffr , ouncilmem Martin Moore,tourcilmember Dini Duclos,Councilmember m l CITY OF . .... Federal Way PROCLAMATION "National Recovery Month" WHEREAS,behavioral health is an essential part of one's overall wellness; and WHEREAS, prevention of mental and substance use disorders is effective and people recover in our area and around the nation; and WHEREAS, preventing and overcoming mental and substance use disorders is essential to achieving healthy lifestyles, both physically and emotionally; and WHEREAS, we must encourage relatives and friends of individuals with mental and/or substance use disorders to implement preventive measures, recognize the signs of a problem and guide those in need to appropriate treatment and recovery support services; and WHEREAS, an estimated 400,000 people in King County are affected by these conditions; and WHEREAS, to help more people achieve and sustain long-term recovery, the United States Department of Health and Human Services, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, and the City of Federal Way invite all residents to participate in `National Recovery Month;" and NOW, THEREFORE, we, the undersigned Mayor and City Council of the City of Federal Way do hereby proclaim September 2019 as `National Recovery Month" and encourage all citizens to observe this month with appropriate programs, activities and ceremonies to support this year's Recover Month theme, "Join the Voices for Recovery:Together We Are Stronger". SIGNED this 17th day of September, 2019 FEDERAL WAYMAYOR AND CITY COUNCIL r Ferrell,Mayor 5u; Hon , Deputy Mayor L a Assefa- a cilmember �1` a 0. 61inson.Councilmember Hoanq V. an,Councilmember KoppfrgImembep/ Martin N400re,Councilmember Dini Duclos,Councilmember COUNCIL MEETING DATE: September 17, 2019 ITEM#: CITY OF FEDERAL WAY CITY COUNCIL AGENDA BILL SUBJECT: CITY COUNCIL MEETING MINUTES POLICY QUESTION: Should the City Council approve the draft minutes for the September 3, 2019 Regular City Council Meeting? COMMITTEE: N/A MEETING DATE: N/A CATEGORY: ® Consent ❑ Ordinance ❑ Public Hearing ❑ City Council Business ❑ Resolution ❑ Other STAFF REPORT BY: Stephanie Courtney, City Clerk DEPT: Mayor's Office Attachments: Draft minutes for the September 3, 2019 Regular Meeting Options Considered: 1. Approve the minutes as presented. 2. Amend the minutes as necessary. MAYOR'S RECOMMENDATION:N/A MAYOR APPROVAL: N/A N/A CITY CLERK APPROVAL: Committee Council ti sial,'i)ate Initial/Date Initial/Date COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATION:N/A N/A N/A N/A Committee Chair Committee Member Committee Member PROPOSED COUNCIL MOTION: "!move ap1)1-01)a1 Of the minutes as presented. " (BELOW TO BE COMPLETF_D BY CITY CLERKS OFFICE) COUNCIL ACTION: ❑ APPROVED COUNCIL BILL# ❑ DENIED IST reading ❑ TABLED/DEFERRED/NO ACTION Enactment reading ❑ MOVED TO SECOND READING(ordinances on/.i) ORDINANCE# REVISED— 12/2016 RESOLUTION# CITY OF Federal Way CITY COUNCIL REGULAR MEETING MINUTES ON�� Council Chambers - City Hall September 3, 2019 — 6:30 p.m. 1. CALL MEETING TO ORDER Mayor Ferrell called the meeting to order at 6:32 p.m. City officials in attendance: Mayor Jim Ferrell, Deputy Mayor Susan Honda, Councilmember Lydia Assefa-Dawson, Councilmember Jesse Johnson, Councilmember Hoang Tran, Councilmember Mark Koppang, Councilmember Martin Moore, and Councilmember Dini Duclos. City staff in attendance: City Attorney Ryan Call and City Clerk Stephanie Courtney. 2. PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE Mayor Ferrell led the flag salute. 3. PRESENTATIONS a. Police Department Swearing In Ceremony Police Chief Andy Hwang introduced Officer Alexander Clark who was recently hired as a lateral officer; the Chief also provided his law enforcement background. Mayor Ferrell administered the Oath of Office and congratulated Officer Clark. b. Proclamation: Constitution Week September 17-23 Deputy Mayor Honda read and presented the proclamation to Sally Jarvis who represents the Daughters of the American Revolution. Ms. Jarvis spoke regarding the importance of women in history and of understanding the intent and significance of the Constitution. She recognizes how important democracy is and honors those individuals who began a nation through this document. c. Proclamation: National Recovery Month Mayor Ferrell noted due to unforeseen circumstances,this proclamation will be presented at the next regular meeting. d. Certificate of Recognition Parks Director John Hutton introduced Federal Way Soccer Association President Josh Cheatham and Federal Way Soccer Association Fields Director George Pfeiffer. Mr. Hutton, along with Councilmember Johnson, presented Mr. Cheatham and Mr. Pfeiffer Federal Way City Council Regular Minutes Page I of 6 September 3, 2019 with a certificate of recognition for their generous donation of$50,000 towards the field turf replacement at Saghalie Field,which broke ground today. Mr. Cheatham thanked Mr. Hutton and Councilmember Johnson for the recognition and the longtime partnership with city staff and leadership from the elected officials over the years. He extended kudos to the Parks Department for the number of hours they put in to make that facility great and the Federal Way Soccer Association is proud to help maintain it. e. Certificates of Appointment: Senior Advisory Commission Deputy Mayor Honda read the certificates of appointment as Councilmembers assisted with distribution of certificates and congratulated the new Commissioners. Deputy Mayor Honda noted their first meeting is scheduled for Thursday, September 5 at City Hall. The Council is very excited to see this committee begin working. f. Certificates of Appointment: Diversity Commission Councilmember Johnson read and presented certificates of appointment to newly appointed commissioners. g. Mayor's Emerging Issues and Report Back-to-School Safety Briefing: Police Chief Hwang briefed Council and the community on important safety reminders with school beginning this week. He reminded drivers to take special care when approaching school zones and student bus stops. He also noted distracted driving and younger inexperienced drivers continue to be of concern. He reviewed an illustration outlining which roadway conditions allow for legal passing of a stopped school bus. Mayor Ferrell reported on the recent Federal Way Public Schools New Teacher Breakfast he attended on August 12. He noted many upcoming events in the community including: the Groundbreaking Ceremony for the DaVita building on September 9;the Quarterly City Update at the Chamber on September 10; the 9-11 Ceremony at South King Fire & Rescue Station 64 on September 11; Experience the Difference Food and Beverage Showcase at the Performing Arts & Event Center on Sept 12; Boys and Girls Club Fundraiser Breakfast on September 17; the Korean Community Quarterly City Update Meeting at City Hall on September 17; and he reminded everyone to support the Mayor's Day of Concern food drive at area grocery stores on Saturday, September 21. h. Council Committee Reports Finance, Economic Development Regional Affairs Committee(FEDRAC)—Chair Duclos had no report, as the August meeting was canceled. Lodging Tax Advisory Committee (LTAC) — Chair Moore announced the next meeting would be on September 11 at 10:00 a.m. in the Hylebos Conference Room. They will be discussing a city welcome sign on 3481h, the City Center Access Plan, and many big events coming to Federal Way in the next few months. Land Use/Transportation Committee(LUTC)—Chair Koppang reported the next meeting would be Monday, September 9 at 5:00 p.m. He will be attending remotely and there is a very long agenda including discussions on the FW Link Extension and an airport update from Bill Vadino. Parks/Recreation/Human Services/Public Safety Committee(PRHSPS)—Chair Johnson reported the next meeting is Tuesday, September 10 at 5:00 p.m. in the Hylebos Federal Way City Council Regular Minutes Page 2 of 6 September 3, 2019 Conference Room. The agenda includes police contracts and discussions regarding a new facility locating in Federal Way, and how the city can partner with them and serve the Latino Community.The Committee will also discuss the prioritization of the Homelessness Task Force recommendations, After School Programs, and severe weather shelter for those without permanent housing. Regional Committees Report (PIC) Councilmember Assefa-Dawson reported the PIC Committee meeting in August was canceled; the next meeting is September 11. She has already briefed the Council on and has requested input on the issues they will be discussing and voting on. Deputy Mayor reported August was a quiet month for Council and the remainder of the year will be busy. She encouraged individuals to apply for open volunteer commissions including the Youth Commission, Parks and Recreation Commission,and the Civil Service Commission. The next review of applications is the end of September. 4. CITIZEN COMMENT Dana Hollaway spoke regarding her ongoing concern with the city revenues and expenditures and the effect it has on essential city services. She expressed concern with the multi-family dwelling limited property tax exemption which may promote more units to be constructed without paying into property taxes which fund services such as police, fire, schools, and libraries. Eldean Montgomery cautioned citizens about the Pacific Highway Post Office and noted her mail was stolen from the box and has learned a lesson with sending bills through this post office. 5. CONSENT AGENDA a. Minutes: August 13, 2019 Special and Regular Meeting Minutes DEPUTY MAYOR HONDA MOVED APPROVAL OF THE CONSENT AGENDA; SECOND BY COUNCILMEMBER ASSEFA-DAWSON. The motion passed unanimously as follows: Deputy Mayor Honda yes Councilmember Koppang yes CouncilmemberAssefa-Dawson yes Councilmember Moore yes Councilmember Johnson yes Councilmember Duclos yes Councilmember Tran yes 6. COUNCIL BUSINESS a. Interlocal agreements approving membership in Washington Cities Insurance Authority (WCIA) City Attorney Ryan Call briefed Council on the current self-insured coverage. Mr. Call noted at the time, the principle factor in becoming self-insured was to save money; however through analysis from 2013 it shows on average, the city did not save money. He also highlighted the proposed coverage, cost savings and benefits of transitioning coverage to the industry leader with WCIA. The city was previously covered by WCIA before withdrawing in January of 2013. He stated the request tonight is to authorize the city tojoin Washington Cities Insurance Authority(WCIA)and authorize the Mayorto sign the Interlocal to acquire no-deductible coverage for general liability. Federal Way City Council Regular Minutes Page 3 of 6 September 3, 2019 WCIA Deputy Director Rob Roscoe, Deputy Director WCIA also provided a brief presentation to the Council. He noted WCIA is member—driven public organization with 155 members. Participating public entities are co-owners of the pool, sharing the core value of long-term risk management to contain and stabilize long-term costs while increasing safety. Advantages of WCIA membership include services to assist members in avoiding and reducing losses through risk management and claim handling; and stability and transparency in rates. Mr. Roscoe reviewed the coverage including liability; property and auto; equipment breakdown, crime and Fidelity, and information security/cyber liability. Experienced in- house staff will handle claims and risk management. Councilmembers thanked Mr. Call and Mr. Roscoe and asked various clarifying questions regarding earthquake coverage, and incidents which would increase costs. COUNCILMEMBER DUCLOS MOVED TO APPROVE THE PROPOSED INTERLOCAL AGREEMENTS AUTHORIZING THE CITY TO JOIN WASHINGTON CITIES INSURANCE AUTHORITY AND TO AUTHORIZE THE MAYOR TO TAKE THOSE STEPS NECESSARY TO ACQUIRE NO-DEDUCTIBLE COVERAGE FOR GENERAL LIABILITY; COUNCILMEMBER KOPPANG SECOND. The motion passed unanimously as follows: Deputy Mayor Honda yes Councilmember Koppang yes CouncilmemberAssefa-Dawson yes Councilmember Moore yes Councilmember Johnson yes Councilmember Duclos yes Councilmember Tran yes b. Federal Way Lieutenants' Association Bargaining Agreement City Attorney Ryan Call briefed council on the final ratified agreementwith the Lieutenants' Association. Mr. Call noted the current agreement expired December 31, 2018 this agreement would cover January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2021. Key points of bargaining agreement include: • Wages — consistent with Guild wage increases • HRA VEBA— city will set up an account for mandatory contribution by union members, no city match • Clarified bereavement leave consistent with Guild contract • Expanded list of items eligible for reimbursement and streamlined method of processing claims • Paid jury duty increased to be consistent with other employees DEPUTY MAYOR HONDA MOVED APPROVAL OF THE PROPOSED 2019-2020 COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENT WITH THE FEDERAL WAY LIEUTENANTS ASSOCIATION; COUNCILMEMBER KOPPANG SECOND. The motion passed unanimously as follows: Deputy Mayor Honda yes Councilmember Koppang yes CouncilmemberAssefa-Dawson yes Councilmember Moore yes Councilmember Johnson yes Councilmember Duclos yes Councilmember Tran yes Federal Way City Council Regular Minutes Page 4 of 6 September 3, 2019 c. Civil Action to Collect Money from Rental Agreements Deputy Mayor Honda noted she will be recusing herself from this item. City Attorney Ryan Call briefly reported on this item noting the Tacoma City Ballet has used the Performing Arts& Event Center for performances which fees have not been paid.Ongoing negotiations have not been fruitful and at this time there is a request to authorize civil action to enforce the contractual agreement which was in place for these performances. COUNCILMEMBER DUCLOS MOVED TO AUTHORIZE FILING THE PROPOSED CIVIL ACTION; COUNCILMEMBER ASSEFA-DAWSON SECOND. The motion passed 6-0 as follows: Deputy Mayor Honda recused Councilmember Koppang yes CouncilmemberAssefa-Dawson yes Councilmember Moore yes Councilmember Johnson yes Councilmember Duclos yes Councilmember Tran yes 7. COUNCIL REPORTS Councilmember Assefa-Dawson reported on the National Foundation of Women Legislature Conference she attended in Denver relating to the marijuana industry. She referenced the need for additional research regarding the impact on users and compounds in the products themselves. She believes more education is needed for the public, especially around youth, to ensure people are aware of impacts and to ease their concerns. Councilmember Johnson provided a brief update on the rental inspection program announcing a Landlord Stakeholder Meeting scheduled for September 25 at City Hall and Renter Stakeholder Meetings scheduled for September 24 at Sacajawea Middle School and September 26 at Illahee Middle School. He encouraged stakeholders from both sides of the issues to participate and attend. Councilmember Tran expressed his pleasure at being home after weeks of traveling. He announced the medical mobile van will be in Federal Way to serve individuals who do not have permanent housing. They are scheduled to be at Calvary Lutheran Church on September 12 from 3:30 to 7:30 p.m.; Federal Way Day Center on September 17 from 10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.; and New Hope Fellowship on September 24 from 10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. Councilmember Koppang extended appreciation to the Lions Club for the annual Car Show. He shared it is a great event and they have done a greatjob over the years drawing people from around the region to both show and view the car show. He thanked the Parks Department for the Summer Sounds Concerts stating he enjoyed the great music and Steel Lake Park venue. Councilmember Moore encouraged individuals to attend the rental meetings to have their voices heard and allow for a robust conversation. He expressed excitement for the formation of the Senior Advisory Commission and is pleased the appointments have been made and meetings will begin. Councilmember Duclos shared she lost a dear friend at Ocean Shores. She had mentored him on doorbelling and running a race stating he was a good councilmember and friend. Deputy Mayor Honda attended the 12th Annual DESNA Cup and presented volleyball awards. She shared it is the time of year for the Recreation Program book to be sent to residents from the Parks Department; she highlighted it has programs for people of all ages. She also attended the National Foundation of Women Legislators and appreciated the interesting group of women she was able to meet. Her understanding from the conference is that if marijuana is to be used for medical reasons, additional research needs to be conducted to better understand drug interactions and appropriate Federal Way City Council Regular Minutes Page 5 of 6 September 3, 2019 doses; she came away with both questions and answers. 8. ADJOURNMENT There being nothing further on the agenda; the Regular Meeting was adjourned at 8:15 p.m. Attest: Stephanie Courtney City Clerk Approved by Council: Federal Way City Council Regular Minutes Page 6 of 6 September 3, 2019 COUNCIL MEETING DATE: September 17,2019 ITEM#: -5b CITY OF FEDERAL 'WAY CITY COUNCIL AGENDA BILL SUBJECT: CITYWIDE GREENWAY PLAN—85%DESIGN STATUS REPORT&AUTHORIZATION TO BID POLICY QUESTION: Should the Council authorize staff to bid the Citywide Greenway Project and return to the LUTC and Council for bid award,further reports,and authorization? COMMITTEE: Land Use and Transportation,Committee MEETING DATE: Sept. 9,2019 CATEGORY: ® Consent ❑ Ordinance ❑ Public Hearing ❑ City Council Business ❑ Resolution ❑ Other STAFF REPORT BY: Rick Percz,P.E.,City Traffic Engineer ��(�� . DEPT: Attachments: Land Use and Transportation Committee memo dated September 9,2019 Options Considered: 1) Authorize staff to bid the Citywide Greenway Project and return to the LUTC and Council to award the project to the lowest responsive,responsible bidder. 2) Do not authorize staff to bid this project and provide direction to staff. MAYOR'S RECOMMENDATION: The Mayor recommends forwarding Option 1 to the September 17,2019 City Council Consent Agenda'faypproval. 915111 � MAYOR APPROVAL: '" r7 G DIRECTOR APPROVAL: ! 5I 1 1 Gnm . Coun it initialll]ate ]nitial/Date Initial/Date COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATION: I move to forward Option 1 to the September 17, 2019 consent agenda for approval. 01 i'l' ll-- Mark Koppang,Committee Chair JeqkJohnson,Committee Member Hoang Tran,Committee Member PROPOSED COUNCIL MOTION: "I move to authorize staff to bid the Citywide Greenway Project and return to the LUTC and Council for bid award,further reports, and authorization." (BELOW TO BE COMPLETED BY CITY CLERK'S OFFICE) COUNCIL ACTION: ❑ APPROVED COUNCIL BILL# _ ❑ DENIED First reading ❑ TABLED/DEFERRED/NO ACTION Enactment reading ❑ MOVED TO SECOND READING(ordinances only) ORDINANCE# REVISED—12/2017 RESOLUTION# CITY OF FEDERAL WAY MEMORANDUM DATE: September 9,2019 TO: Land Use&Transportation Committee VIA: Jim Ferrell,Mayor FROM: E.J. Walsh,P.E., Public Works Director — Rick Perez, P.E., City Traffic Engineer SUBJECT: Citywide Greenway Plan–85%Design Status Report and Authorization to Bid Financial Impacts: This project was included and is projected to be completed within the approved budget under capital project #220. In accordance with the approved budget this project is funded by City funds. Upon completion of this project, ongoing costs associated with operations and maintenance will be performed and funded through streets maintenance. Funding requirements for operations and maintenance of infrastructure is reviewed and adjusted as required during the budget process. Background Information: This project will install wayfinding signs and markings throughout the City directed at bicyclists,but which can also be used by pedestrians. As identified in the Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan which was adopted by City Council in 2012,the intent of the greenway concept is to encourage people who are interested in bicycling and walking for transportation,but intimidated by the roadway environment. It is estimated that 55%of Federal Way residents fall into this category. By addressing roadway conflicts, designating routes utilizing low-volume, low-speed streets,and making minor roadway improvements,it is hoped that the community will come to utilize these routes and feel safe in doing so. The following provides a brief synopsis of the progress on this project to date. Currently, the project design is approximately 85%complete, which includes the following completed tasks: • Ordered sign design and fabrication from King County • Project Design to 85% Ongoing Tasks Include: • Project Design to 100% • Contract Specifications PROJECT ESTIMATED EXPENDITURES: Design(by City staff) $40,000 Sign Fabrication $60,000 2020 Construction Cost $180,000 10%Construction Contingency $18,000 Construction Management(by City staf)) $22,000 TOTAL PROJECT COSTS $320,000 Rev.6/2019 January 8,2018 Land Use and Transportation Committee S Dash Pt Rd Sidewalk Improvements Page 2 AVAILABLE FUNDING: City Funds (Motor Vehicle Fuel Tax) $320,000 TOTAL AVAILABLE BUDGET $320,000 PROJECT BUDGET SHORTFALL: $0 After receiving bids, the total project costs will be refined and presented to the Committee and Council for bid award authorization. Staff anticipates bidding this project in October 2019. Construction is anticipated to start in Winter 2020 with an estimated substantial completion date in Summer 2020. COUNCIL MEETING DATE: September 17,2019 ITEM#: 5c - CITY OF FEDERAL WAY CITY COUNCIL AGENDA BILL SUBJECT:RESOLUTION:KING COUNTY COMPREHENSIVE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN- APPROVAL POLICY QUESTION: Shall the City Council adopt a Resolution approving the 2019 King County Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan? COMMITTEE: Land Use&Transportation Committee MEETING DATE: Sept. 9,2019 CATEGORY: Consent ❑ Ordinance ❑ Public Hearing ❑ City Council Business ® Resolution ❑ Other STAFF REPORT BY: Rob Van Orsow, Solid Waste&Recycling Co EPT: Public Works Attachments: Memorandum with attached summary Resolution Options Considered: 1.Approve the Resolution 2. Do not approve the Resolution and provide direction MAYOR'S RECOMMEND ON: Approve the Resolution MAYOR APPROVAL: / j 9 DIRECTOR APPROVAL: Z// t—71-Z l 1 Co ne 'CouJJ cil Initial/Date tnitiat-Date Initiaf.,Date COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATION:I move to forward the proposed Resolution to the September 17, 2019 consent agenda for approval. Lf Committee Chair Committee Member Committee Member PROPOSED COUNCIL MOTION: "I move approval of the proposed Resolution." (BELOW TO BE COMPLETED BY CITY CLERK'S OFFICE) COUNCIL ACTION: ❑ APPROVED COUNCIL BILL# ❑ DENIED First reading ❑ TABLED/DEFERRED/NO ACTION Enactment reading ❑ MOVED TO SECOND READING(ordinances only) ORDINANCE# REVISED—4/2019 RESOLUTION# CITY OF FEDERAL WAY MEMORANDUM DATE: September 9,2019 TO: Land Use&Transportation Committee VIA: Jim Ferrell,Mayor EJ Walsh,P.E.,Public Works Director`s _�__ FROM: Rob Van Orsow, Solid Waste&Recycling Coordinator SUBJECT: KING COUNTY CWfPRENENSIVE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN—APPROVAL BACKGROUND The current Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan(Plan) dates back to 2001. Attempts to update the Plan on a regular five-year cycle have been derailed several times, for various reasons: • Unilateral"waste export"decisions (stemming from the County's purchase of the Harbor Island intermodal railroad yard in 2003 without consultation with suburban cities)which incited general city opposition as well as increased involvement in solid waste as a regional issue. The resulting 2006 Solid Waste Transfer and Waste Management Plan then served as an interim plan. • System finances (related to County internal charges for landfill"rent"and the timing of repayment of transfer station construction bonds)—which lead to regional deliberations on the system's financial policies,ultimately emphasizing the need to update the Solid Waste Interlocal Agreement(renegotiated from 2010-2012, and widely executed by cities in 2013). • Transfer station capacity in northeast King County (stemining from a group of northeast county cities' interim decision to withdraw from the regional system via rejection of the updated Solid Waste Interlocal Agreement).This lead to a series of studies to accommodate this withdrawal. These efforts became moot in 2017 when these cities signaled acceptance of the amended interlocal agreement, allowing definitive planning related to system capacity and distribution of related costs. Despite these delays, regional solid waste management system progress has continued, including: development of permitted disposal capacity at Cedar Hills landfill,construction the new Recycling and Transfer Stations in Shoreline,Bow Lake(Tukwila) and Factoria(Bellevue),and the planned replacement of the Algona Transfer Station(via the new South King County Recycling and Transfer station, scheduled to open in 2023). Regional progress is in large part a result of the Metropolitan Solid Waste Advisory Committee(MSWAC)which began meeting in early 2005 and was permanently established via the amended interlocal agreement.Through MSWAC, cities participate in monthly meetings of elected officials,County representatives and city staff.MSWAC provides a venue for regional and technical issues to be discussed and debated, and serves as a conduit for policy input via bodies such as the Regional Policy Committee and Sound Cities Association. This Plan update process began in earnest in 2017. With the federated system bolstered via uniform adoption of the amended interlocal agreement,the planning process focused primarily on recycling efforts, transfer system development, and disposal options. The major recommendation contained in the September 9,2019 Land Use and Transportation Committee Award of Contract—Solid Waste Collection Services Page 2 updated Plan is to expand capacity at Cedar Hills landfill—this is the least expensive disposal option, and is in keeping with prior policy-level decisions to also develop additional local landfill capacity. PLAN OVERVIEW AND DISCUSSION Each chapter in the Plan is prefaced by a series of policies, goals,and/or actions. There are 27 policies, 70 actions, and broad goals(concerning zero waste of resources and the aspirational 70%recycling diversion rate). The Plan also designates the parties responsible for implementing various actions. Cities,various King County divisions,haulers,processors, recyclers,the Department of Ecology, and Public Health- Seattle and King County all have roles. Policies provide broad direction and authorization for services and system priorities. Policies should not change through the life of the Plan. Goals reflect the long-term outcomes and aspirations for the regional system. Actions are targeted, specific, and time-based to implement policies and could include:programs, studies,infrastructure improvements, and regulations.Actions are built around ongoing daily service delivery by King County, cities,haulers,recyclers, and other stakeholders.The Plan focus is on those actions that are essential to initiate or continue. Actions may be updated outside of the formal Plan update process to adapt to changing conditions. Key Plan Chapters: The 0I9 Comprehensive Solid %Paste Nl in_aiuc-mcnc Plan is organized into eight chapters and six appendices,totaling over 400 pages. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 form the core of the Plan, supporting the Plan's major recommendations: • Site and construct a new transfer station in the northeast County service area(closing or rebuilding the Houghton Transfer Station [located in Kirkland]); • Further develop the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill capacity, with the intent of using this facility through 2040; and • Establish waste generation and disposal targets and recycling goals Chapter Summaries: The main chapters are highlighted below(though it takes all chapters in combination make a complete plan): Chapter 2: The Existing Solid Waste System.An overview of the garbage and recycling collection systems and facilities in King County and how those systems are integrated to provide safe, affordable,and reliable solid waste collection to the County's residents and businesses. Chapter 3: Forecasting and Data.Focuses on how the recycling and disposal data received from the various sectors(single family,multifamily, commercial, and self-haul)influence operational, programmatic, and educational planning decisions made by the County and cities. Chapter 4: Sustainable Materials Management. Sets this overarching goal: achieve zero waste of resources that have economic value by 2030, and achieve an interim 70%recycling diversion rate, along with waste generation targets, and implementation of related actions.All these targets and actions are geared toward extending the life of the Cedar Hill Regional Landfill through 2040. September 9,2019 Land Use and Transportation Committee Award of Contract—Solid Waste Collection Services Page 3 Chapter 5: Solid Waste Transfer and Processing. Details the transfer and disposal network in King County, and plans to complete the modernization of the regional transfer station network-including a planned new northeast County transfer station as well as the new South King County Recycling and Transfer Station(being built on the parcel just north of the Algona station)opening in 2023. An important service this new station will provide is a permanent Moderate Risk Waste(MRW) site for small-generator businesses and residences,making it a true"one-stop shop" since the station is also being designed to provide the widest range of recycling services. Aspects of this MRW facility will be highlighted in a related comprehensive plan(also currently undergoing an overdue update): the 2010 Local Hazardous Waste Management Plan. Chapter 6: Landfill Management and Solid Waste Disposal. Covers current and future methods of ultimate disposal the waste generated via the regional system. Of the three options considered, the Plan recommends the lowest cost option: development of additional local landfill capacity to serve interlocal agreement parties through 2040. Chapter 7: Solid Waste System Finance.This chapter discusses how the various revenues received by the County are used to operate the County's transfer and disposal system, plus and how those revenues are distributed among the County's various cost centers. Plan policies provide the framework to help ensure accountability and transparency in related County financial operations. The attached Planning for ilio l inure ot'Reuiona( \ astt: Njanagement (1-:AQ"s)provides an accessible overview of the Plan and the regional system,with a focus on landfill operations and mitigation of impacts. This also serves as a supplement to Plan Chapter 6, since the FAQ's address a range of concerns raised by landfill expansion opponents during the King County Council's Plan review process. SUMMARY The 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan is a long overdue update to the 2001 Plan, and will be satisfactory for guiding the regional system over the coming years.The plan endorses expansion of disposal capacity at the Cedar Hills landfill—the most cost-effective option. City staff participated in the Plan's development process via the MSWAC forum, and provided comments on the draft versions of the Plan-and its related EIS. The final Plan is modified based on staff comments as summarized in the responsiveness summary(Appendix E). The related Resolution included with this item will confirm City approval of the 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan. LA King County Department of olid s■rite Division Natural Resources and Par T.. Planning for the Future of Regional Waste Management Frequently Asked Questions on the 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan Responsible waste management is a top priority as we plan for the economic and environmental future of our region. The 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan (Comp Plan) adopted by the King County Council on April 24, 2019, was developed in close cooperation with local jurisdictions, private sector waste management experts, and the input of numerous stakeholders and community members. While it addresses many topics,the plan zeroes in on three key priorities: • Increasing the regional recycling rate from the present 54 percent to 70 percent so these materials can be made into new products. • Expanding and modernizing services at current garbage and recycling transfer stations, and adding new facilities in underserved areas such as northeast and south King County. • Identifying how to dispose of garbage after 2028 when the currently built areas at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill are expected to be full. This document outlines responses to common issues and questions about the Comp Plan and landfill management. Contents BIRDand WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT........................................................................................................................2 BUFFERS/PROPERTY ACQUISITION/FORESTRY.......................................................................................................2 COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT..................................................................................................................................3 COMP PLAN ADOPTION and UPDATES ............................................................................... ...................4 COST and FINANCES (Comp Plan Alternatives).......................................................................................................6 ENVIRONMENTALHEALTH......................................................................................................................................7 LANDFILLCOVER MATERIAL....................................................................................................................................8 LANDFILL GAS MANAGEMENT................................................................................................................................8 ODOR MANAGEMENT/AIR QUALITY.......................................................................................................................9 RECYCLINGRATES .................................................................................................................................................10 SEISMICCONCERNS...................................................................................................................................... ........ 11 WASTE-TO-ENERGY............................................................................................................................................... 12 WATER QUALITY/AQUIFER.............................................................................................................................. ..... 12 1 iNaste Prevention Resowce Recovery Waste Disposal Solid Waste Division BIRD and WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT What steps are taken to keep animals, especially large birds like eagles, out of the garbage at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill? Operations staff work closely with biologists from the consulting firm Innovative Wildlife Solutions to ensure bird and wildlife protection, and to deter scavenging by the animals. Active areas of the landfill are covered daily to keep animals and birds out of the garbage. Bird control techniques include trapping and culling, and deterrents such as scarecrows and drones. Pyrotechnics are also used from time to time. Eagles' dietary preferences are spawning trout and salmon, followed by other animals and carrion. They are mainly attracted to the landfill because of warmth and absence of human activity. Eagles are protected under the Federal Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, so while our operations cannot harass or harm the birds,they can and do take steps approved by wildlife biologists to make the landfill a less desirable habitat option. Who determines if wildlife control progress is satisfactory? The Comp Plan requires the Solid Waste Division to track and report on its bird management practices. I suspect animals or birds are carrying landfill garbage onto my property. What do I do? Landfill neighbors can call the division at 206-477-4466 to request assistance with removal of refuse deposited by wildlife. Operations will also investigate ways to reduce future incidents. BUFFERS/PROPERTY ACQUISITION/FORESTRY How much buffer separates the landfill from nearby properties? When the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill was originally permitted in the early 1960s, County Commissioners decided it should have a 1,000 foot buffer instead of the 250 foot buffer required by state laws in place at the time. Was there ever encroachment on the buffer? Aerial photos from 1966 show that garbage was improperly buried within the 1,000-foot-buffer on the eastern border near 22 homes. There is no county record to indicate why that was done. 2 Waste Prevention Resource Recovery Waste Disposal Solid Waste Division Is King County acquiring homes from property owners near the area where the buffer was reduced? King County has already worked with four willing sellers to purchase their homes, and our offer remains open to the other property owners in that particular area who would be interested in selling. Are there any efforts to improve the buffer zone? Yes. Long term efforts to improve the quality of the buffer include working with a landscape architect from King County Roads to add more trees to the western buffer, and maintaining/restoring the size of the east buffer by acquiring properties from willing sellers along the east buffer. COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT What does King County do to understand landfill neighbor concerns? Staying connected with the public, and especially our facility neighbors, is core to our commitment to customer service excellence. Examples of our community engagement since the beginning of 2018 include a 60-day public comment period on the Comp Plan that coincided with a well-advertised online open house and three in-person open houses including one for landfill neighbors. Over the past year, there was one public landfill tour; two semi-annual landfill neighbor meetings; participation in a councilmember's open house last October 2019 for landfill neighbors; public notification plus a two-week comment period on a proposal to temporarily extend hours at Cedar Hills during the Viaduct closure; nine e-newsletters to 590 neighbor subscribers and two mailed letters to about 900 neighbors; and multiple correspondence, phone calls, and face-to-face conversations with neighbors. There is another semi-annual landfill neighbor community meeting scheduled on June 20, 2019. How do the public or cities give feedback to the division? The division has two advisory committees—the Metropolitan Solid Waste Advisory Committee (MSWAC) and the Solid Waste Advisory Committee (SWAC). MSWAC comprises staff and elected officials from the cities that participate in the county's regional solid waste system. MSWAC members are appointed by their respective cities. SWAC members are appointed by the Executive and confirmed by the King County Council. SWAC members represent the diverse interests of residents, waste management companies, the recycling industry, public interest groups, labor, local elected officials, recyclable markets, and manufacturers located in King County. SWAC would be the committee landfill neighbors could serve on. 3 Waste Prevention Resource Recovery Waste Disposal Solis! Waste Division Are community members invited to serve on the committees or attend the meetings? MSWAC and SWAC monthly meetings are open to the public, and agendas are typically published a week in advance. Minutes are taken at every meeting to summarize presented material, document deliberative discussion of committee business, and to record motions approved by the committee. Meeting minutes from the prior month are presented to committee members for review, and members have the opportunity to request amendments and corrections before minutes are approved by the chair. Landfill neighbors have served on SWAC in the past and we are currently recruiting for a specific committee vacancy to be filled by a landfill neighbor. Serving on the committee does require a commitment—meetings are held each month, usually in downtown Seattle at King Street Center. Although no landfill neighbors have yet expressed an interest, we are hopeful that we will soon benefit from their additional perspective on this important advisory committee. I've heard there has been legal action against the landfill in the past. What's the history there? Cedar Hills was originally permitted at a time when there were few regulations in place to govern the design and operation of landfills. There were also very few neighbors around the facility when it first opened in 1965. Since then, environmental regulations have become increasingly rigorous. As the community around the landfill grew, expectations for how essential public facilities should operate were also raised substantially. Our regulators and elected officials today hold Cedar Hills Landfill accountable for meeting stringent environmental and operational requirements, and for taking all reasonable measures to reduce impacts to the community. Regrettably, problems with landfill operations in years past prompted legal action by people who lived nearby. We've taken a number of corrective actions to address the issues that led to legal settlements, and we are committed to honoring the terms of these agreements moving forward. We have and will continue to honor our settlement agreements. COMP PLAN ADOPTION and UPDATES What is the current situation with regard to capacity at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill? According to population and economic projections, and current recycling rates,the existing cells at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill will be full around 2028. The Comp Plan directs King County to extend 4 Waste Prevention Resource Recovery Waste Disposal Solid Waste Division the life of the landfill and gives us the needed time to identify and evaluate the best future disposal alternatives. How is King County planning to further develop the landfill? King County will not expand the landfill beyond its current boundaries. Our long-term plan centers on extending the life of the landfill by maximizing capacity on the existing footprint. This would entail building a new cell, relocating support facilities to a different location on the landfill property, and using that space for solid waste disposal. This could extend the landfill's operational life nearly two decades, and provide enough of a planning window to have a new alternative in place when the landfill closes. What long-term waste disposal alternatives were considered in the Comp Plan? The Comp Plan presented Waste-to-Energy and waste export by rail as alternatives to further landfill development. These alternatives are workable options that come with tradeoffs around cost, environmental impact, community impact and risk. A Waste-to-Energy (mass burn) facility, which would incinerate garbage to generate electricity, offers opportunities to explore advanced technologies for waste disposal. It is the most technically and financially complex option outlined. Rail transport to an out-of-county landfill is a viable alternative. The City of Seattle transports its collected waste to landfills in eastern Washington and Oregon. But rail capacity has limitations, and the increasing demand for rail transport among both public and private entities as our region keeps growing adds uncertainty to the cost and feasibility of this option. After considering the alternatives, the Comp Plan recommends that the Cedar Hills Landfill be further developed, maximizing its capacity as we continue working with public and private partnerships to increase the volume and value of recycling. Further development of the landfill is the most cost- effective and feasible option to serve our region's need for responsible waste disposal at this point in time. The Cedar Hills Regional Landfill will eventually fill up. Future Comp Plan updates will explore alternatives for when local landfill capacity is no longer available. Will the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill ever be allowed to build above its current permitted height? It's important to emphasize that the landfill currently has permitted height requirements, and that King County would not violate the terms of permits or settlement agreements around landfill 5 Waste Prevention Resource Recovery Waste Disposal Solid Waste Division development, including height limitations. Any future development at the landfill would be subject to a project planning and permitting process that would involve public notification as well as the opportunity to provide comment or input that would inform design guidelines. How can I get more information on the Solid Waste Comp Plan, or make my views known? People can read the Comp Plan online at www.kitigcouiity.gov/SWDConil)Plan. The Comp Plan is currently undergoing review and approval by the 37 cities that contract with King County for regional waste disposal services. Also, many projects featured in the Comp Plan will have their own unique public processes related to siting, design, permitting and construction. People will continue to have opportunities to be informed and involved in the implementation of projects and programs outlined in the Comp Plan. COST and FINANCES (Comp Plan Alternatives) What is the cost difference between the three disposal options identified in the comp plan? The financial and environmental costs of the viable disposal alternatives were evaluated in the Comp Plan, which is outlined in Table 6-1 on Page 162. Table 6-1. Comparison of key disposal option characteristics (planning level estimates) Comparative Further Develop Waste Export Out-of-County Landfill Facility ma.11111111'....IA Hills Cost per Ton' $41 $55 $136 Life Cycle Greenhoust'`° Gas Emisslons (EPA's ' (134,000) (78,000) 12,000 to 80,0003 WARM Model) MTCO2e MTCO2e MTCO2e CAnnual Greenhouse 91,0004 91,000' 1,200,000 Gas Emissions (EPA's MTCO2e/year MTCO2e/year MTCO2e/year eGGRT) RecycOn4 bate No change No change 2%increase RFt/s`s SERA,Permitting Rail Capacity,Control Siting,Sizing 1 Estimated cost per ton in 2029. 2 WARM model calculation for 2029.(Hing County SWD).For more information,see Appendix D. 3 WARM model calculation.(Normandeau 2017). 4 Landfill options show estimated emissions in 2029. Extending the life of the landfill is the most cost-effective and has the lowest climate impact while we plan for the future of regional waste management after the landfill is full. 6 Waste Disposal Solid Waste Division ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH What about the health and safety of neighbors? The Cedar Hills Regional Landfiii is staffed 2417 `vb'ith skilled professinnals who are trained and certified in the best management practices established by the Solid Waste Association of North America, or SWANA. By far the most commonly reported issue is odor. Protecting our workers and the public is a top priority. Our landfill operations are subject to permit conditions and regulations by Public Health —Seattle & King County, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Puget Sound Clean Air Agency (PSCAA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology to safeguard public health, the environment, and the nearby community. SWD Operations is responsible for ensuring compliance for 33 groundwater monitoring wells near an aquifer, seven stormwater monitoring points, and over 700 gas wells. We regularly monitor and report on the quality of the air, groundwater, leachate (landfill wastewater) and stormwater, and we restrict or prohibit the disposal of many types of waste that could be harmful or toxic. Greater detail about our environmental monitoring is available in the Cedar Hills Landfill 2018 Annual Report, which is online at https://vour.kingcounty.gov/dnrp library/solid-waste/facilities/CHRLF- annual-report-2018.pdf. People can also call us at 206-477-4466 to request an emailed or paper copy. What does King County do to reduce impacts of the landfill to nearby communities? To control odors and reduce potential for wildlife to get into and carry away garbage, the active areas at the landfill are covered before the end of each working day. Staff also monitor for odors, and specially trained Nasal Rangers on staff do around-the-clock odor checks five times a day. People who notice odors, or any other issue they feel is related to the landfill operations, can call the Solid Waste Division at 206-477-4466 to get a response right away. People should always call 911 first if they believe there is a potential emergency, or a risk to public safety, health or property. Are there unlined areas at the landfill? Environmental controls have been in place at Cedar Hills since the 1980s, and that includes installation of protective bottom linings, as well as covering refuse areas daily to reduce impacts like odors and birds. There are two unlined areas of the landfill —the Main Hill and the Southeast Pit. Both are located on the east side of the landfill and were developed before regulations requiring bottom liners were established. Those two areas are equipped with environmental controls, including having a cap on top to prevent infiltration, as well as leachate and landfill gas collection. 7 Waste Prevention Resource Recovery Waste Disposal 31t �; m w r What type of cover material is used at the landfill? King County takes daily action to prevent odors, control wildlife, and deter rodents and pests by covering active areas of the landfill daily. The cover also improves gas collection, which works on a vacuum system. Active area side slopes are covered with soil, and a thick, durable cloth tarp is placed on the top at the end of each working day. When the tarp is covering the area, the landfill gas collection pipes are operating on a vacuum to capture landfill gas and send it to Bio Energy Washington for processing. The type of cover the division is allowed to use is decided by regulators. The Comp Plan directs King County to implement best practices around landfill cover, which is consistent with our current practices, but includes additional reporting requirements. What is the status of energy recovery at the landfill now? It's important to point out that innovation is already happening at our current facilities. Through partnerships with Puget Sound Energy and Bio Energy Washington, landfill gas collected at Cedar Hills produces enough renewable energy to heat 19,000 homes annually, which reduces greenhouse gas emissions and supports broader County goals to address climate change. Some of the gas produced is converted to electricity, some gas is cleaned of impurities and returned to the regional pipeline. Revenue from the landfill gas-to-energy partnership brought in $8 million in 2017 which helps offset solid waste disposal operational costs. How is landfill gas managed? High-tech equipment is used to monitor, control, and measure the landfill gas characteristics and volume as it is captured within the vacuum-based system. King County performs quarterly surface scans of the landfill to seek out potential fugitive emissions and address them as appropriate. It is the frequent re-evaluation of the system performance and maintenance that ensures the system is well- managed and functions optimally. Once collected, landfill gas is conveyed via pipeline to Bio Energy Washington for processing. Some of the gas is converted to electricity for use on site by Bio Energy Washington, however most is cleaned of impurities and made into compressed natural gas and sold to Puget Sound Energy. 8 Waste Preventi0n ReSOL11ce Recovery Waste Disposal Solid Waste Division While international standards for measuring landfill gas vary from country to country, in the U.S.,the EPA serves as the chief regulator and establishes the measurement models. To inform the most accurate data points for input to the EPA models, King County conducts periodic waste characterization studies. What about landfill gas odors? At Cedar Hills, all supervisors, leads and landfill gas operators have been trained to recognize odors and evaluate the source and concentration levels of reported and detected odors.The training also features tools and techniques specifically designed to counteract desensitization to certain odors. The landfill gas staff has developed a site-wide monitoring program to include daily site-wide odor observations five times a day, day and night. These observations are recorded on paper as well as in an electronic database. Anyone who detects the smell of natural gas, or believes there is a gas leak or any other emergency related to landfill operation should call 911. ODOR MANAGEMENT/AIR QUALITY How is air quality managed around the landfill, especially controlling odors? The Cedar Hills Regional Landfill is staffed 24/7 with skilled professionals who are trained and certified in the best management practices established by the Solid Waste Association of North America, or SWANA. Around-the-clock odor checks are conducted five times a day on and offsite on weekdays and three times a day on weekends by operations experts trained in odor detection. In addition to these regularly scheduled checks, specially trained staff monitor areas commonly associated with prior odor complaints. What tools or monitoring devices are used to detect and control odors? The division uses Nasal Ranger training and technology to monitor and detect odors. The Nasal Ranger system is used across many sectors including state and local governments, wastewater treatment operations, landfill operations, environmental health agencies, and even police departments to determine presence and strength of odors. Use of the equipment takes the subjectivity out of odor measurement and provides a consistent standard for field staff to document odor strength. The Nasal Ranger training data is even used as a guide for regulatory enforcement in some jurisdictions. 9 Waste Prevention Resource Recovery Waste Disposal Prevention is our most effective strategy. To control odors, and reduce potential for wildlife to get into and carry away garbage,the active areas at the landfill are covered before the end of each working day. Who permits air quality for the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill? Puget Sound Clean Air Agency (PSCAA) serves as the regulator over SWD's operations for all matters relating to air quality. People can call PSCAA to report complaints, but we also ask that they call our 24/7 hotline at 206-477-4466 so we can diagnose and correct any issues that might be related to landfill operation. How many odor complaints were reported in the past year? Puget Sound Clean Air Agency reported 160 complaints called in in 2018. By contrast, in 2018 the division received 14 complaints to SWD's odor hotline. An analysis of the 2018 neighborhood odor checks confirms that refuse accounts for less than five percent of the odors detected. Though neighbors always have the option to contact PSCAA, we encourage them to contact us as well because if there is a problem related to our operation, we can take corrective action right away. I live near the landfill. If I detect odors of garbage or natural gas,who do I call? Anyone who detects the smell of natural gas, or believes there is a gas leak or any other landfill- related emergency should call 911. Neighbors are encouraged to report a non-emergency problem by calling our 24/7 hotline at 206- 477-4466. Complaints to the issue-reporting hotline receive immediate response. RECYCLING R How does the Comp Plan address recycling? The Comp Plan identifies strategies for how the County will manage recycling for the next six to 20 years. Developed with the division's partnering cities and two advisory committees, a main priority of the 2019 Plan is how to achieve a 70 percent recycling rate. The current recycling rate in King County is 54 percent, far exceeding the national average of 34 percent. But we can do more. We estimate as much as 70 percent of what goes to the landfill every day—about 95 semi-truckloads—is recyclable or reusable material. What are some specific examples of recycling actions outlined in the Comp Plan? 10 Waste Prevention Resource Recovery baste Disposal Solid Waste Division The 2019 Plan provides a menu of recycling actions cities and the county can take to enhance recycling in their jurisdictions. For example, about a third of the material that goes to the landfill is food waste that could be composted and used to nourish crops and return nutrients to the soil. King County convened an Organics Summit earlier this spring comprised of cities, haulers, waste management experts and academics to identify strategies to develop markets for this material. Construction and demolition waste (C&D) makes up one-third of the solid waste generated in the county. King County requires that readily recyclable C&D materials (metal, cardboard, wood, concrete, asphalt, brick and drywall) be recycled, which furthers the division's Zero Waste and carbon emissions reduction efforts. In 2018, the division added an additional C&D recycling facility to the privately managed locations that manage C&D, bringing the total number of approved facilities to fourteen. Education is also part of our strategy. A record 245 King County schools (more than 151,000 students) are currently participating in the Green Schools program that helps teach students important lessons on recycling and conservation. New features of the program include a food rescue initiative that diverts unopened and uneaten food from being wasted. In 2018, nearly 13,000 of food and drinks were rescued and redistributed to communities in need. Finally, we're making our services more accessible and affordable as part of our commitment to equity and social justice.The new Cleanup LIFT program, modeled after Metro Transit's Orca LIFT, provides a $12 discount to low-income self-haul customers who recycle yard waste, clean wood and refrigerant-type appliances at a County recycling and transfer station. Which areas have the highest recycling rates? Recycling rates vary among our regional communities. Single family recycling rates range from a high of 65 percent in some areas to as low as 34 percent. For multi-family housing, rates range from 61 percent to as low as 5 percent. Education is an important part of recycling, as is ongoing coordination with haulers and cities. People can make the biggest environmental impact by recycling right. That means making sure recyclable materials are empty, clean and dry before being put in the bin. SEISMIC CONCERNS Are there known faults on or close to the landfill? 11 Waste Prevention Resource Recovery Waste Disposal -' lid Waste Division According to the most recent studies to inform landfill development, there are no known earthquake faults within a mile of the Cedar Hills Landfill. The new landfill cells are not located in any known seismic impact zone nor within a mile of any Holocene faulting (activity in the last 11,000 years), which is a Washington Administrative Code (WAC) requirement. Is King County considering a Waste-to-Energy facility? King County is open to the possibility of new technologies for regional waste management, and future comprehensive plan updates could further explore new alternatives, including a Waste-to-Energy option. But without further development, the landfill is currently slated to reach capacity by 2028 and a nine-year time frame to site, permit, build, finance and commission a complex facility is not realistic. A Waste-to-Energy facility still requires landfill disposal capacity. What about the possibility of a waste-to-energy facility in the future after Cedar Hills is full? The Comp Plan directs King County's Performance, Strategy, and Budget (PSB) office to work with the Solid Waste Division to prepare a progress report by December 31, 2021 on long-term disposal options. Concurrently, PSB is managing a consultant contract for a waste-to-energy study that is scheduled for completion by October 2019. The study will help inform future work. In consultation with our city partners, it is anticipated that the post-Cedar Hills disposal method will be selected as part of the next Comp Plan update. King County is open to the possibility of new technologies for regional waste management, and future comprehensive plan updates could further explore new alternatives, including a Waste-to-Energy option. We recognize many in our region are supporters of this option, and invite them to engage in with other stakeholders and community members in regional discussions around future planning efforts. WATER QUALITY/AQUIFER What steps does King County take to protect water quality? The division is responsible for routine water quality monitoring and reporting on 68 groundwater wells onsite and around the site perimeter. 12 Waste Prevention Resotm a Recovery Waste Disposal Solid Waste Division A regional aquifer flows beneath portions of the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill from the South to the Eastern border. SWD monitors the regional aquifer at 19 wells on a quarterly basis and monitors an additional 14 wells semi-annually. Incoming water quality is impacted by the former Queen City Farm, a Superfund site Boeing is responsible to clean up, which is located just to the south of Cedar Hills. Our monitoring shows that groundwater leaving the landfill site is in compliance with federal drinking water standards. I heard that an aquifer near the landfill is at risk of contamination by 2058. Is that true? No. The aquifer beneath the landfill is not at risk of contamination in 2058 because action is underway now to address legacy contamination that originated at a Boeing-managed Superfund site south of the landfill. A remediation study is being developed to identify the most appropriate cleanup actions of the historic contamination and to ensure it doesn't leave the site. Portions of the study have already been approved by Ecology while exploration of additional efforts is pursued. The former Queen City Farm, now a Superfund site Boeing is responsible to clean up, was found to have contributed to historic contamination discovered at Cedar Hills in the 1980s that was confined to areas of the landfill that continue to be closely monitored. King County continues to send our quarterly groundwater reports and annual reports to the EPA and Boeing. Alternate formats available: 206-477-4466, TTY Relay: 711 13 Waste Prevention Resource Recovery Waste Disposal RESOLUTION NO. A RESOLUTION of the City of Federal Way, Washington, approving the 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan for the King County Solid Waste System. WHEREAS,the purpose of the 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan("2019 Plan") is to plan for solid waste and recycling collection, handling and management services, infrastructure, and programs in the geographic area for which King County has comprehensive planning authority for solid waste management by law and by interlocal agreement, and; WHEREAS,the 2019 Plan was prepared in accordance with RCW 70.95.080,which requires that each county within the state, in cooperation with the various cities located within such county, prepare and periodically update a coordinated, comprehensive solid waste management plan; and WHEREAS, King County and cities in King County have executed the 2013 Amended and Restated Interlocal Agreement ("the interlocal agreement"). Under the interlocal agreement, King County serves as the planning authority for solid waste; and WHEREAS, King County and city representatives serving on the Metropolitan Solid Waste Advisory Committee worked cooperatively to develop the 2019 Plan; and WHEREAS, the 2019 Plan updates and replaces the 2001 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan approved by City Ordinance 02-416 adopted on March 23, 2002; and WHEREAS, on April 17, 2019 the King County Regional Policy Committee, acting as the Metropolitan King County Council Solid Waste Interlocal Forum, recommended adoption of Ordinance 18893 for approval of the 2019 Plan; and Resolution No. 19- Page I of 3 WHEREAS, on April 24, 2019 the Metropolitan King County Council adopted Ordinance 18893, which preliminarily approved the 2019 Plan; and WHEREAS, after City approval, the 2019 Plan is further subject to final approval by the Washington State Department of Ecology; and WHEREAS, City staff reviewed the plan and determined that related issues affecting the City have been satisfactorily addressed. NOW THEREFORE, THE CITY COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF FEDERAL WAY, RESOLVES AS FOLLOWS: Section 1. The 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan, on file with the City Clerk, is hereby approved and adopted by reference. Section 2. Severability. If any section,sentence,clause or phrase of this resolution should be held to be invalid or unconstitutional by a court of competent jurisdiction, such invalidity or unconstitutionality shall not affect the validity or constitutionality of any other section, sentence, clause, or phrase of this resolution. Section 3. Corrections. The City Clerk and the codifiers of this resolution are authorized to make necessary corrections to this resolution including, but not limited to, the correction of scrivener/clerical errors, references, resolution numbering, section/subsection numbers and any references thereto. Section 4. Ratification.Any act consistent with the authority and prior to the effective date of this resolution is hereby ratified and affirmed. Section 5. Effective Date. This resolution shall be effective immediately upon passage by the Federal Way City Council, Resolution No. 19- Page 2 of 3 RESOLVED BY THE CITY COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF FEDERAL WAY, WASHINGTON this day of 20—. CITY OF FEDERAL WAY: JIM FERRELL, MAYOR ATTEST: STEPHANIE COURTNEY, CMC, CITY CLERK APPROVED AS TO FORM: J. RYAN CALL, CITY ATTORNEY FILED WITH THE CITY CLERK: _ PASSED BY THE CITY COUNCIL: RESOLUTION NO.: Resolution No. 19- Page 3 of 3 LMKing oun Updated April 17, ' Department of Natural Resources and Parks Solid Waste Division Attachment A Updated April 17, 2019 f *0 all, 1A r � ■ 1 P zol9 Com rehensive Solid Waste Management Plan July 2018 .�4 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks Solid Waste Division p 2019 Com rehensive Solid Waste Management Plan July 2018 Updated April 17, 2019 Alternate formats available 206-477-4466;TTY relay: 711 www.kingcountyr_gov/solidwaste 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 � Att A Page 2 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Acknowledgements Prepared by King County Solid Waste Division Department of Natural Resources and Parks 201 South Jackson Street,Suite 701 Seattle,WA 98104-3855 kingcounty.gov/solidwaste Pat D.McLaughlin, Division Director Glynda Stein,Assistant Division Director Meg Moorehead,Strategy,Communications and Performance Manager Jeff Gaisford,Recycling and Environmental Services Manager Eben Sutton, Enterprise Services Manager Aaron Jeide, Human Resources Manager Neil Fujii, Facilities Engineering and Science Unit Manager Bill Berni,Operations Manager In collaboration with: Solid Waste Advisory Committee April Atwood,Vice-Chair Kim Kaminski David Baker Phillippa Kassover Elly Bunzendahl Kevin Kelly,Chair Joe Casalini Keith Livingston Gib Dammann Ken Marshall Karen Dawson Barb Ristau Jean Garber Stephen Strader Mason Giem Penny Sweet David Hill Metropolitan Solid Waste Management Advisory Committee City of Algona City of Kirkland City of Auburn City of Lake Forest Park City of Bellevue City of Maple Valley City of Black Diamond City of Mercer Island City of Bothell City of Newcastle City of Burien City of Normandy Park City of Clyde Hill City of Redmond City of Covington City of Renton City of Des Moines City of Sammamish City of Enumclaw City of SeaTac City of Federal Way City of Shoreline City of Issaquah City of Snoqualmie City of Kenmore City of Woodinville City of Kent 11 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 3 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 King County Executive Dow Constantine Department of Natural Resources and Parks Christie True, Director Bob Burns, Deputy Director King County Council Rod Dembowski, District 1 Larry Gossett, District 2 Kathy Lambert,Council Vice Chair, District 3 Jeanne Kohl-Welles, District 4 Dave Upthegrove, District 5 Claudia Balducci, District 6 Pete von Reichbauer, District 7 Joe McDermott,Council Chair, District 8 Reagan Dunn, District 9 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Hi Att A Page 4 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Contents Acknowledgements .............................................................................. ii Acronyms and Abbreviations,and Common Terms ................................................ x Acronyms and Abbreviations ................................................................. x Common Terms .............................................................................. A Executive Summary .............................................................................. xv Chapter 1 Introduction Summary of the Plan Organization................................................................ 1-2 Chapter 2 The Existing Solid Waste System Policies Figure 2-1. King County service area ...................................................... 2-2 The Solid Waste System........................................................................... 2-3 Collection of Solid Waste and Recyclables..................................................... 2-3 Figure 2-2.The Solid Waste System ........................................................ 2-4 Transfer...................................................................................... 2-6 Figure 2-3.Map of transfer station locations ............................................... 2-7 Processing of Commingled Recyclables ....................................................... 2-8 Figure 2-4. Locations of composting,materials recovery,and designated construction and demolition recycling and disposal facilities............................... 2-9 Table 2-1.Materials recovery facilities locations and tons processed in 2017................. 2-10 Disposal ..................................................................................... 2-10 Figure 2-5.Current layout of the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill............................... 2-11 Figure 2-6.Landfill gas-to-energy process.................................................. 2-12 Solid Waste System Planning ................................................................. 2-13 Table 2-2. Roles in regional planning and administration ................................... 2-15 Trends in Solid Waste Management ............................................................... 2-18 Leading the Way in Waste Prevention, Recycling and Product Stewardship ..................... 2-18 Expanding the Collection of Recyclable and Degradable Materials ............................. 2-19 Building a New Generation of Transfer Stations................................................ 2-19 Managing Solid Waste Disposal with an Eye to the Future.......................................... 2-21 Financing the Solid Waste System for the Long Term........................................... 2-21 Protecting Natural Resources through Environmental Stewardship............................. 2-21 Additional Planning Considerations............................................................... 2-22 ClimateChange.............................................................................. 2-22 Equity and Social Justice...................................................................... 2-25 iv 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 5 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Chapter 3 Forecasting and Data Policies Summary of Recommended Actions Forecasting....................................................................................... 3-1 Figure 3-1.Transfer station service areas population 2025-2040............................. 3-3 Figure 3-2. Estimated share of population increase 2025-2040 for transfer station service areas .............................................................. 3-4 Figure 3-3. Projection of solid waste recycled and disposed 2018-2040 ..................... 3-4 Current Data on Regional Waste Generation, Recycling,and Disposal............................... 3-5 Figure 3-4.2015 Recycling and disposal by generator type ................................. 3-5 Single-Family Residents ...................................................................... 3-6 Figure 3-5.2015 Recycling and disposal by single-family residents.......................... 3-6 Multi-Family Residents ....................................................................... 3-7 Figure 3-6.2015 Recycling and disposal by multi-family residents .......................... 3-7 Non-Residential Generators................................................................... 3-8 Figure 3-7.2015 Recycling and disposal by non-residential generators...................... 3-8 Self-haulers .................................................................................. 3-9 Figure 3-8.2015 Recycling and disposal by transfer facility self-haulers ..................... 3-9 Generators of Construction and Demolition Debris............................................ 3-9 Figure 3-9.2015 Construction and demolition materials diverted and disposed............. 3-10 Tracking Progress................................................................................. 3-10 Tonnage and Transaction Data................................................................ 3-11 Reports from the Commercial Collection Companies .......................................... 3-11 Ecology Survey Data.......................................................................... 3-12 Waste Characterization Studies ............................................................... 3-12 Solid Waste Characterization Studies.......................................................... 3-13 Organics Characterization Studies ............................................................ 3-14 Construction and Demolition Debris Characterization Studies ................................. 3-14 PlanningTools.................................................................................... 3-14 Plans and Studies ............................................................................ 3-15 Evaluation of Technologies ................................................................... 3-16 Waste Prevention and Recycling Studies ...................................................... 3-16 Other Plans Considered ...................................................................... 3-17 Chapter 4 Sustainable Materials Management Policies Summary of Recommended Actions Benefits of Recycling Efforts ...................................................................... 4-2 Goaland Targets.................................................................................. 4-3 Figure 4-1.Organics:Opportunities,values,and benefits in King County.................... 4-4 Figure 4-2. Recycling rate over time........................................................ 4-6 Figure 4-3.One approach of regional cooperation toward 70%recycling goal using collective mandatory actionS .................................... 4-7 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-judy 2018 V Att A Page 6 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Tools Used to Meet the Recommended Goal and Targets ...................................... 4-8 Table 4-1. Examples of successes achieved using various tools.............................. 4-8 Taking a Sustainable Materials Management Approach ............................................ 4-10 Figure 4-4.Materials life cycle ...................................................................4-10 Design and Production ....................................................................... 4-11 Useand Reuse ............................................................................... 4-11 End-of-Life Management..................................................................... 4-12 Turning Wastes to Resources ..................................................................... 4-13 Table 4-2. Designated recyclables ......................................................... 4-14 Figure 4-5. Recycling potential of materials disposed in 2015............................... 4-15 Priority Materials ............................................................................. 4-16 Organics ..................................................................................... 4-16 Priority Materials for Collection at King County Transfer Facilities............................... 4-17 Markets for Recyclable Materials .................................................................. 4-17 LinkUp-Expanding Markets for Recyclable and Reusable Materials............................ 4-17 2015 and 2017 Market Assessments........................................................... 4-18 Table 4-3. Findings from 2015 and 2017 market assessments ............................... 4-18 Grantsto Cities................................................................................... 4-19 Waste Reduction and Recycling Grants........................................................ 4-19 Local Solid Waste Financial Assistance Grants.................................................. 4-20 Competitive Grant Program................................................................... 4-20 Sustainable Purchasing ........................................................................... 4-20 Collection ....................................................................................... 4-21 Residential Collection ........................................................................ 4-21 Table 4-4.Summary of single-family collection for garbage,recycling,and organics in King County................................................................... 4-22 Table 4-5.Single-family minimum collection standards..................................... 4-30 Multi-Family Residential Collection............................................................ 4-30 Table 4-6. Multi-family minimum collection standards ..................................... 4-31 Non-Residential Collection ................................................................... 4-33 Construction and Demolition Materials Collection and Recycling .............................. 4-35 Table 4-7. Designated facilities for non-recyclable construction and demolition waste(July 2018).......................................................... 4-36 Table 4-8. Designated facilities for recyclable construction and demolition waste(July 2018).............................................................. 4-37 Vi 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 7 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Chapter 5 Solid Waste Transfer and Processing Policies Summary of Recommended Actions The Transfer System and Services ................................................................. 5-1 Figure 5-1. Locations of solid waste facilities ............................................... 5-2 Table 5-1.Current facilities and services.................................................... 5-3 Resource Recovery at Transfer Stations........................................................ 5-5 Services for Moderate Risk Wastes ............................................................ 5-5 Collection of Sharps.......................................................................... 5-6 Trends in Transfer Station Usage .................................................................. 5-7 Figure 5-2.Total tons processed at transfer facilities and disposed at Cedar Hills (1990-2017)................................................................ 5-7 Figure 5-3. Percent of tons and transactions at transfer facilities by hauler type(2017)....... 5-8 Evaluation and Planning for the Urban Transfer Stations ........................................... 5-9 The Planning Process......................................................................... 5-9 Service Level Evaluation Criteria .............................................................. 5-11 Table 5-2. Key service level criteria applied to urban transfer stations ....................... 5-15 Plans for the Urban Transfer Stations .............................................................. 5-16 Figure 5-4. Locations of existing and planned solid waste facilities.......................... 5-17 Table 5-3.Timeline for the facility renovation plan.......................................... 5-18 Transfer Facility Siting ........................................................................ 5-18 Siting a New South County Recycling and Transfer Station .................................... 5-18 Providing Transfer Capacity in the Northeast Service Area...................................... 5-19 A New Northeast Recycling and Transfer Station is Recommended............................. 5-19 Other Northeast Capacity Options Considered ................................................ 5-20 Table 5-4.Comparison of key characteristics of three transfer options considered ........... 5-21 Evaluation and Planning for the Rural Transfer Facilities............................................ 5-21 CityMitigation ................................................................................... 5-23 Transfer Services after an Emergency.............................................................. 5-24 Processing Collected Materials.................................................................... 5-25 Processing Commingled Recyclables.......................................................... 5-25 Processing Organics.......................................................................... 5-26 Table 5-5. Regional compost facilities...................................................... 5-26 Emerging Processing Technologies................................................................ 5-28 Anaerobic Digestion.......................................................................... 5-28 Advanced Materials Recovery................................................................. 5-28 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2018 v i i Att A Page 8 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Chapter 6 Landfill Management and Solid Waste Disposal Policies Summary of Recommended Actions Current Disposal at the Cedar Hills Landfill ........................................................ 6-1 Diversion of Waste................................................................................ 6-2 Current Strategies for Waste Diversion ........................................................ 6-2 Potential Strategies for Waste Diversion ....................................................... 6-2 Operational Efficiencies ...................................................................... 6-2 New Area Development .......................................................................... 6-3 The Next Disposal Method ....................................................................... 6-5 A Disposal Method Must Be Selected as Part of This Plan's Approval............................ 6-5 Further Development of Cedar Hills is Recommended ......................................... 6-5 Table 6-1.Comparison of key disposal option characteristics(planning level estimates) ..... 6-6 Other Long-Term Disposal Options Considered.................................................... 6-7 WasteExport................................................................................. 6-7 Waste to Energy Facility ...................................................................... 6-7 NextSteps ....................................................................................... 6-8 Technologies for the Future ...................................................................... 6-9 Disposal of Special Wastes ........................................................................ 6-11 Managing Illegal Dumping and Litter ............................................................. 6-12 Illegaldumping .............................................................................. 6-12 Table 6-2. Illegal dumping clean-up responsibilities ........................................ 6-13 Community Litter Cleanup.................................................................... 6-13 Secure Your Load............................................................................. 6-13 Disposal Services after an Emergency............................................................. 6-14 Restoration of Closed Landfills.................................................................... 6-15 Post-Closure Monitoring and Maintenance.................................................... 6-15 Figure 6-1.Map of closed landfills ......................................................... 6-16 Beneficial Reuse of Landfill Properties......................................................... 6-17 Other beneficial uses......................................................................... 6-17 Chapter 7 Solid Waste System Finance Policies Summary of Recommended Actions Funding of Solid Waste Services and Programs .................................................... 7-1 Figure 7-1.Solid Waste Division fund structure............................................. 7-2 Solid Waste Division Revenues................................................................ 7-3 Figure 7-2. Projected sources of revenue 2017 and 2018.................................... 7-4 Solid Waste Division Expenditures ............................................................ 7-5 Figure 7-3.2017 Budgeted expenditures................................................... 7-5 Influences on Future Costs and Revenue .......................................................... 7-8 Interest Earnings ............................................................................. 7-8 Waste Prevention and Recycling .............................................................. 7-8 Viii 2019 Comp2-ehen5zveS01zd Waste Management Plan-jVy2018 Att A Page 9 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Operational Efficiencies....................................................................... 7-9 Potential Changes in the Fee Structure........................................................ 7-9 Closure of the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill ........................................................ 7-10 New Revenue Sources ............................................................................ 7-10 Sales from the Landfill Gas-to-Energy Facility.................................................. 7-10 Resource Recovery at Transfer Stations........................................................ 7-11 Fees from Materials Collected at the Transfer Stations.......................................... 7-11 Chapter 8 References Appendix A- Utilities and Transportation Commission Cost Assessment Appendix B- Six Year Capital Improvement Program Appendix C-Amended and Restated Solid Waste Interlocal Agreement Appendix D-Waste Reduction Model (WARM) Inputs Used in Analysis Appendix E - Responsiveness Summary Appendix F - Descriptions of Disposal Options Considered Appendix G -Agency Plan Review Letters Appendix H -Title 10 Plan Content Code Requirements Att A Page 10 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Acronyms and Abbreviations, and Common Terms Acronyms and Abbreviations 2001 Plan . . . . . . . . . . . 2001 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan AD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anaerobic digestion ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . alternative daily cover AMR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . advanced materials recovery BEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bio Energy Washington C&D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . construction and demolition debris CERP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capital Equipment Recovery Program dBA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . decibel DNRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Natural Resources and Parks Ecology. . . . . . . . . . . . . Washington State Department of Ecology EIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . environmental impact statement EECBG . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program EPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . expanded polystyrene FEMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Emergency Management Agency GHG. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . greenhouse gas HDPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . high-density polyethylene plastic HHW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . household hazardous waste ILA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . interlocal agreement ITSG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interjurisdictional Technical Staff Group KCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . King County Code KCSWD . . . . . . . . . . . . . King County Solid Waste Division LDPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . low-density polyethylene plastic LEED.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design TI LHWMP. . . . . . . . . . . . . Local Hazardous Waste Management Program LRF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Landfill Reserve Fund MFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling MRF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . materials recovery facility MSWMAC . . . . . . . . . . . Metropolitan Solid Waste Management Advisory Committee MTCO2e . . . . . . . . . . . . metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent MW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . megawatt NWPSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . Northwest Product Stewardship Council PET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . polyethylene terephthalate plastic PSCAA . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puget Sound Clean Air Agency PSRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puget Sound Regional Council Public Health . . . . . . . . . Public Health-Seattle&King County PVC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . polyvinyl chloride plastic RAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . recycled asphalt shingles RCW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Revised Code of Washington SAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Siting Advisory Committee SEPA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State Environmental Policy Act X 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 11 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Site Development Plan. . . Cedar Hills Regional Landfill Site Development Plan SWAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid Waste Advisory Committee SWIF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid Waste Interlocal Forum Transfer Plan . . . . . . . . . Solid Waste Transfer and Waste Management Plan UASI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Urban Area Security Initiative UTC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission WAC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Washington Administrative Code WPR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . waste prevention and recycling Common Terms alternative daily cover-cover material other than earthen material which is placed on the surface of the active face of a municipal solid waste landfill at the end of each operating day to control vectors,fires,odors,blowing litter, and scavenging. advanced materials recovery -uses manual methods and advanced technology to separate all usable,recyclable, and compostable material from the waste stream and ensure that these valuable materials are available for use and not sent to the landfill. basic fee-the per-ton fee charged to customers disposing of municipal solid waste at transfer facilities. biochar-charcoal produced from plant matter and stored in the soil as a means of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. biosolids-refers to treated sewage sludge that meets the Environmental Protection Agency pollutant and pathogen requirements for land application and surface disposal. clean wood-unpainted and untreated wood,including pallets and wood from construction and demolition projects. commercial collection company(hauler)-a private-sector company that collects garbage,recyclables,and organics from residents and businesses. compost-the product resulting from the controlled biological decomposition of organic waste,including yard waste,food scraps,and food-soiled paper,which is beneficial to plant growth when used as a soil amendment. construction and demolition debris(C&D)-recyclable and non-recyclable materials that result from construction,remodeling,repair or demolition of buildings,roads or other structures,and requires removal from the site of construction or demolition.Construction and demolition debris does not include land clearing materials such as soil,rock,and vegetation. climate change-changes in the long-term trends in average weather patterns of a region,including the frequency, duration,and intensity of wind and snow storms,cold weather and heat waves,drought,and flooding;climate change is attributed primarily to the emission of greenhouse gases,including such compounds as carbon dioxide and methane. debris management site-temporary site where debris can be taken after a major emergency,such as flood, windstorm,or earthquake,until it can be sorted for recycling or proper disposal. diversion-any legal practice or program that diverts solid waste from disposal in the landfill. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2028 • Att A Page 12 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 drop box-scaled-down transfer facility,designed to provide cost-effective convenient drop-off services for garbage and recycling primarily for self-haulers in the rural areas of the county. equity-when all people have an equal opportunity to attain their full potential. Inequity occurs when there are differences in well-being between and within communities that are systematic,patterned,unfair,and can be changed; they are not random,as they are caused by our past and current decisions,systems of power and privilege,policies, and the implementation of those policies. G-certificate-a permit granting commercial solid waste hauling companies authority to operate in a specific area. The permit is issued by the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission. green building-the practice of creating and using healthier and more resource-efficient methods of construction, renovation,operation,maintenance,and demolition of buildings and other structures. greenhouse gas-any gas that contributes to the"greenhouse effect"such as carbon dioxide,methane,nitrous- oxide,chlorofluorocarbons,chlorodifluoromethane,perfluoroethane,and sulfur hexafluoride. host city-a city that has a county transfer facility within its incorporated boundaries. industrial waste stabilizer-material which is mixed with industrial ash to structurally stabilize the ash. King County designates the use of construction and demolition debris residuals for industrial waste stabilizer at disposal. interlocal agreement-an agreement between a city and the county for participation in the King County solid waste system. landfill gas-gas generated through the decomposition of waste buried in the landfill,which consists of about 50 to 60 percent methane and about 40 to 50 percent carbon dioxide,with less than 1 percent oxygen,nitrogen,and other trace gases. leachate-water that percolates through garbage at the landfill and requires collection and treatment before being sent to a wastewater treatment plant. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design"(LEED°)-a recognized standard for measuring building sustainability;the rating system evaluates buildings in six areas:sustainable site development,water savings,energy efficiency,materials and resources selection,indoor environmental quality,and innovation and design. materials recovery facility-uses manual methods and advanced technology to separate collected recyclable materials. municipal solid waste or MSW-includes garbage(putrescible wastes) and rubbish (nonputrescible wastes), except recyclables that have been source-separated;the residual from source-separated recyclables is MSW. non-residential generator-businesses,institutions,and government entities that generate solid waste. organics-yard waste,food scraps,and food-soiled paper. product stewardship or producer responsibility-an environmental management strategy whereby manufacturers take responsibility for minimizing a product's environmental impact throughout all stages of a product's life cycle,including end of life management. xi i 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 13 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 regional direct fee-a discounted fee charged to commercial collection companies that haul solid waste to Cedar Hills from their own transfer stations and processing facilities,thus bypassing county transfer stations. self-hauler-anyone who brings garbage,recyclables,and/or yard waste to division transfer facilities except a commercial collection company. social justice-encompasses all aspects of justice,including legal,political,and economic;it demands fair distribution of public goods,institutional resources,and life opportunities. solid waste-all materials discarded including garbage,recyclables,and organics. special waste-wastes that have special handling needs or have specific waste properties that require waste clearance before disposal.These wastes include contaminated soil,asbestos-containing materials,wastewater treatment plant grit,industrial wastes,and other wastes. standard curbside recyclables-glass and plastic containers,tin and aluminum cans,mixed waste paper, newspaper,and cardboard. sustainability-an approach to growth and development that balances social needs and economic opportunities with the long-term preservation of a clean and healthy natural environment.This approach to action and development integrates environmental quality,social equity,fiscal responsibility,and economic vitality. tipping fee-a per-ton fee charged to dispose waste at solid waste facilities. vector-is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another such as a mosquito or rat. waste conversion technologies -non-incineration technologies that use thermal,chemical,or biological processes,sometimes combined with mechanical processes,to convert the post-recycled or residual portion of the municipal solid waste stream to electricity,fuels,and/or chemicals that can be used by industry. waste generation-waste disposed plus materials recycled. waste prevention-the practice of creating less waste,which saves the resources needed to recycle or dispose of it such as choosing to purchase items with less or no packaging. waste-to-energy technologies -recover energy from municipal solid waste and include both waste conversion technologies and incineration with energy recovery,such as mass burn waste-to-energy,refuse derived fuel,and advanced thermal recycling. zero waste of resources or zero waste-a planning principle designed to eliminate the disposal of materials with economic value.Zero waste does not mean that no waste will be disposed;it proposes that maximum feasible and cost-effective efforts be made to prevent,reuse,and recycle waste. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-judy 2018 AN Att A Page 14 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Executive Summary This Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan (Plan)sets strategies for managing solid waste in King County over the next six to 20 years. Required by the Revised Code of Washington (RCW) 70.95,this Plan will guide actions by King County,all cities in King County except Seattle and Milton,and private companies that provide curbside collection and processing of recyclable materials. This Plan addresses the many public and private components of the regional solid waste system,including: • The King County Solid Waste Division's (division's) operation of the Cedar Hills regional landfill,ten transfer facilities,nine closed landfills,and many programs to prevent and recycle waste; • City efforts to promote recycling and provide for curbside pick-up of materials,either as a direct city service or through contracts with private haulers;and • Private companies'collection of materials at the curbside and operation of processing facilities that convert recyclable and organic materials into marketable products. Partnerships among system participants are key to the successful implementation of this Plan.In 2018,the final city signed the Amended and Restated Interlocal Agreement,securing participation of all 37 partner cities through 2040.This milestone reaffirms the county's responsibility to provide disposal through 2040,allows costs and risks to be shared across the large regional customer base,and strengthens opportunities to work together to achieve environmental goals. This Plan benefitted from extensive public input including nearly two years of collaboration between the division and its two advisory committees.The input helped the Plan address time-critical service choices facing the regional system: Recycling.Waste prevention and recycling are long-standing priorities.Much progress has been made through expanded recycling options and services,customer education,and other means. However the region's recycling percentage still hovers in the low 50s and stronger markets for recyclables are needed in light of factors such as China's recent import restrictions on recyclable materials.This Plan offers a variety of waste prevention and recycling approaches that allow system participants to tailor approaches to their jurisdiction's needs while working together to harmonize approaches to achieve better results for the region. Transfer.This Plan recommends the continued modernization of the transfer system.Station upgrades are completed or underway in all urban areas (except for Northeast King County)to improve services and meet future needs.This Plan recommends that the 1960s era Houghton station in Kirkland be replaced with a modern station so that equitable levels of service are available throughout the urban area including the fast- growing Northeast part of King County. Disposal.The Cedar Hills Regional Landfill has provided cost-effective,environmentally responsible waste disposal for more than 50 years.Built capacity at the landfill will be exhausted in 2028 however,leaving only ten years to put the next disposal method in place.To meet disposal needs,this Plan recommends further development of Cedar Hills to maximize disposal capacity,while affirming that garbage shall not be disposed of,nor shall soils be stockpiled,within 1,000 feet of the property line at the landfill,in accordance with the Settlement Agreement.To account for technological advances,this Plan does not specify the next disposal method after ultimate closure of Cedar Hills. Evaluation of future disposal methods will begin before the next plan update. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july2018 XV Att A Page 15 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Although many challenges lie ahead for the regional solid waste system,working together under this Plan,system participants can achieve more through collective effort that continues the region's commitment to customer-oriented environmentally responsible solid waste services. Xvi 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 16 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Introduction 1r r x X r Att A Page 17 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Tntr,oQduction This Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan(Plan) proposes strategies for managing King County's solid waste over the next six years,with consideration of the next 20 years.The Plan was prepared by the Solid Waste Division (the division)of the Department of Natural Resources(DNRP)and Parks in accordance with the Revised Code of Washington (RCW) 70.95 and in cooperation with its advisory committees-the Metropolitan Solid Waste Management Advisory Committee(MSWMAC)and the Solid Waste Advisory Committee(SWAC).MSWMAC represents the 37 cities in King County that are signatories to the Amended and Restated Interlocal Agreement(Amended and Restated ILA),the foundation of the King County solid waste system.This Plan revises the 2001 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan(2001 Plan),and builds upon the 2006 Transfer and Waste Management Plan(Transfer Plan). With this Plan,the division embraces the DNRP's mission to foster sustainable and livable communities by focusing on these critical areas:environmental quality,equity and social justice,fiscal responsibility,and economic vitality. The division is building upon past and current efforts to increase waste prevention and recycling while advancing green building practices in the region's communities and within its own operations.The division continues to refine operational practices and facility designs in ways that further reduce its carbon footprint and promote the greening of natural and built environments.The participants in the countywide solid waste management system-from the 37 cities within the county's borders to the private-sector collection and processing companies to individual businesses and residents-are contributing to these vital efforts in their own operations and practices. Mie Y !, y. v AL A , r • viii �. +. f�.af ��� � , ,� i �, 'I ,"i � r+ - _,,. .. _. ..."r iH"•"�..orR.'r'AYxY,. :�. i�'Y°f�_�'a�r °� ' 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 � Att A Page 18 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Since its inception in 1969,the core mission of the division has been to ensure that residents and businesses in the county have access to safe,reliable,efficient,and affordable solid waste handling and disposal services.The last few decades have brought about significant developments in the management of solid waste,stemming not only from advances in technology and the changing marketplace,but from a widespread recognition of the importance of waste prevention,resource conservation,sustainable development and environmental stewardship. Over time,the management of solid waste has evolved from a relatively simple system of garbage collection and disposal to a much more complex network of collection,transportation,and processing for garbage,recyclables, organics(yard waste and food scraps),and construction and demolition debris.This integrated network combines the infrastructure and services of both the public and private sectors to provide long-term capacity for solid waste management in the region. Summary of the Plan Organization This Plan is organized to guide the reader through the major elements of the solid waste system.Within each chapter are elements as described below: Goals reflect the long-term outcomes and aspirations for the regional system.Goals should not change through the life of the Plan. Policies provide broad direction and authorization for services and system priorities. Policies should not change through the life of the Plan. Actions are targeted,specific,and time-based to implement policies and could include:programs,studies, infrastructure improvements,and regulations.Actions are built on a foundation of daily service delivery by the county, cities,and other stakeholders.This Plan does not attempt to describe every solid waste task in the regional system. It lists only those that are particularly important to initiate or continue.Actions may be updated outside of the formal Plan update process to adapt to changing conditions.The Summary of Recommended Actions table in each chapter includes a page number to indicate where information related to each action can be found in that chapter. Following the table of contents is a list of acronyms,abbreviations,and common terms used throughout the Plan. A list of the documents referenced in the Plan is provided in Chapter 8.Website addresses are provided for documents that were prepared by or for the division. Six appendices are provided with the Plan: • Appendix A is a cost assessment,as required by the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission(UTC), • Appendix B includes the six-year capital improvement plan required to be included in the Plan, • Appendix C is the Amended and Restated Solid Waste Interlocal Agreement(Amended and Restated ILA), • Appendix D shows assumptions used in the Waste Reduction Model (WARM) model of greenhouse gas emissions, • Appendix E includes the division's responses to the comments and questions received during the public review period;the full text of each comment is also be available on the division's website, • Appendix F includes detailed descriptions of the disposal alternatives that were analyzed,and • Appendix G includes comment letters from Washington state agencies that are required to review the Draft Plan. 1-2 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 19 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Review Process State law delegates authority to the county to prepare a comprehensive solid waste management plan in cooperation with the cities within its boundaries.An interlocal agreement is required for any city participating in a joint city-county plan (RCW 70.95.080(3)).This Plan was prepared in cooperation with 37 King County cities with which the county has interlocal agreements(all cities in the county except for Seattle and Milton). This Plan builds upon the 2001 Plan and the Transfer Plan that was approved by the King County Council in December 2007.This Plan presents goals,policies,and actions in the following areas:the existing solid waste system,forecasting and data,sustainable materials management,the transfer and processing system,landfill management and solid waste disposal,and system financing. On January 8,2018,the Draft Plan and Draft Environmental Impact Statement(EIS),conducted according to the State Environmental Policy Act,were released for a 60-day public comment period.The public comment period ended on March 8,2018.The division received 68 comment letters from 40 individuals,four organizations,five businesses,four agencies,one King County Councilmember and 14 cities. During the comment period,the division also held three open houses and participated in13 stakeholder meetings with varied audiences. In addition,the division employed a variety of communications tools in the public awareness campaign during the 60-day public review and comment period.These included on-line and in-person opportunities to comment,as well as printed materials,a cable TV spot,press releases,and a PowerPoint presentation to support presentations to stakeholders to make people aware of the key topics in the Draft Plan and how they could comment. Key messages were developed early and were used in all awareness efforts.An on-line tool was also used to offer people a way to voice their opinions on the three key issues in the Draft Plan.A total of 487 respondents(486 in English,one in Spanish) participated in the informal on-line questionnaire(KCSWD 2018a). The revised Plan,transmitted to the King County Council in July 2018,considers comments,preliminary review by the Washington State Department of Ecology(Ecology),review by the UTC and the Washington State Department of Agriculture,and incorporates the Executive's recommendations.The revised Plan must be adopted by: • The King County Council, • The Regional Policy Committee acting as the Solid Waste Interlocal Forum (SWIF),and • Cities representing three-quarters of the total population of the cities that act on the plan during a 120-day adoption period. After adoption and completion of the Final EIS the County/City-Approved Plan will be submitted to Ecology. The Plan becomes final upon Ecology's approval. Following is the anticipated schedule for completion of the Plan review and adoption process: 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-judy 2018 1-3 Att A Page 20 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Approximate January 8-March 8,2018 Release Draft Plan and Draft EIS for 60-day public Complete review and comment. January 8-May 7,2018 Submit Draft Plan and Draft EIS to Ecology and UTC for Complete up to 120-day review and comment. Revise the Draft Plan and Draft EIS to incorporate May-July 2018 Ecology,UTC,and public comments and the King Complete County Executive's recommendations.Issue Final EIS. Submit the revised Plan to the King County Council July 26,2018 (including the Regional Policy Committee)for Complete adoption. Late 2018/Early 2019 Submit County-approved Plan to the cities for adoption (120-day adoption period). Mid 2019 Submit County/City-approved Plan to Ecology for final approval (45 day period). 1-4 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2oz8 Att A Page 21 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 aA r' r rri� ' 5w PENN— Aba r t w < wa Are. Q5�. a, w x� I Y The Existing Solid n Syste'.M Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Policies /ES-1 Maintain a public and private mix of solid waste transfer and processing facilities. ES-2 Work with the division's advisory committees,the cities,and the Solid Waste Interlocal Forum on solid waste management planning and decisions. ES-3 Incorporate principles of equity and social justice into solid waste system planning. ES-4 Consider climate change impacts and sustainability when planning for facilities,operations,and programs. Att A Page 24 lllio� Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Le Existing Solid Waste System The solid waste management system has evolved from a relatively basic system of garbage collection and disposal to a much more complex network of collection,sorting,salvage,reuse,recycling,composting,and disposal managed by the county,area cities,and private-sector collection and processing companies. Initial improvements to solid waste facilities and operations have been developed further to incorporate waste prevention and recycling programs that strive to balance resource use and conservation with production and consumption. One of the early influences in the evolution of the system was the sweeping environmental legislation of the 1960s and 1970s,beginning in 1965 with the federal Solid Waste Management Act,which established strict regulatory standards for landfills and other solid waste facilities. Washington State subsequently passed its own waste management act,codified in Revised Code of Washington (RCW) 70.95,and established Sign at Bow Lake Transfer Station encourages customers to Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste recycle more Handling in the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-304. In 1976,the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act set even more stringent standards for environmental protection,including requirements for the use of impermeable bottom liners and daily cover at landfills.In response to the more stringent regulations,the county began closing the unlined community landfills across the region,replacing many of them with the more environmentally protective and geographically dispersed transfer facilities that are still in operation today.With the development of the transfer network(eight transfer stations and two drop boxes)and technological advances at the county-owned Cedar Hills Regional Landfill (Cedar Hills),division facilities and operations were brought into compliance with the new environmental standards,and a safe,efficient,and sustainable system of solid waste management was created.The standards have continued to evolve over time,and transfer facilities and landfills now operate in accordance with the Solid Waste Handling Standards(WAC 173-350)and Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills(WAC 173-351). Thirty-seven of the 39 cities in King County(all but the cities of Seattle and Milton)and the unincorporated areas of King County participate in the solid waste system. In all,the county's service area,shown in Figure 2-1,covers approximately 2,050 square miles. In 2017,there were almost 1.5 million residents and about 771,000 people employed in the service area,disposing over 931,000 tons of garbage at Cedar Hills.Studies show that even more can be done to reduce disposal through waste prevention,reuse,and recycling. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 2-1 Att A Page 25 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Cu Cu i U d ro O Q O m m a t N N m O C O O LL O U Cu N U C N U 01 CuO N .� y Y D U D z L � LD I E L o < m U) , I U) I I I I % I I I � I N i I (� I � I U I •\ I i I N I � I ' � a C: 000 I L i U i o' � sS I 1, EU r I _ o 00 U OUtE i t '0 N LL o E E Q m � m o a U) _ �° Cmo I o w o ri o o Q r r a o � I t'o o Q o E m ie I Y �a U — Q m w I o o LL N. y Q U Y Lo N N ) .O O N C L w ` cn ) m a o o a Z LL a m m w w C C o o w U � 4 m w Y 2-2 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2o-z8 Att A Page 26 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 The Solid Waste System Figure 2-2 provides a general overview of the collection,transfer,transportation,processing,and disposal systems for garbage,recyclables,organics,and construction and demolition debris.Garbage is transported to Cedar Hills for disposal,while recyclables,organics,and most construction and demolition materials are taken directly to processing or compost facilities where materials are prepared for sale to manufacturers and other users.As shown,these recycled or composted products eventually return to the market for consumer purchase. As can be seen in Figure 2-2,this multi-faceted system uses the combined resources of the public and private sectors. Regulations and systems for collection,transfer,transport,processing,and disposal that come into play are complex, involving state,county,city,and private-sector responsibilities. Collection of Solid Waste and Recyclables In accordance with state law RCW 81.77.020 and 36.58.040,counties are prohibited from providing curbside garbage collection services. Legal authority for regulating collection is shared primarily between the state-acting through the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission (UTC)-and the cities.The UTC sets and adjusts rates and requires compliance with the state and local adopted solid waste management plans and related ordinances. RCW 81.77 also includes a process for allowing cities to opt out of the UTC regulatory structure and either contract directly for solid waste collection or provide city-operated collection systems. The county's 2001 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan(2001 Plan) v� specifies that recycling should be included as part of the basic garbage rate for residents in most of King County. King County enacted a service-level ordinance(King County Code(KCC) 10.18)that includes this requirement r - for unincorporated areas,except Vashon Island,Skykomish,and Snoqualmie Pass.The UTC then required collection companies to develop tariffs that spread the cost and availability of recycling to all residential garbage customers.These tariffs and service-level requirements also apply to cities that have not opted out of the UTC regulatory structure. Most of the garbage,recyclables,and organics collection in the county's service area are provided by four private-sector companies- Recology CleanScapes, Inc., Republic Services, Inc.(formerly Allied Waste, Inc.), Waste Connections, Inc.,and Waste Management, Inc. Except for Recology CleanScapes,which only provides contracted services,these companies " operate both through the UTC and service contracts with individual cities. Most of the 37 cities in the service area contract directly with one or more Most of the garbage,recyclables,and of these private companies for collection services. Eight cities(Beaux Arts, organics collection is provided by Black Diamond,Covington, Hunts Point, Kenmore,Medina,Woodinville, the private sector(Photo courtesy of and Yarrow Point)and all of the unincorporated areas receive collection Recology CleanScapes) services from these private companies operating under certificates issued by the UTC.Two cities-Enumclaw and Skykomish-provide municipal collection services within their own jurisdictions. Enumclaw collects garbage,recyclables,and organics;Skykomish collects only garbage. There is a fundamental difference in how the UTC regulates residential and non-residential collection of recyclable materials.The Federal Aviation Administration Authorization Act of 1994 prohibits regulation of price,route,or service 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 2-3 Att A Page 27 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Figure 2-2.The Solid Waste System Garbage ■ Recyclables ■Construction & Demolition Debris Organics (C&D) 000 000 ©EM a o 0 0 Homes&Apartments Businesses Construction Sites Stores King County Small Scale Transfer Statio Organics Processing .0011,11 04 Private Composting Facility Manufacturer of New Products Cedar Hills Bio Energy WA Regional Landfill Private Construction&Demolition Materials Processing Facility Private Global,Regional& Transfer Station Local Markets heti4 Private Landfill Private Materials Recovery Facilities &Recyclables Facilities 2-4 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2o-z8 Att A Page 28 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 of any motor carrier transporting property.While this provision does not apply to collection of garbage and recyclable materials from residents,recyclable materials generated by the non-residential sector are considered to be property and are subject to a different regulatory structure.King County cannot enact ordinances that require commercial garbage collectors to include recyclables collection as part of the non-residential collection service.Cities,on the other hand,may include recyclables collection as part of their non-residential collection service,but cannot prohibit businesses and other non-residential entities from choosing other vendors for this service. Revenue Sharing Provides Incentive for Collection Companies to Enhance Recycling In 2010,the state legislature amended statute RCW 81.77.185,allowing solid waste collection companies regulated by the UTC to retain up to 50 percent of the revenue paid to them for the recycled materials they collect from households (the statute does not apply to collection in cities with contracts for recyclables collection).The purpose of the statute is to provide collection companies with a financial incentive to enhance their recycling programs.Formerly,all revenues from the sale of residential recyclables were passed back to the households as a credit on their garbage bills. To qualify for the revenue sharing,collection companies must submit a plan to the UTC that has been certified by King County as consistent with the current Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan.The Solid Waste Division Director has authority to make this certification. To qualify for certification,the collection company's plan must: • Be submitted annually for approval, • Demonstrate how proposed program enhancements will be effective in increasing the quantity and quality of materials collected, • Demonstrate consistency with the minimum collection standards, • Incorporate input from the Solid Waste Division,and • Be submitted to the Solid Waste Division with sufficient time to review prior to UTC deadlines. Since January 2013,all UTC-regulated areas of King County,except Vashon Island,have certified revenue sharing agreements in place. Curbside Collection in Rural Areas When curbside recycling was initiated in King County in the early 1990s,the collection companies (operating under UTC certificates) serving unincorporated areas were required to provide curbside recycling services as specified in KCC 10.18 for most of the county.These requirements,consistent with the 1989 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan,stated that curbside recycling would be offered to all households as part of the basic garbage service and that yard waste service would be available to all households as a subscription service. However,some rural areas were exempted from these requirements because their low population density or lack of participation in garbage collection services suggested that curbside recycling might not be cost effective. Currently,three unincorporated areas are not included in the county's collection service-level standards as specified in KCC 10.18: 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 2-5 Att A Page 29 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Vashon/Maury Island- Historically,a comparatively high percentage of Vashon/Maury Island residents have chosen to self-haul garbage and recyclables to the division's Vashon Recycling and Transfer Station;however,the number of households subscribing to garbage service has increased over time.Waste Connections, Inc.,the company providing garbage collection service on Vashon/Maury Island,also offers subscriptions to recyclables collection services.From a survey of Island residents(KCSWD 2016c),about 17 percent currently subscribe to curbside recycling services. Organics curbside collection is not available. Skykomish Area-The area around Skykomish is remote and sparsely populated. Residents of Skykomish and some residents in surrounding unincorporated areas receive curbside garbage collection service from the Town of Skykomish.Skykomish does not collect curbside recyclables or organics.Customers may self-haul garbage and recyclables to the division's drop box facility located in Skykomish;however,separate organics collection is not provided at the facility. Snoqualmie Pass-The Snoqualmie Pass area is also very sparsely populated. Residential garbage collection is available from Waste Management, Inc.of Ellensburg in Kittitas County.Curbside recycling is not available;however; the division does provide a site with collection bins for the standard curbside recyclable materials.Organics collection is not available. Transfer The division operates eight transfer stations and two rural drop boxes in the urban and rural areas of the county (Figure 2-3). In addition to meeting standards for the safe and environmentally sound transfer of solid waste,the transfer network reduces the amount of truck traffic on the highways by providing geographically dispersed stations where garbage collected throughout the region can be consolidated into fewer loads for transport to the landfill. Transfer facilities are the public face of the solid waste system. In 2017,county transfer facilities received about 917,650 tons of garbage and recyclables,through more than 952,360 customer visits. Garbage and,at most facilities,recyclable materials from business and residential self-haulers are accepted at the transfer station and drop box facilities.The transfer stations also provide accessible drop-off locations for garbage picked up at the curb by the commercial collection companies. From these geographically dispersed transfer stations,garbage is consolidated in transfer trailers and taken to the county-owned Cedar Hills Regional Landfill in the Maple Valley area. Recyclable materials are transported to processing facilities throughout the region. I" Public Health-Seattle&King ,. County(Public Health) is the primary regulatory and enforcement agency responsible for issuing operating permits for both public and private solid waste handling facilities.This includes solid waste,recycling,and m composting facilities. Solid waste Entrance of Algona Transfer Station 2-6 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2o18 Att A Page 30 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Figure 2-3. Map of transfer station locations Bothell ---------------------- --------------------------------- -- ---------------- -- Lake Forest Shoreline park Woodinville r Skykomish u S en r J,Duvaff Seattle Kirkl nd 0 f� Redmond Yarrow Poin n 520 Hunts P CZ a�, Clyd H II n a Medin Bellevue ea A Sammamish erc Factoria I Ian c Newcastle Issaquah Sno ie i 1 orlh end urien Tu it Ren Cedar Hills Regional Landfill / Renton 169 SeaTac NoCedar Falls Vashon ar Lake 18 Vashon Island Des 06 Moi Kent vington Maple Valley 0 167 f� _ f v Auburn Federal way Blac D11 mo d o Algona _Milton Pacific U J 169 u G Enumcaw King County solid waste facilities C�dW Landfill �y Transfer Station Drop Box ® King County Boundary 0 2 4 S _ Q Cities Miles Unincorporated Area a , omo�a , omo�a p„m.a 1-7 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 2-7 Att A Page 31 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 handling regulations are codified in the Code of the King County Board of Health,Title 10.The permitting process is the vehicle by which Public Health enforces the state's Solid Waste Handling Standards(WAC 173-350) and Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills(WAC 173-351).Public Health inspects solid waste handling facilities and has the authority to take corrective action for noncompliance. Processing of Commingled Recyclables While garbage picked up at the curb goes to the county's solid waste system,the collection companies take the recyclable materials picked up at the curb to their own facilities for processing.The processing of recyclable materials into new commodities begins at a materials recovery facility.Materials recovery facilities receive material loads from collection trucks,remove contaminants from the loads,sort materials to meet the specifications of the end users or markets,and compact or bale the material for efficient shipping.As the residential collection system has moved to commingled collection,materials recovery facilities in the region have upgraded their facilities to improve their ability to remove contaminants and sort materials into marketable commodity grades.Any residuals,or non-recyclable waste products,from materials recovery facilities within the King County service area must be disposed of at a King County solid waste facility. ®.: 4M The processing of recyclables throughout the Pacific .w Northwest is currently handled through the private sector.Companies that � collect recyclables curbside are required by contract or ordinance to deliver them to recycling facilities. Local facilities receive recyclable materials from the region as well as from other areas of the United States.These Recology CleanScapes materials recovery facility private-sector facilities have made necessary upgrades over time to expand processing capacity to meet demand.The three largest collection companies in King County- Recology CleanScapes Inc., Republic Services, Inc.,and Waste Management Inc.,each own a materials recovery facility located within the county,shown in Figure 2-4,to process most of the recyclable materials they collect. Recology CleanScapes'materials recovery facility in south Seattle opened in 2014. Republic's 3rd and Lander Recycling Center in south Seattle was substantially redesigned in 2007 to improve its ability to sort commingled materials and in 2008 was upgraded to expand capacity. Waste Management's Cascade Recycling Center in Woodinville opened in 2002 and was recently upgraded with a new sort line.Curbside recyclables collected on Vashon Island are processed at Waste Management JMK Fibers'Port of Tacoma facility,which was upgraded substantially in 2013.Table 2-1 shows the address for each facility as well as how many tons were processed in 2017. 2-8 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2oz8 Att A Page 32 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Figure 2-4. Locations of composting, materials recovery, and designated construction and demolition recycling and disposal facilities Snohomish County 522 �J United Recycling-Snohomish Lenz Enterprises 1= Maltby Container and Recycling 530 DTG Maltby TG Woodinville Cascade Recycling Center op Cedar Grove 99 520' v __ a In hird&Lander Recycling Center&Transfer Station ited Recyclin�- eat le �J a Recology Cleans a Y C6 qt Transfer/ RecyclingC t r,! - Recycling Sta' ' ^� i 1=Black River Recycling&Transfer Station 169 DTG Renton Cedar Grove � I IY ' Locations of composting, materials � — 767 recovery, and designated construction �r Regycling Northw2st and demolition recycling and disposal facilities a Compost Facility JMK Fibers \ Q Materials Recovery Facility Recovery 1 i�.■ ' y� Recyclable Construction and Demolition Waste Non-Recyclable Construction and Demolition Waste --- King County Boundary Cities 512 Unincorporated Area I pine ecycling o 1 2 4 w=F OMiles V v�w,v,e,oi��swowo�re,v,a�svau,s_�v��,wvwv�oeman _�v���„a m,a snvm,a 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 2-9 Att A Page 33 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Table 2-1. Materials recovery facilities locations and tons processed in 2017 Materials Recovery Facility Address Tons from Total Tons King County Processed Recology CleanScapes,Inc. 7303 8th Avenue S.,Seattle 73,121 92,038 Republic Services 3rd and Lander Recycling Center 2722 3rd Avenue S.,Seattle Data not broken out byjurisdiction 223,722 Waste Management JMK Fibers 1440 Port of Tacoma Road, 55,144 167,394 Tacoma Waste Management Cascade Recycling Center 14020 NE 190th,Woodinville 64,295 j 116,234 Facilities that process mixed recyclables in King County are subject to regulation by Public Health under the Code of the King County Board of Health Title 10.12,which adopts the standards of WAC 173-350. Disposa Solid waste generated in King County's service area is disposed at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill—the only active landfill in the county.Located on a 920-acre site in the Maple Valley area,Cedar Hills has provided safe and efficient disposal of the county's solid waste since 1965.In 2017,the landfill received over 931,000 tons of municipal solid waste. Cedar Hills was originally permitted in 1960,at a time when there were few regulations in place to govern the '`M design and operation of landfills.Since then,environmental regulations have become increasingly rigorous,requiring the placement of an impermeable,high-density polyethylene liner and clay barrier at the bottom of the landfill,daily cover(using soil or other approved materials) , over the waste,and frequent environmental monitoring, •` - . among other requirements. 4 WT Over time,Cedar Hills has been developed in sequential ,_,. stages(or refuse areas) in accordance with the most * ` current Site Development Plan.The division has invested considerable effort and resources to upgrade older areas of the landfill,while designing and operating new areas to meet or exceed regulatory requirements. Figure 2-5 shows the layout of the landfill,including the boundaries of the past and active refuse areas as currently permitted. As shown,Area 7 is the currently active refuse area,and is expected to operate through 2018 or early 2019.At that time,operations will transition to the newest refuse area, A bulldozer compacts waste at the Cedar Hills landfill Area 8. The landfill is bordered to the east by Passage Point,a transitional housing development,residentially zoned property on the east,north,and west, and by property to the south that is zoned for mining,other resource extraction, and similar uses.State regulation WAC 173-351-140(3)(b) requires a 250-foot buffer between the active area and residentially zoned property,and a 100-foot buffer between the active area and non-residentially zoned property. 2-10 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 34 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Figure 2-5. Current layout of the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill ipI k 99 AREA 4 ie,5, f .; 1991 -1999 CEN RAL Pi N AREA 5 � 1986- 988 x 1999-2005 e M f. a y" 2 . AREA 7 AREA 6 - s� + (Active) 2005-2010 r 4 2010- F UTURE AREA 8 SOUTHEAST ;. AREA ., } - M _ _ �a..• " yrr..� w��a a{xr,�s��wi"r .7c�a•�. �-oe r -"'-r-. .�:��". _ 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 � Att A Page 35 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 However,a special permit,approved by the King County Board of Commissioners in 1960,specified that a 1,000-foot buffer be established around the landfill.In the 1960s,landfilling inadvertently extended about 400 feet into a portion of the southeast buffer,but environmental regulations continue to be met in that area and opportunities to restore the buffer are being pursued.Active use of this buffer zone is currently limited to site access and other approved uses not directly related to land-filling operations,such as environmental monitoring and activities at Passage Point. The landfill has received national recognition for its operations and environmental control systems,which meet or exceed the highest federal,state,and local standards for protection of public health and the environment.This complex network of environmental controls includes a collection of pipes,culverts,holding ponds,and other equipment to manage water and landfill gas,as described in more detail below. Water at the landfill is separated into two categories for treatment.These are: 1)clean stormwater,and 2) contaminated stormwater,which includes leachate and other water that has potentially come into contact with garbage.Leachate is produced when water percolates through the garbage;it is collected in pipes within the landfill and diverted to lined on-site ponds. In the ponds,the leachate is aerated as a preliminary treatment before being sent to the King County South Wastewater Treatment Plant in Renton.The bottom liner and clay barrier beneath the landfill prevent leachate from seeping into the soil or groundwater.Stormwater that runs off the surface of active landfill areas is also potentially contaminated. It is collected in lined ponds before moving on to the treatment system.Clean stormwater is diverted to detention or siltation ponds to control flow and remove sediment,and is then discharged to surface water off-site. Landfill gas is generated through the decomposition of waste buried in the landfill.The gas consists of about 50 percent to 60 percent methane,with the remainder made up of carbon dioxide and trace amounts of oxygen, nitrogen,and other gases.Landfill gas from Cedar Hills is collected by using motor blowers to create a vacuum in Figure 2-6. Landfill gas-to-energy process Cedar Hills Regional Landfill BF Public Landfill Gas Renewable Energy 2,660 tolls of trash come into The BEW plant,in operation since Selling biogas produced by the BEW the landfill on average each day.The October 2010,processes the landfill gas plant generates$1-$7 million decomposing organic material forms into pipeline-quality biogas and electric annually,depending on production rates carbon dioxide and methane gases.In power.Along with generating and market prices,helping to keep solid 2017,the landfill generated about 10,000 approximately 15.4 million waste disposal rates low.The renewable cubic feet per minute of gas. therms of Clean renewable natural gas produced by the plant each The gas control system minimizes gas natural gas each year,BEW year equals the amount of energy emissions escaping through the ground generates over 15 million kilowatt hours needed to meet the natural gas needs of or through the air.The gas is captured of electricity from landfill gas each year over 19,000 homes in King County orto through a network of pipes and sent to to help offset the facility's electricity use. substitute for the energy use of the Bio Energy Washington(BEW) Residual impurities are destroyed by the 11.2 million gallons of diesel fuel. gas-to-energy plant on site. plant's thermal oxidizer. The gas collected from the landfill is sent to the Bio Energy Washington plant to be processed into pipeline quality gas 2-12 2019 Comprehensibe Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2o-z8 Att A Page 36 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 perforated pipes within the solid waste.The gas used to be routed to high-temperature flares,where it was burned to safely destroy any harmful emissions. In a public/private partnership, Bio Energy Washington,began operating a landfill gas-to-energy facility at the landfill in 2010.The facility runs landfill gas through a series of processors that remove and destroy harmful components and convert the methane portion of the gas into pipeline-quality natural gas.The clean gas is routed through a nearby gas line into the Puget Sound Energy grid and is also used to power the facility(Figure 2-6).The division is also exploring other uses for the gas,such as producing compressed natural gas for operating vehicles.The flare system is kept in standby mode;during maintenance of the energy facility or in the event of an emergency,the flare system can be activated to manage the gas.Air emissions from the flare system are tested regularly and have consistently met or exceeded all applicable environmental regulations. Solid Waste System Planning In addition to regulating solid waste handling and disposal,state law also established a framework for planning, authorizing counties to prepare coordinated Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plans in cooperation with the cities within their borders.While cities can choose to prepare their own plans,all of the incorporated cities within King County,except for Seattle and Milton,have chosen to participate in the development of this single,coordinated regional plan for the incorporated and unincorporated areas of King County.Since July, 1988,cities have entered into interlocal agreements(ILAs)with the county that establish the Solid Waste Division as the lead planning agency. By the time the first Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan was adopted by the Metropolitan King County Council in 1990,there were 29 incorporated cities participating in this coordinated effort.Since then,eight new cities have incorporated and joined the King County system-for a total of 37 cities. To make sound planning decisions,it is important to understand how the solid waste system operates today and to identify changes that might affect it in the future.This information is critical to ensuring that plans for facilities, services,and programs meet the needs of the region in the years to come. Because the system is a combination of public and private entities,working with stakeholders in the early stages of system planning is essential. In addition to working with local jurisdictions and the private-sector collection companies,the division works closely with its two advisory committees-the Solid Waste Advisory Committee(SWAC)and the Metropolitan Solid Waste Management Advisory Committee(MSWMAC). For the preparation of this Plan,the division collaborated with the advisory committees through a process of presentations and discussions. The next section identifies the participants in the planning process and describes the stakeholder process that guided the development of this plan.Also included is a brief description of the state,county,and city responsibilities in planning the solid waste system. A Regional Approach As partners in a regional system,cities share in the costs and benefits of King County's transfer and disposal system. The regional solid waste system was formally established in King County when the county and cities entered into the original Solid Waste Interlocal Agreement of 1988. In 2013,the county worked with the cities to amend the original ILA.The Amended and Restated Solid Waste Interlocal Agreement(Amended and Restated ILA)extends the original ILA by 12.5 years,from June 2028 through December 2040(the full text of the ILA can be found in Appendix Q.The longer term will keep rates lower by allowing for longer-term bonding for capital projects.All 37 cities have signed the Amended and Restated ILA.Cities in the regional system are on the following page: 2019 ComprebenszveSolzd Waste 2wanagementPlan-ju1y2028 2-13 Att A Page 37 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Algona Des Moines Maple Valley Sea Tac Auburn Duvall Medina Shoreline Beaux Arts Enumclaw Mercer Island Skykomish Bellevue Federal Way Newcastle Snoqualmie Black Diamond Hunts Point Normandy Park Tukwila Bothell Issaquah North Bend Woodinville Burien Kenmore Pacific Yarrow Point Carnation Kent Redmond Clyde Hill Kirkland Renton Covington Lake Forest Park Sammamish The Amended and Restated ILA includes several enhancements to the original ILA,including provisions for insurance and a potential reserve for environmental liabilities.Other changes include: • Commitment to the continued involvement of the cities advisory group(to be renamed the Metropolitan Solid Waste Advisory Committee or MSWAC), • An expanded role for cities in system planning,including planning for long-term disposal alternatives and in establishing financial policies, • A dispute resolution process,which includes non-binding mediation,and • Mitigation provisions for host cities and neighboring cities. Issues specific to individual jurisdictions,such as the city of Bothell annexing areas in Snohomish County,may require an amendment to the ILA that addresses that particular concern. Both the original and the new ILA assign responsibility for different aspects of solid waste management to the county and the cities.The county is assigned operating authority for transfer and disposal services,is tasked with providing support and assistance to the cities for the establishment of waste prevention and recycling programs,and is the planning authority for solid waste. Each city is designated the authority for collection services within its corporate boundaries and agrees to direct solid waste generated and/or collected within those boundaries to the King County transfer and disposal system. Cooperation between the county and the 37 cities in a regional system of solid waste management has allowed the division to achieve economies of scale that translate into lower fees for system ratepayers.A significant benefit is the savings realized by being able to extend the life of the in-county landfill for solid waste disposal as a result of improved recycling rates.Economies of scale will continue to be beneficial once the Cedar Hills landfill reaches capacity and closes,and the region transitions to a new method of solid waste disposal.The benefits also extend to the network of recycling and transfer stations that provide convenient,geographically dispersed transfer points around the county.A regional system can operate with fewer transfer facilities than an aggregation of separate, smaller systems.The regional system also allows use of individual stations to be balanced to reduce over-or under- use of any one station.Examples of ways the division may influence station use are: 1) reader boards located at each transfer station that show what the wait times are at the two nearest stations and 2)the online information available for each station showing a picture of the inbound queue and the average disposal time after weigh-in at each station. 2-14 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 38 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Regional Authorities and Roles As defined in RCW 70.95.030,solid waste handling includes management,storage,collection,transportation, treatment,utilization,processing,and final disposal.Responsibility for solid waste handling in Washington is divided among the state,counties,jurisdictional health departments,and the cities,as delineated in various legislation, regulations,and agreements.Table 2-2 lists the responsibilities for each entity,its role,and the guiding legislation. As shown in the table,the state establishes authorities,minimum standards,and planning requirements,and delegates responsibility for implementation to the counties and cities. Table 2-2. Roles in regional planning and administration Guiding Legislation, Entity Role Regulation,or Agreement Establish solid waste regulations for management,storage, collection,transportation,treatment,utilization,processing, Revised Code of Washington(RCW)70.95 and final disposal. Washington State Delegate authority to the counties to preparejoint Department of Ecology comprehensive solid waste management plans with the cities RCW 70.95 in their boundaries,and review and approve those plans. Set Minimum Functional Standards for implementing solid Washington Administrative Code(WAC) waste laws and establishing planning authorities and roles. 173-304,173-350,and 173-351 Review the cost assessment prepared with the Comprehensive RCW 70.95.096 Washington Utilities Solid Waste Management Plan. and Transportation Regulate solid waste collection services and rates in Commission unincorporated areas and in cities that choose not to contract RCW 81.77 for solid waste collection services. Washington State Review the preliminary draft plan for compliance with RCW Department RCW 70.95.095 and RCW 17.24 of Agriculture 17.24 and the rules adopted under that chapter. Permit solid waste handling facilities,including permit Code of the King County Board of Health, issuance,renewal,and,if necessary,suspension(handling Title 10 Public Health-Seattle facilities include landfills,transfer stations,and drop boxes). &King County(as Make and enforce rules and regulations regarding methods authorized by the Code of the King County Board of Health, King County Board of of waste storage,collection,and disposal to implement the Title 10 Health) state's Minimum Functional Standards. Code of the King County Board of Health, Perform routine facility inspections. Title 10 2019 Compre&25Z)e Solzd Waste 2wanagementPlan-ju1y 2028 2-15 Att A Page 39 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Guiding Legislation, Entity Role Regulation,or Agreement Puget Sound Clean Air Issues air operating permits and enforces permit compliance. RCW 70.94,WAC 173-401 and PSCAA Agency Regulation 1,Article 7 The Regional Policy Committee convenes as the SWIF to advise the King County Council,King County Executive,and other Solid Waste Interlocal jurisdictions,as appropriate,on all policy aspects of solid waste King County Code(KCC)10.24.020C,and Forum(SWIF) managementand planning,and to review and comment on Interlocal Agreements alternatives and recommendations for the Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan and other planning documents. Provide transfer and disposal services for unincorporated King County and the 37 cities with Interlocal Agreements.Lead the Interlocal Agreements development of waste prevention and recycling programs. Prepare the Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan and RCW 70.95.080,KCCTitle 10,and associated cost assessment. Interlocal Agreements Establish disposal fees at the landfill,transfer stations,and drop boxes to generate necessary revenue to cover solid waste management costs,including: •Facility operation, •Capital improvements, RCW 36.58.040,KCCTitle 10,and -Waste prevention and recycling programs, Interlocal Agreements King County Solid •Grants to cities for recycling programs and special Waste Division collection events, •Self-haul and rural service,and •Administration and overhead. Establish level of service and hours of operation for all King KCC Title 10.10 County transfer and disposal facilities. Amend hours at transfer facilities,as necessary. KCC 10.10.020 and 10.10.025 Designate minimum service levels for recyclables collection in RCW 70.95.092,KCCTitle 10.18 urban and rural areas. Review impacts of the Comprehensive Solid Waste RCW 70.95 Management Plan on solid waste and recycling rates. Participate in the planning process and jointly implement the RCW 70.95.080 and Interlocal Cities Plan with the county,provide collection services and waste Agreements prevention and recycling programs. 2-16 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 40 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Guiding Legislation, Entity Role Regulation,or Agreement Advise the county in the development of solid waste programs and policies,provide feedback on proposed council actions Solid Waste Advisory Committee involving solid waste issues,and comment on proposed solid RCW 70.95.165 and KCC 10.28 waste management policies,ordinances,and plans prior to adoption. Advise the Executive,SWIF,and County Council in all matters Metropolitan Solid related to solid waste management and participate in the Waste Management development of the solid waste management system and KCC 10.25.110 and Interlocal Agreements Advisory Committee waste management plan. Stakeholder Involvement in the Planning Process In the development of the Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan,the division sought participation and input from many sources,including the cities,the division's advisory committees,the Community Service Areas(unincorporated area community councils),commercial collection companies,the County Council,division employees,labor unions,and the public. In 2004,the Metropolitan King County Council adopted Ordinance 14971 to establish a process for the 37 cities in the county's service area to collaborate with the division in the early stages of long-term planning and policy development.It set the stage for creation of MSWMAC,which consists of elected officials and staff from participating cities. MSWMAC and the long-standing —p SWAC,mandated by RCW 70.95.165, have been instrumental in the a development of policies,goals,and recommendations presented in this Plan.SWAC has been an advisory group to the division since 1985,with a membership that is geographically _ balanced and includes King County residents and representatives from - . . public interest groups,labor unions, recycling businesses,the marketing sector,agriculture,manufacturing,the --=' waste management industry,and local elected officials. Both SWAC and MSWMAC have been working with the division to create the Ajoint meeting of the MSWMAC and SWAC committees 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2018 2-17 Att A Page 41 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 building blocks that form the basis for this Plan.Collaborative efforts that have helped shape the Plan include: • Establishing progressive goals for waste prevention and recycling that will further reduce solid waste disposal, • Conducting in-depth analyses and evaluations of the solid waste transfer system that resulted in the development and adoption of a major renovation and replacement plan for the transfer system network, • Conducting subsequent in-depth reviews of the renovation and replacement plan for the transfer network,and • Evaluating strategies for extending the life of Cedar Hills and beginning to explore viable options for waste disposal once the landfill closes. For the current planning cycle,the division met with SWAC and MSWMAC regularly to discuss their issues and concerns,and hear their perspectives on system planning.The contributions of these committees have been instrumental in developing the Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan.The division's SWAC and MSWMAC websites contain background on the committees as well as minutes from their meetings with the division (http://www.kingcounty.govldeptsldnrp/solid-waste/about/advisory-committees.aspx). Trends in Solid Waste Management Leading the Way in Waste Prevention, Recycling and Product Stewardship King County continues to gain distinction as a leader in waste prevention and recycling.Together,the division and the cities work with collection and processing companies and local,state,and national businesses and organizations to develop the innovative programs and services that give the county its leading edge.Some key program developments include: • The addition of acceptable recyclable materials for collection at the curb and at division transfer stations, • Growing markets for a wider array of materials for recycling and reuse, • Successful promotions that encourage waste prevention, • An increase in product stewardship,including optimizing/reducing product packaging and shipping materials, whereby manufacturers and retailers are assuming responsibility for recycling their products through take-back programs at selected collection sites across the region, • Advances in the green building industry,including a focus on creating sustainable housing in affordable communities,and • An increase in the number of organizations that accept materials for reuse,such as clothing and textiles,edible food,and reusable building materials. With this Plan,the division and its advisory committees set goals to reduce,reuse,and recycle by focusing on specific waste generators and particular materials or products that remain prevalent in the waste stream.The division is also moving toward a sustainable materials management approach as a way to strengthen the economy while reducing the climate effects of materials and harm to the environment.This approach emphasizes the importance of looking at the full life cycle of materials:design and manufacture,use,and end-of-life.Sustainable materials management is being promoted by both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology and is discussed in more depth in Chapter 4. 2-18 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 42 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Washington's legislated system for managing unwanted electronic products and mercury-containing light bulbs and tubes illustrates the successes that can be achieved when manufacturers,retailers,local governments,and nonprofit organizations work together on a major initiative.State legislation was passed in 2006 that requires manufacturers of computers,monitors,and televisions-referred to as e-waste-to provide for the recycling of these products beginning in January 2009.As a member of the Northwest Product Stewardship Council,the division helped draft the model legislation that led to formation of the E-Cycle Washington program,which implements this recycling service at no cost for Washington residents,small businesses,small governments,nonprofit organizations,and school districts.The division assisted businesses throughout the county to become authorized e-waste collection sites. Approximately 175,000 tons of e-waste have been collected since the program's inception. Likewise,the LightRecycle WA program,which recycles mercury-containing lights,went into effect in 2015. Expanding the Collection of Recyclable and Degradable Materials A change in the collection of curbside recyclables has been the transition to commingled (or single-stream) collection.With this system,all recyclables can be placed in a single,wheeled cart rather than the smaller,separate bins often used in the past.The single cart system not only makes recycling easier and more convenient for the customer,it is more efficient for the companies that provide collection service. In addition,the division and cities have worked with the commercial collection companies to implement curbside collection of food scraps and food-soiled paper in the yard waste(organics)container.About 99 percent of single- family customers with curbside garbage collection have access to organics(yard waste and food scraps) collection service.Only Vashon Island and the Skykomish and Snoqualmie Pass areas,which house less than one percent of the county's residents,do not have this service.Studies estimate that over 50 percent of those who set out organics carts recycle some of their food scraps.The combined food scraps and yard waste are taken to processing facilities that turn the materials into nutrient-rich compost used to enrich soils. Building a New Generation of Transfer Stations Since the approval by the King County Council in 2007 of the Solid Waste Transfer _ and Waste Management Plan(Transfer Plan), the division has been moving forward on the renovation and replacement of the -- -- division's urban transfer stations to update technology,incorporate green building features,increase recycling services,and achieve operational efficiencies.New recycling and transfer stations include a flat tipping floor,areas for the collection of a wide array of recyclables,design features that reduce water and energy use,and solid waste compactors. By compacting garbage prior to transport for disposal,up to 30 percent fewer truck trips are required to Solar panels on the south roof of the Shoreline Recycling and Transfer haul the same amount of garbage. Station,one of the many green features of the building 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 2-19 Att A Page 43 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 In 2008,the division opened the first of five new state-of-the-art transfer stations-the Shoreline Recycling and Transfer Station.The station has exceeded all expectations for environmental excellence with its innovative design and green building features. It received the highest possible honor from the U.S.Green Building Council with a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design TI(LEED°) Platinum certification.The station has also been the recipient of 15 recognition awards from national,regional,and local organizations,including the Solid Waste Association of North America,the American Institute of Architects,the American Public Works Association,and the Northwest Construction Consumer Council. Public involvement was a crucial component of the successful design and construction of the Shoreline station. Throughout the process,the division worked closely with the City of Shoreline,neighboring communities, environmental groups,and local businesses and citizens to obtain their input on the project. The facility design and public process for the Shoreline station have set the bar high for the other recycling and transfer stations approved for construction during this planning period,reflecting: • How to approach the planning process-incorporating early community involvement, • How to build them-using the greenest elements possible,and • How to operate them-pursuing operational efficiencies that reduce fuel,energy,and water use;and increasing recycling opportunities. Following the success of the Shoreline Recycling and Transfer Station,construction began on the new Bow Lake Recycling and Transfer Station.The design of the new Bow Lake Recycling and Transfer Station builds upon the environmental achievements of Shoreline,with compactors for improved efficiency,water re-use,energy efficient lighting,and solar panels.Providing capacity for about one third of the system's garbage,Bow Lake also offers expanded recycling opportunities.The new recycling and transfer station was completed in 2013 and also earned a Platinum LEED°certification,as well as other awards of excellence. The most recent station to be completed,the Factoria Recycling and Transfer Station-opened in late 2017.This same year,a site was selected for the South County Recycling and Transfer Station (SCRTS)after completion of a Final Environmental Impact Statement. The selected site is just north of • the existing station. Design and construction of the station will take place over the next several years, with an anticipated station opening in 2022. All new recycling and transfer - r' stations will meet green building, safety and environmental standards,- accommodate tandards;accommodate projected growth in the region;incorporate best practices in transfer and transport operations;and offer a wide variety of recycling opportunities for residential and business customers. The new Factoria Recycling and Transfer Station opened in late 2017 2-20 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2o-z8 Att A Page 44 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Managing Solid Waste Disposal with an Eye to the Future Cedar Hills is the only landfill still operating in King County.Because use of the county landfill is currently the most economical method for disposal of the region's wastes,the division has been extending its useful life.This strategy, recommended in the Transfer Plan,was approved by the County Council in 2007. In December 2010,the County Council approved a Project Program Plan enabling the division to move forward with further development of Cedar Hills.As approved in the Project Program Plan,a disposal area covering approximately 56.5 acres is being developed - this will extend the life of the landfill to about 2028 depending on a variety of factors,including tonnage received. The 2001 Plan directed the division to"contract for long-term disposal at an out-of-county landfill once Cedar Hills reaches capacity and closes." With this Plan,the division explored a range of options for future disposal.The Plan's recommendation is to further develop Cedar Hills to maximize disposal capacity.The next disposal method to employ after Cedar Hills reaches capacity is not specifed in this Plan,so that the latest technological advances can be considered. Emerging technologies for converting solid waste to energy or other resources,such as fuels,are in various stages of development and testing in U.S.and international markets.Some of the technologies are capable of processing the entire solid waste stream,while others target specific components,such as plastics or organics. Regardless of which long term disposal option is selected,the transfer system will still be needed to efficiently consolidate loads.The division will continue to monitor emerging technologies and advances in established disposal methods,recycling,and waste prevention.Although the Amended and Restated Interlocal Agreement requires consultation with cities at least seven years before Cedar Hills closes,evaluation of the next disposal method should begin prior to the next plan update to ensure enough time for method selection,planning,and implementation. Financing the Solid Waste System for the Long Term As the division continues to modernize the transfer system,keeping fees as low and stable as possible is a fundamental objective. While division revenues rely primarily on per-ton fees for garbage disposal,the current priorities are to increase recycling and prevent waste generation. Reductions in tonnage due to waste prevention and recycling have been gradual,and the system has adjusted accordingly.However,further reductions will continue to affect system revenues.The division will continue to identify new revenue sources,such as the sale of landfill gas from the Cedar Hills landfill and greenhouse gas offsets from this and other potential sources,and will explore sustainable financing options.The division will also work with its advisory committees and others to develop and/or revise financial policies, and address rate stabilization and cost containment. Policies,actions and more discussion can be found in Chapter 7, Solid Waste System Finance. Protecting Natural Resources through Environmental Stewardship Environmental stewardship means managing natural resources so they are available for future generations. It also involves taking responsibility-as individuals,employees,business owners,manufacturers,and governments-for the protection of public health and the environment. Building an environmentally sustainable solid waste management system in King County takes a coordinated,region- wide effort.The division,the cities,and the collection and processing companies in the region are making concerted efforts to help make this happen. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2018 2-21 Att A Page 45 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Waste prevention and recycling are just two of the ways in which the division and others are working to reduce wastes,conserve resources,and protect the environment.Other innovations and well- r established programs that support environmental FN stewardship include collecting and selling landfill gas to be converted to pipeline quality gas, 0' _Avu� potential new composting and reuse facilities,and The division provides cleanup assistance for illegal dumping providing cleanup assistance for illegal dumping. Additional Planning Considerations Climate Change Climate impacts are considered by the division when planning for future programs,facilities,and operations,in accordance with Washington State's Solid and Hazardous Waste Plan,Moving Washington Beyond Waste and Toxics (Ecology 2015)and the county's Strategic Climate Action Plan (King County 2015b).Climate change is manifest in the long-term trends in average weather patterns,including the frequency,duration,and intensity of wind and snow storms,cold weather and heat waves,and drought and flooding.Climate change is attributed primarily to the emission of greenhouse gases(GHG),including such compounds as carbon dioxide and methane. Planning for climate change means taking into account both how we might reduce our effects on the climate,today and in the future,and how changes in climate might affect our facilities and operations. Against a baseline set in 2007,the Growth Management Planning Council adopted a Countywide Planning Policy that targets a reduction in countywide sources of GHG emissions of 25 percent by 2020,50 percent by 2030,and 80 percent by 2050. King County will be responsible for assessment and reporting. At a regional level,the division and its planning participants continue to strengthen and broaden waste prevention and recycling programs to continually improve our long-term,positive effects on the environment(discussed in detail in Chapter 4,Sustainable Materials Management).The benefits are tangible in terms of reductions in GHG emissions, resource conservation,and energy savings. King County- Cities Climate Collaboration (K4C) King County and thirteen cities—Bellevue,Burien,Issaquah,Kirkland,Mercer Island,Normandy Park,Redmond,Renton,Sammamish,Seattle,Shoreline,Snoqualmie,and Tukwila— are collaborating through the King County-Cities Climate Collaboration (K4C)to coordinate and enhance the effectiveness of local government climate and sustainability action.Through K4C, county and city staff are partnering on:outreach to engage decision makers,other cities,and the general public;coordination of consistent standards,benchmarks,and strategies;sharing solutions; funding;and shared resource opportunities. All King County cities are encouraged to join this effort,which is supporting and enhancing projects and programs in focus areas such as green building,using and producing renewable energy, sustainability outreach and education,and alternative transportation. 2-22 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2o-z8 Att A Page 46 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Considerations of how division activities and operations might affect climate change involve both positive and negative A ° impacts on GHG emissions. If areas where - GHG emissions can be expected to occur are identified,strategies to mitigate those emissions can be developed,for example: _ '" ? • The division contracts with Bio Energy Washington to turn landfill gas into pipeline-quality natural gas for the energy market. • The division builds facilities(such as the Shoreline, Bow Lake,and Factoria Recycling and Transfer Stations)that are more energy Compactors at the Factoria Recycling and Transfer Station compact trash, efficient to meet LEED°standards.As reducing the number of trips that county transfer trucks make to previously noted,two of the facilities have Cedar Hills earned a Platinum rating. • Garbage compactors,both for solid waste and recyclables,are being installed at all new urban transfer stations, which will decrease truck trips by up to 30 percent,saving fuel and decreasing emissions. • In day-to-day operations,the division looks for ways to reduce resource use and increase the use of environmentally friendly products. Examples of operational practices that reduce greenhouse gas emissions include the use of compaction to reduce truck trips,reducing idling time,environmentally preferable purchasing,and exploring the use of compressed natural gas and other low-emitting technologies in trucks and equipment. • The Food:Too Good to Waste program also helps curb the effects of climate change.Uneaten food accounts for 23 percent of all methane emissions-a potent climate change contributor. When food is thrown away,all the water and energy used to produce,package and transport • • that food is also wasted.The program educates people about how to plan and prepare meals to decrease the amount of wasted food. TOO GOOD • The division teamed up with the City of Seattle to produce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in King TO WASTE County(Stockholm Environment Institute 2012),a report that looked at greenhouse gas emissions from several different perspectives including undertaking a consumption-based inventory.The inventory offers a more complete picture of the county's environmental footprint,taking into account emissions associated with the production and consumption of food,goods,and services.The report's research shows that efforts such as reducing food waste or purchasing sustainable and low-impact products can help to create a broader and deeper impact on global greenhouse gas emissions. • The division has planted deciduous and evergreen trees on the Duvall and Puyallup/Kit Corner closed landfills to create a carbon"sink"by capturing carbon dioxide through the process of photosynthesis. The division also looks at the potential impacts of climate change on facilities and operations and determines strategies for adapting to those impacts. For example,the division is using more drought-tolerant plants in facility landscapes and identifying alternate transportation routes to avoid areas where there may be an increase in seasonal flooding. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 2-23 Att A Page 47 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 0 King County - Climate Change Proper solid waste management plays a significant role in reducing GHG emissions.That role is recognized by both state and local governments in Washington.In 2015,the Washington State Department of Ecology(Ecology) issued its plan,Moving Washington Beyond Waste and Toxics (Ecology 2015),which presents a long-term strategy for systematically eliminating wastes and the use of toxic substances.The 2015 King County Strategic Climate Action Plan (King County 2015b) synthesizes and focuses King County's most critical goals,objectives,and strategies to reduce GHG emissions and prepare for the effects of climate change.It provides"one-stop-shopping"for county decision-makers, employees,and the general public to learn about the county's most critical climate change actions. As documented in the 2011 King County Sustainability Report(King County 2011),GHG emissions from county operations(for sources other than transit) have stabilized and begun to decline.Building on these successes,achievement of the county's long-term targets is ambitious,but achievable. King County's overarching targets: • Communitywide:King County shall partner with its residents,businesses,local governments,and other partners to reduce countywide GHG emissions at least 80 percent below 2007 levels by 2050. • County operations:King County shall reduce total GHG emissions from government operations, compared to a 2007 baseline,by at least 15 percent 'W by 2015,25 percent by 2020,and 50 percent by 2030. • Department of Natural Resources and Parks Carbon " Neutral Commitment:The Department became a• Carbon Neutral in 2016.Both the Solid Waste Division and the Wastewater Treatment Division must be carbon neutral by 2025. Throughout this Plan,ways to reduce impacts on the climate and adapt to changes that occur are noted. These actions are grouped in three primary strategies: Factoria drought-tolerant plants and permeable Mitigation—directly or indirectly reducing emissions. pavement Examples include reducing energy use at division facilities,reducing fuel use,using hybrid vehicles, distributed composting facilities,using alternative fuels,and promoting waste prevention and recycling to reduce the mining of virgin resources and emissions from manufacturing and processing activities.Another example is the conversion of gas collected at the county's landfill into pipeline- quality natural gas. 2-24 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 48 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Adaptation—modifying facilities and operations to address the effects of climate change.Examples include designing facilities for more severe weather systems(e.g.,roofs designed for greater snow loads),using more drought-tolerant plants in facility landscapes,and identifying alternate transportation routes to avoid areas where there may be an increase in seasonal flooding. Sequestration—removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and depositing it back into natural"sinks,"such as plants and soils.Examples include planting more trees around facilities to . remove carbon dioxide through photosynthesis, using biochar, and using compost to replenish =y depleted soils and promote plant growth. ; Gas collection pipes at the Cedar Hills landfill Equity and Social Justice The division adheres to the King County Equity and Social Justice Strategic Plan 2016-2022(King County 2016b) which emphasizes that King County is committed to ensuring that equity and social justice are considered in the development and implementation of policies,programs,and funding decisions.Equity is achieved when all people have an equal opportunity to attain their full potential.Inequity occurs when there are differences in well-being between and within communities that are systematic,patterned,unfair,and can be changed.These differences are not random;they are caused by our past and current decisions,systems of power and privilege,policies,and the implementation of those policies.Social justice encompasses all aspects of justice,including legal,political,and economic;it demands fair distribution of public goods,institutional resources,and life opportunities. In solid waste system planning,the division examines ways that it may affect equity and social justice through its programs and services. • Fair distribution of transfer facilities,services at the facilities,and division resources,such as the community litter cleanup, school education,and green building programs,helps ensure that everyone has access to services that create safer and healthier communities. • The division provides technical assistance to ensure that the benefits of green building strategies,such as lower energy costs and improved indoor air quality,are available to residents of affordable housing developments. • In siting new transfer facilities,the division engages communities to ensure equal opportunity for involvement in the siting process.The division uses demographic data to ensure that these essential public facilities are distributed equitably throughout the county and that any negative impacts of the facilities do not unfairly burden any community. • In addition to translating materials into multiple languages,the division has added a Spanish-language component to its comprehensive outreach programs. Rather than simply translate existing materials,the division has worked directly with the local Spanish-speaking communities to create new programs and materials in Spanish that respond to the questions and needs of these communities,an approach referred to as transcreation. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 2-25 Att A Page 49 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Green Building and Equity The goal of the county's Equity and Social Justice Ordinance is for all King County residents to live in communities of opportunity.To reach this goal,all communities must be equipped with the means to provide residents with access to a livable wage,affordable housing,quality education,quality health care,and safe and vibrant neighborhoods.Green building can play an important role in providing safe, healthy,and affordable housing,public infrastructure,and commercial facilities,which have historically not been built to the highest green standards. There exists a variety of equity and social justice opportunities on any project including:education,training, apprenticeship,procurement,material selection,contracts,public outreach,public service,community amenities,communication,indoor and outdoor air quality,economic development,job creation,and more. King County's Sustainable Infrastructure Scorecard,the green building rating system used for county- owned projects not qualified for the LEED°certification,contains a Social Equity Credit as an opportunity to address equity and social justice issues.The county's Green Building Team is also working on additional guidance for capital projects to utilize an equity impact review tool,designed to help project teams to evaluate how people and places are impacted by an action,and to take into consideration distributional,process,and cross-generational equity. 2-26 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 50 A IIy' n i L aA P re� r x - M' r Tb Ordinance 18893 upd 1 Forecasti K4W*U a Data DNTMV (# bit, r FOR OFFICIAL US# MY 331 } .,. age 52 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Policies FD-1 Monitor and report the amount,composition,and source of solid waste entering the transfer and disposal system. FD-2 Update the solid waste tonnage forecast to support short-and long-term planning and budgeting for facilities and operations. FD-3 Monitor and report waste prevention and recycling activity, including the amount of materials recycled,programmatic achievements,and the strength of commodity markets. FDA Continue to monitor new and emerging technologies to identify opportunities for their use in managing solid waste and recyclables. Att A Page 53 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Summary of ReCOmmended Actions The following table includes a menu of recommended actions that the county and the cities should implement.Under the responsibility column,the entity listed first has primary responsibility for the action,bold indicates that the entity has responsibility for the action, and a star(*) indicates that the action is a priority. If the responsibility is not in bold,the action has lower implementation priority. • Detailed •- • Action Discussion Standardize the sampling methodology and frequency in tonnage reports submitted to the division and the cities by the collection Page 3-11 companies to improve data accuracy. Perform solid waste,recycling,organics,and construction and demolition characterization studies at regular intervals to support Page 3-12 goal development and tracking. Monitor forecast data and update as needed. Page 3-1 Develop voluntary agreements with recycling companies that will Page 3-12 improve data reporting and resolve data inconsistencies. Att A Page 54 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 recasting and Data The monitoring of solid waste disposal,recycling,and waste prevention,and the forecasting of future trends are fundamental to system planning.The division routinely collects data about the amount and composition of waste and recyclable materials in the system,tracks demographic and economic trends that will affect the amount of solid waste generated in the future,and conducts focused studies to address specific topics,such as markets for recyclable materials,industry trends,and new technologies. Forecasts are used to estimate the amount of material expected to be disposed and recycled in the coming years, incorporating expected growth in population and other demographic and economic trends.This information can be used to estimate the necessary capacity of division transfer and disposal facilities and associated private-sector recycling facilities and markets. Existing data and forecasts form the basis for discussions with cities and other stakeholders about options for the future,answering questions such as: • How much waste are system users currently generating and expected to generate in the future? • How can waste generation be reduced? • What materials can be separated from the disposal stream " and turned into a resource through reuse and recycling? Division staff review plans • Who uses the solid waste facilities and curbside services, how do they choose those services,how often do they use those services,and what influences their choices? • What is the best method to provide these services? • What changes in markets and technologies need to be incorporated into our analysis of options for the future? Forecasts,planning data,and studies used in the development of this Plan are discussed in the following sections. Forecasting The division uses a planning forecast model to predict future waste generation over a 20-year period.Waste generation is defined as waste disposed plus materials recycled.The forecast is used to guide system planning,budgeting,rate setting, and operations.The primary objectives of the model are to 1)estimate future waste disposal and 2)provide estimates of the amount of materials expected to be diverted from the waste stream through division and city waste prevention and recycling programs.The planning forecast model-a regression model-relies on established statistical relationships between waste generation and various economic and demographic variables that affect it,such as population, employment,consumption'(measured as retail sales,excluding sales),and the tipping fees for garbage at division facilities. 1 The numbers for the sales tax base is taken from'The Puget Sound Economic Forecaster"which is published by Western Washington University. Sales tax base and price information are all adjusted for inflation. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 3-1 Att A Page 55 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 In late 2007,a nationwide financial crisis severely compromised the division's ability to forecast short-term trends in the economy.With the collapse of large financial institutions,a downturn in the stock market,a drop in housing prices and personal income,a jump in the unemployment rate,and a general slump in overall economic activity, the recession led to the bankruptcy of many businesses and home foreclosures.The effects of these dramatic events touched every sector of the economy including the solid waste industry. In 2007,garbage tons received at Cedar Hills surpassed the one million mark,due primarily to steady economic growth and population increases in the region over the previous few decades. Between December 2007 and December 2012,however,garbage tons disposed at Cedar Hills declined 20 percent overall.Garbage tons dropped eight percent in 2008 alone.The City of Seattle,surrounding counties,and jurisdictions in Oregon and California reported similar or greater declines in tonnage,as did regional recycling firms. The recession created a great deal of unpredictability in variables used in the division's forecast model to predict the short-term(one to five year)trends in solid waste generation.To respond to this uncertainty,the division has adjusted its approach to forecasting,using a more flexible system of ongoing monitoring.This evolving forecast method involves: • Monitoring solid waste tons delivered to division transfer stations and the Cedar Hills landfill on a daily basis, • Regularly checking regional and state-wide economic forecasts(local economic forecasts by the Western Washington University(former Dick Conway and Associates),King County's economic forecast,and forecasts by the Washington State Economic and Revenue Forecast Council), • Monitoring state-wide tax revenue streams,particularly in the home improvement sector,furniture store sales, clothing sector,and other key markets,and • Communicating regularly with other jurisdictions about the trends in their service areas. This information has been used to forecast short-term tonnage and subsequent revenues for use in critical budgeting, expenditure control,and management of capital projects over the three-to five-year period. With the new model established in 2018,the division is able to provide a prediction for disposal for the next ten years.After ten years,the tonnage forecast uses a long-term growth rate based on historical tonnage(described in further detail below).The new model also assumes that a years-long Ecology-reported recycling rate of 52 percent is sustained through 2040. An additional feature the division included in the new model is an upper and a lower estimate for the tonnage to be disposed. The main characteristics of the new model are: • Main Model o This uses the tonnage forecast model output to forecast the next 10 years,out to 2028. o After 2028,a historical trend is used to generate the disposal tons for the years from 2029-2040: • This annual growth rate is 1.73 percent,and • This historical trend is based off the disposal growth rate from 1995-2007. This period covers years after some major changes in the system occurred during the early 1990s(Seattle leaving the system,recycling changes,etc.) but before the Great Recession so it's an appropriate time period to use as a steady-state historical trend. • Upper Boundary o This incorporates the aggressive population growth rate provided by the Office of Financial Management (OFM) into our tonnage forecast model for the next 10 years,out to 2028. o After 2028,a high growth rate is used to generate the disposal for years from 2029-2040: • This annual growth rate is 2.91 percent,and • This growth rate for disposal is based on the period from 2012-2017,which has been a period of high growth since the Great Recession. 3-2 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 56 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 • Lower Boundary o This incorporates the conservative population growth rate provided by the Office of Financial Management (OFM) into our tonnage forecast model for the next 10 years,out to 2028. o After 2028,a low growth rate is used to generate the disposal for the years from 2029-2040: • This annual growth rate is 0.57percent,and • This growth rate is from 1995-2017,which is the historical trend line plus the Great Recession and recovery. Increases in population,employment,and consumption lead to more waste generated.Studies indicate that for the long-term planning forecast through 2040,the following trends are expected: • Population is expected to grow at a steady rate of one percent per year.Population growth is directly correlated with the amount of waste generated;i.e.,more people equal more waste generated.See Figures 3-1 for estimates for population growth in each transfer station service area and Figure 3-2 for the projected share of population growth in each service area. • Employment is expected to increase at an annual rate of two percent. Increased employment activity typically leads to an increase in consumption and waste generation. 2 Projections for population and employment are based on 2017 data from the Land Use Vision 2 model developed by the Puget Sound Regional Council(PSRQ.Data provided by PSRC are based on U.S.Census and other data sources and developed inclose cooperation with the county and the cities. Figure 3-1.Transfer station service areas population 2025-2040 1,800,000 11,000 11,000 11,000� 86,000 1,600,000 11,000 � 86,000 85,000 84,000 • 111 1,400,000 '• 111 Vashon • 111 1,200,000 Enumclaw 1,000,000 340,225 349,220 3 Algona *, 329,302PF Bowlake 3 C' 800,000 • I a "' d115,000 Jin Renton 600,000 :: 111 • 111 302,000 312,000 40 Factoria 40 Houghton 400,000 Shoreline 312,000 322,000 332,000 345,000 200,000 0111 106,000 108,000 111,000 113,000 2025 2030 2035 2040 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 3-3 Att A Page 57 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Figure 3-2. Estimated share of population increase 2025 - 2040 for transfer station service areas 6% Renton FF • % 'A Bowlake Factoria Lk 24% Algona Houghton Note:The share of population increase for theO/O 3% Vashon Service area is less than 1 percent,so it Enumclaw is not indicated in this figure. Shoreline The projections shown in Figure 3-3 are based on the 2018 forecast.The tonnage forecast will be routinely adjusted to reflect factors that affect waste generation,such as the success of waste prevention and recycling programs and future events that affect economic development. Figure 3-3. Projection of solid waste recycled and disposed 2018 - 2040 Estimated Recycling 3,500,000 Tons Disposed 3,000,000 2,500,000 N 2,000,000 z O 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N 3-4 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 58 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Current Data on Regional Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal Measuring the results of waste prevention and recycling efforts is a complex process.Discussions and data often focus on recycling and recycling rates,when in fact waste prevention is the number one priority.While programmatic successes for waste prevention can be assessed qualitatively,it is difficult to measure directly how much waste is "not created"in terms of tons or percentages.What can be measured more accurately is recycling and disposal activities. Data for these activities are available through division tonnage and transaction records,reports from the curbside collection companies,the Washington State Department of Ecology(Ecology),and the division's waste characterization studies.Using data on the types and amounts of materials recycled,combined with measures of waste disposed,the division can evaluate its success in reaching the goals established with each successive comprehensive solid waste management plan. Figure 3-4 shows the tons of materials recycled and disposed in 2015 (most recent data from Ecology) by category of waste generator-single-family residents;multi-family residents;non-residential customers such as businesses, institutions,and government entities;and self-haulers who bring materials directly to the division's transfer stations. More specific information on each generator type(including generators of construction and demolition debris for recycling and disposal)follows. Recycling data comes from numerous external sources.These are described in more detail in the section Tracking Our Progress.Note that the scale on each figure varies. Figure 3-4. 2015 Recycling and disposal by generator type 1,000,000 Recycled Disposed 750,000 643,069 500,000 "' III II 325,125 250,000 21,333 36,034 Single-family Multi-family Non-residential Self-haul While there has been considerable progress in waste prevention and recycling over the years,there is still room for improvement.As Figure 3-4 illustrates,the single-family sector provides the greatest opportunity to divert materials from disposal,with about 260,000 tons of materials disposed in 2015.Single-family residents are recycling more than 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 3-5 Att A Page 59 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 56 percent of their waste,but division studies indicate that a large portion of the disposed materials could be recycled or reused (as discussed in the next section).The multi-family sector generates the least amount of garbage and recycling of all sectors,but shows a need for improvement in recycling. The data shows that self-haulers as a group are recycling the smallest fraction of their waste.That may be because at many of the older transfer stations there is limited or no opportunity to recycle.At this time,however,two of the division's urban stations are undergoing,or are being considered for,renovation.A major goal of the renovation plan is to add space for collection of more recyclables and to build flexibility into the design to allow for collection of additional materials as markets develop.Adding space for collection of greater amounts and a wider array of materials is expected to result in higher recycling rates at the transfer stations. With studies indicating that 70 percent of the waste that reaches the landfill could have been recycled or reused,and specific data on what those materials are,we can focus on areas that will have substantial influence on the region's per capita disposal rate.The following sections address each category of generator and identify some of the more significant areas for improvement. 5ingie+amity Residents Sixty-five percent of the households in the division's service area are single-family homes.In 2015,these single-family households recycled on average about 56 percent of their waste. Ninety-six percent of the yard waste and 79 percent of the paper generated were recycled by this sector in 2015 (Figure 3-5).While food scraps and food-soiled paper made up over 35 percent of the waste disposed by single-family residents in 2015,recycling of these materials has increased as participation in the curbside collection program for these materials continues to grow.Considerable amounts of the standard curbside recyclables-glass and plastic containers,tin and aluminum cans,mixed waste paper,newspaper,and cardboard-while easily recyclable,are still present in the waste disposal stream. Figure 3-5. 2015 Recycling and disposal by single-family residents Material Tons Recycled Material Tons Containers* 9% 30,666 Disposed Containers* 2% 5,740 Plastic bags& 1% 4619 Plastic bags& ° ,Wrap Wrap 8/0 21,695 Mixed paper, newspaper, 32% 103,647 p � � Mixed paper, ° cardboard 56 %O � newspaper, 10/0 26,901 Tons cardboard Food scraps Recycled ' ' Food scraps &food-soiled 0% 293 &food-soiled 35% 89,848 paper paper Yard waste 49% 160,463 Yard waste 3% 7,285 Scrap metal 5% 15,101 Scrap metal 3% 6,895 Other 3% 10,336 Total Tons Generation:584,636 Other 39% 101,147 materials materials Tons Recycled:325,125 Tons Disposed:259,511 Tin,aluminum,glass,and plastic 3-6 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 60 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Recommendations for improving and standardizing curbside collection for single-family residents are discussed in Chapter 4,Sustainable Materials Management.Other recyclables found in the single-family waste stream in smaller amounts include scrap metal,textiles,plastic bags and plastic wrap,and some construction and demolition debris,such as clean wood and gypsum wallboard. If all recyclable materials were removed from the single-family waste stream,nearly one-third of the remaining,non- recyclable materials would be disposable diapers and pet wastes. Multi-Family Residents Thirty-five percent of the households in the service area are in multi-family complexes.In 2015,the average multi- family recycling rate in the county's service area was 21 percent.While this rate is considerably lower than the single- family rate,overall generation and disposal from multi-family residences is lower and the difference from single-family recycling rates is less when yard waste(which is minimal for multi-family) is removed from the calculation.As with single-family residents,the primary areas of opportunity are in recycling food scraps and food-soiled paper and the standard curbside recyclables,including paper and cardboard (Figure 3-6). Figure 3-6. 2015 Recycling and disposal by multi-family residents Material Tons Material Tons Recycled Disposed Containers* 20% 7,348 Containers* 3% 3,969 Plastic bags& 3% 1,014 Plastic bags& 7% 9,007 Wrap Mixed paper 63% 22,752 21 /�� Mixed paper 14% 18,872 Food scraps& Food scraps& �% _ Tons • 32% 44,445 food waste Recycled . • _ • food waste Yard waste 3% 1,206 Yard waste 2% 3,157 Scrap metal 9% 3,315 Scrap metal 3% 3,733 OOtherials 1% 399 OOtherials er 39% 53,901 matTons Recycled:36,034 Total Tons Generation: 173,118 Tons Disposed:137,084 Tin,aluminum,glass,and plastic Other materials present in the multi-family waste stream,both recyclable and non-recyclable,are similar to those found in the single-family waste stream. It is difficult to track multi-family recycling rates because of: 1)the varied nature of multi-family complexes,2)the growth in construction of mixed-use buildings that contain both residential and non-residential units,and 3)the varied levels of recycling services provided.What is clear is the need to provide adequate space for garbage and recyclables collection at these complexes and to standardize collection across the county. A detailed discussion of ways to improve recycling at multi-family and mixed-use complexes is provided in Chapter 4, Sustainable Materials Management. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 3-7 Att A Page 61 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Non-Residential Generators Nonresidential generators-businesses,institutions,and government entities-recycled an estimated 73 percent of their waste in 2015. Despite having the highest recycling rate of any sector,non-residential generators still present an opportunity for increasing King County's overall recycling rate(Figure 3-7).There are an estimated 771,000 employees in the service area working at an estimated 49,000 businesses and organizations.The make-up of the non-residential sector ranges from manufacturing to high-tech and retail to food services.The recycling potential for any particular business or industry varies depending on the nature of the business. For example,restaurants and grocers are the largest contributors of food waste,while manufacturers may generate large quantities of plastic wrap and other packaging materials. Because of the diversity of business and industry in the region,a more individualized approach is needed to increase recycling in this sector. There are significant opportunities in the non-residential sector to increase the diversion of food scraps and food- soiled paper.The largest increase will be realized as more restaurants and grocers contract with private-sector companies to collect their food scraps for composting and more cities begin to offer commercial organics collection. Figure 3-7. 2015 Recycling and disposal by non-residential generators Tons Recycled Material Tons ° Diisposecll`-�,,' Containers 4% 1 24,487 Containers 2% 5,726 Plastic bags& 2% 10,733 Plastic bags& ° Wrap Wrap 10/0 23,037 — orMixed paper, hkMixed paper, newspaper, 39% 237,893 72% newspaper, 17% 39,684 cardboard Tons - cardboard Food scraps Recycled Food scraps &food-soiled 18% 110,940 &food-soiled 31% 72,920 paper paper Clean wood 5% 27,186 Clean wood 4% 9,629 O Yard waste 2% 10,303 Yard waste 4% 8,614 Scrap metal 14% 84,524 Scrap metal 3% 6,895 Total Tons Generation:838,444 Carpet and Carpet and pad,furniture, 0% - pad,furniture, 2% 4,748 mattresses mattresses Otherials 16% 96,841 Otherials er 27% 64,284 matTons Recycled:602,907 Tons Disposed:235,537 Tin,aluminum,glass,and plastic Another opportunity for reducing overall disposal is with commercially generated paper.While large amounts of paper are being recycled,almost 40,000 tons of recyclable paper were disposed by businesses in 2015. Paper may also provide an opportunity for waste prevention-notjust moving from disposal to recycling,but aiming to reduce the generation of waste paper. 3-8 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 62 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Self-haulers Self-haulers are residential and non-residential customers who choose to bring garbage and recyclables to the transfer facilities themselves.According to on-site surveys conducted as part of the division's waste characterization studies,the two most common reasons given for self-hauling are: 1) having a large quantity of waste or large or bulky items to dispose,and 2)wanting to avoid the cost of commercial collection.About 37 percent of the materials disposed by self-haulers have the potential for recycling,most significantly clean wood,yard waste,scrap metal,and paper(Figure 3-8). Figure 3-8. 2015 Recycling and disposal by transfer facility self-haulers Tons Recycled Material Tons Disposed Curbside Curbside 9% 21,362 recyclables* 23% 4,781 recyclables* Food scraps Food scraps &food-soiled 0% - &food-soiled 2% 5,168 paper °4110iu�uuim paper Clean wood 10% 2,096 80% • % Clean wood 14% 32,331 Yard waste 55% 11,723 Tons Yard waste 5% 11,322 Scrap Recycled Scrap metal and 12% 2,571 metal and 9% 21,521 appliances appliances Carpet and L: Carpet and pad,furniture, 0% - pad,furniture, 12% 28,712 mattresses Total Tons Generation:258,901 mattresses Other 49% 117,252 Other 0% 62 materials materials Tons Recycled:21,233 Tons Disposed:237,668 Glass and plastic containers,tin and aluminum cans,mixed paper,newspaper,and cardboard At the older stations and drop boxes where space is limited,the division provides collection containers for the standard curbside recyclables,which include glass and plastic containers,tin and aluminum cans,mixed waste paper, newspaper,and cardboard. No recyclables are collected at the Algona Transfer Station due to space limitations.At the stations that have been renovated and there is more space,additional materials such as textiles,scrap metal,used bikes and appliances are also collected.Other materials will be collected as markets develop.There are a number of materials still prevalent in the self-haul waste stream for which there are currently insufficient or no recycling markets, such as treated and painted wood. Generators of Construction and Demolition Debris In 2015,nearly 900,000 tons of construction and demolition debris were generated in King County. Debris from the construction,remodeling,repair,or demolition of buildings,other structures,and roads includes clean wood, 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2018 3-9 Att A Page 63 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 painted and treated wood,dimensional lumber,gypsum wallboard,roofing,siding,structural metal,wire,insulation, packaging materials,and concrete,asphalt,and other aggregates. Clean wood makes up about 24 percent of the construction and demolition debris that is being disposed.Other recyclable construction and demolition materials that are being disposed include scrap metal,clean gypsum,and asphalt shingles. Figure 3-9 shows the composition of construction and demolition materials diverted and disposed in 2015 based on reports from private processing facilities, Ecology data,and waste monitoring at the division's transfer stations (Cascadia 2012a).Most concrete,asphalt,and aggregates are source separated for recycling atjobsites and are not reflected in these numbers.For more information on construction and demolition debris collection and recycling see Chapter 4,Sustainable Materials Management. Figure 3-9. 2015 Construction and demolition materials diverted and disposed WiFIMIM Tons Recycled Material Tons 111/1111,,,, Disposed Clean wood 4% 35,245 _ Clean wooda 24% 41,272 Asphalt ° Asphalt 17% 28,891 g roofin 0% 2,432 roofing Clean gypsum 5% 43,435 84% Clean gypsum 6% 9,802 � Tons Metals 4% 6,707 Metals 21% 186,680 Recycled Aggregatesa 58% 507,583 Aggregatesa 6% 11,178 Other Other recyclable 15% 25,451 recyclable 0% 2,462 materialsb materialsb Materials with Materials with low recycling 28% 48,667 low recycling 11% 99,594 Total Tons Generation: 1,049,399 potential potential Tons Recycled:877,431 Tons Disposed:171,968 aDiverted total includes only aggregate material(asphalt/concrete,brick and masonry)processed at mixed construction and demolition debris processing facilities;it does not include aggregate materials that are source separated atjobsites,which comprise approximately 450,000 tons of asphalt/concrete. bincludes glass,yard waste,carpet and pad,textiles,plastics,and paper. c Includes painted and treated wood,painted/demolition gypsum,plastics,and other mixed construction and demolition debris. Tracking Progress The division uses a wide range of available data,both qualitative and quantitative,to evaluate the success of waste prevention and recycling efforts.Over the years,the division has developed a robust collection of surveys and data from a variety of sources to track progress. In most cases,more than one source of data is needed to accurately quantify how well the region is doing in diverting materials from the waste stream. For example,to track progress toward a target of 4.1 or fewer pounds of waste per employee per week,the number of employees in the service area for a given year is divided into the annual tons of garbage generated by the non-residential sector,as reported 3-10 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 64 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 in customer surveys conducted at transfer stations and information submitted to the division by the collection companies.Using these data,pounds per week can be calculated.The targets are tracked using aggregate data for the service area,rather than using data by individual city or unincorporated area. The following subsections provide information on the types of data collected,how those data are calculated,and how reliable the data are,as well as recommendations on how the data might be improved. Tonnage and Transaction Data An automated cashiering system is used to track data on the tons of garbage received and number of customer visits at division transfer facilities.In-bound and out-bound scales weigh loads for all vehicles except fixed-rate vehicles (as defined in KCC 10.04.020 MM),which are charged a minimum fee that assumes a weight of 320 pounds or less.These data are used to track overall garbage tonnage and transactions at individual stations. Data for recyclables accepted for a fee,such as yard waste,are also tracked by the cashiering system. For recyclables collected at no charge,data are provided to the division by the hauling company that is contracted to collect them. Reports from the Commercial Collection Companies The private-sector companies that provide curbside collection of residential garbage and recyclables throughout most of King County submit monthly tonnage reports to the division.These reports are also provided to the cities. Data for single-family households are the most complete,providing the following monthly information for each city and for unincorporated areas operating under a Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission tariff: • Tons of garbage disposed, • Tons recycled by material type, • Tons of organic materials recycled (yard waste,including food scraps for most areas),and • Number of garbage,recycling,and organics collection customers. Generally,customer counts and tonnage numbers for single-family garbage,recycling,and organics are the most reliable because they are based on weights measured at the entrance scale of either county transfer stations (for garbage) or material recovery facilities(for recyclables).To estimate the tons of individual materials(such as newspaper,aluminum cans,and so on),collection companies take periodic random samples and determine the percentage of each material present in the loads.As overall recycling tonnage is weighed,tons for individual materials are allocated based on the percentages obtained in the random sampling.The county has worked with the haulers to develop and implement a standard protocol for sampling in order to provide reliable estimates of the component recyclables and contaminant materials. The same information provided for single-family residents is provided for multi-family residents and nonresidential generators;however,the per capita data are less accurate because the number of apartment units and business customers is not provided. In some cases,the same truck collects multi-family and nonresidential wastes,so collection companies must estimate how much waste comes from each generator type. Even though some waste may be allocated to the wrong generator type,overall changes in recycling and disposal are reflected in tonnage totals, thereby providing a reasonable indicator of change. Since non-residential recycling collection is open-market and because many companies besides the large hauling companies provide commercial recycling services,a non-residential recycling rate cannot be calculated from the collection company data.This means that an overall system-wide recycling rate cannot be calculated using these data alone. 2019 Comprehenszz)eSolzd Waste 2wanagementPlan-ju1y2028 3-11 Att A Page 65 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Ecology Survey Data Data on the total tons recycled come from the annual statewide survey of recycling companies conducted by Ecology. These data supplement curbside collection data by including recyclables collected by private sector companies across the region. Recycling companies are required by state law to report tonnage data on the survey,which asks for tons by material type,by generator type(residential or non-residential),and by the county in which the materials were generated. For King County,companies are also asked if materials were generated in the City of Seattle. The division uses the Ecology survey data to estimate both non-residential and overall recycling rates.All of the recycling tonnage reported by Ecology is counted as non-residential except for tonnage that was included in residential collection company reports and recycling tonnage from transfer stations.Use of this accounting method means that recyclables taken by residents to privately owned drop boxes or recycling centers are included in the non-residential recycling tonnage.Ecology survey data are also used to estimate construction and demolition debris diversion. While the Ecology data provide the status of statewide efforts,there are some limitations to the usefulness of the data for local planning and evaluation,including the following: • Because data from Ecology is not immediately available,there is about a three-year lag before the county is able to finalize annual recycling rates, • Data are self-reported by recycling companies,with few resources available to Ecology for checking accuracy, • Companies make unverified estimates about the county in which the recyclables were generated,and the reporting for data between King County and the City of Seattle has been inconsistent,resulting in tonnage variations from year to year which seem unlikely, • City-specific information,other than for the City of Seattle,is not available, • The identification of residential versus non-residential sources is not reliable, • The identity of some companies that report data is confidential,limiting the ability to verify the quantities reported,and some of the companies with confidential data report only statewide totals,which requires the county to estimate allocation based upon population percentages,and • Significant amounts of metal are reported;it is difficult to determine how much of this metal should be counted as municipal solid waste,how much as construction and demolition debris,and how much as auto bodies,which the county does not include in its waste generation or recycling totals. Improving the reliability of recycling data would greatly benefit our ability to evaluate progress in reaching our recycling goals.The division will work with Ecology and the cities to develop voluntary agreements with recycling companies that will improve data reporting and resolve data inconsistencies. Waste Characterization Studies Since 1990,the division has conducted a Waste Monitoring Program to understand who uses solid waste system facilities,what materials they bring to the stations,how and why they use our facilities,and how satisfied they are with the services provided.To answer these questions,the division retains consultants to conduct both waste characterization studies and customer surveys that analyze the municipal solid waste received at county facilities 3-12 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 66 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 for disposal at Cedar Hills. For these studies,the waste stream is examined by collecting and sorting sample loads delivered to transfer facilities in King County.These studies help the county and the cities understand the composition of both the overall waste stream and what is received from different types of generators,such as residents of single- family homes and apartments,non-residential customers,and self-haulers.Separate analyses are conducted of the construction and demolition debris and organics waste streams. The waste characterization studies are designed to provide a statistically valid picture of what is being disposed by the different generator types.Samples are taken over the course of a full year to account for seasonal variations.The sampling method is designed to ensure that all generator types and geographical areas are sufficiently sampled.The studies provide a high level of confidence of what is in the waste stream.Each study,described below,is conducted by the division as necessary to provide up-to-date information for planning purposes. Solid Waste Characterization Studies The most recent study of solid waste destined for Cedar Hills was conducted in 2015 (Cascadia 2015a). For this study, 421 samples were collected on 28 sampling days.The waste stream was separated into 97 categories of material. For each material and generator classification,the study was designed to achieve a 90 percent confidence interval for the amount of waste disposed countywide. In other words,the study tells us that we can be 90 percent sure that the amount of cardboard disposed in 2015 was 3.1 percent(26,112 tons)of the total waste stream,plus or minus 0.3 percent. These waste characterization r studies are not designed to characterize each city's waste stream. However,based on _ sampling done in a variety of communities,the types of materials disposed by residents are similar,while the amounts r may differ.For example, Q jurisdictions with food waste ' � collection programs will have lower percentages of food in their garbage than those without. y These differences are reflected in the recycling rates and pounds f' disposed per household for each jurisdiction. In-person surveys are also Garbage at the Bow Lake Recycling and Transfer Station administered to customers bringing materials to transfer facilities(Cascadia 2015a).Customers are asked about the types of wastes they are bringing,the origin of those wastes,reasons for self-hauling (rather than using curbside collection services),how often waste is self-hauled,and willingness to separate out various recyclable materials.These surveys provide a better understanding of the customers who visit the stations and,in turn,provide the proper levels of service.The surveys are also useful in informing programmatic decisions. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 3-13 Att A Page 67 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Customer satisfaction surveys are also conducted at the stations to evaluate the level of satisfaction with customer service and the disposal and recycling services provided at division facilities(Cascadia 2016).The division uses this information to monitor its performance and identify areas where improvements can be made. Organics Characterization Studies Curbside yard waste collection services throughout King County accept food waste(food scraps and food-soiled paper),and the division is now working to measure how much food waste is actually collected from residential sources. Reports from the collection companies provide information about total tons of organics delivered to compost facilities,but do not differentiate between yard waste tons and food scrap tons.The solid waste characterization studies described above measure decreases of food scraps and food-soiled paper in the waste stream,but not whether the decreases result from curbside collection or from other diversion,such as home composting. To improve our ability to measure progress in organics recycling and establish achievable goals,the division is conducting periodic characterization studies of organics collected at the curb from single-family households.The division conducted its fourth organics waste characterization in 2017(Cascadia 2017b) and plans to conduct studies every two to three years.The study looked at total organics generation,assessing how many food scraps were disposed in the organics cart and the garbage can.The division has started planning for discussions with stakeholders to ensure there is adequate organics processing capacity for the materials now being disposed to be processed more sustainably in the future. Construction and Demolition Debris Characterization Studies In 2001,the division began to conduct periodic characterization studies of construction and demolition debris disposed at select private facilities by commercial and self-haulers,as well as small quantities delivered to division transfer stations by self-haulers.The studies measure the composition of construction and demolition debris that continues to be disposed instead of recycled.Three studies have been conducted to date,with the last study completed in 2011 (Cascadia 2012a).Information from the waste composition studies helped to inform what materials would be designated as readily recyclable under the new construction and demolition debris recycling ordinance (see Chapter 4,Sustainable Materials Management for more information). Planning Tools To support overall system planning and determine appropriate rates,the division conducts focused studies to evaluate elements of the solid waste system and its operations,emerging technologies and industry challenges,and private-sector markets for recycling and reuse.The division will conduct additional planning studies as needed to explore a variety of topics including best practices in solid waste management,alternative disposal technologies,and sustainable financing. Major studies used in development of the Plan are listed on the next page. Plans or studies approved by Council action are noted. 3-14 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2o-z8 Att A Page 68 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Plans and Studies • 2001 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan(KCSWD 2002)-This is the last adopted plan.The 2001 Plan was approved by the King County Council in 2002. • Solid Waste Transfer and Waste Management Plan(KCSWD 2006b) - Provides recommendations to guide the future of solid waste management,including the renovation of the urban transfer system and options for extending the life of the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill.The plan was approved by the King County Council in December 2007. • Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill 2010 Site Development Plan(KCSWD 2010a)- Identifies development alternatives for the landfill,outlines the environmental impacts of each alternative,and identifies potential mitigation measures,and recommends a preferred alternative. • Project Program Plan:Cedar Hills Regional Landfi112010Site Development Plan(KCSWD 2010b)-Summarizes the preferred alternative for development of the landfill based on environmental review,operational feasibility,cost, stakeholder interest,and flexibility to further expand landfill capacity if future circumstances warrant.The plan was approved by the County Council in December 2010. • Solid Waste Transfer and Waste Management Plan Review(KCSWD 2013)-The division conducted this review in response to a budget proviso in Ordinance 17619.The purpose of the review was to assess transfer station options and resulting impacts to cost,service and the environment.The recommendations helped inform changes to the plans for the Factoria,South County,and Northeast County recycling and transfer station projects. • DRAFT 2011 and 2013 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan(KCSWD 2013c).The draft updates of the 2001 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan were used as the basis for this Plan update. • Sustainable Solid Waste Management Plan(KCSWD 2014)-Evaluates operational and strategic planning options and provides recommendations on implementation approaches.The study focuses on five areas:resource recovery at division facilities;construction and demolition debris management;organics processing;disposal alternatives and technologies;and sustainable system financing. • Solid Waste Transferand Waste Management Plan Review Part//(KCSWD 2015)-In response to Council Motion 14145, the division,in collaboration with stakeholders,continued to evaluate a mix of capital facilities and operational approaches to address system needs over time, including potential demand management strategies(such as peak hour pricing or controlled access hours)that could motivate changes in how customers use transfer stations, thereby potentially reducing the need for added transfer station capacity in the northeast county. • Cedar Hills Site Development Alternatives Final Report, Volumes 1 and 2(KCSWD 2017a) -Summarizes the options for continued development of the landfill based on operational feasibility,cost,stakeholder interest,and flexibility to further expand landfill capacity if future circumstances warrant. Division staff review plan for centralized project management unit 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 3-15 Att A Page 69 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 • Executive Proposed Solid Waste Disposal Fees 2017-2018(KCSWD 2016c)-Rate study that examines four key inputs that determine solid waste disposal fees-financial assumptions,tonnage forecast,revenue and expenditures projections,and required target fund balance.Fees are calculated to ensure that revenues are sufficient to cover the costs of operations and services;funds are available for landfill closure and maintenance and capital investment projects for the transfer and disposal system;and a reserve Operating Fund balance is maintained.The 2017-2018 Proposed Solid Waste Disposal Fees were approved by the King County Council in September 2016. • Executive Proposed Solid Waste Disposal Fees 2019-2020(KCSWD 2018b)- Rate study that examines four key inputs that determine solid waste disposal fees-financial assumptions,tonnage forecast,revenue and expenditures projections,and required target fund balance.Fees are calculated to ensure that revenues are sufficient to cover the costs of operations and services;funds are available for landfill closure and maintenance and capital investment projects for the transfer and disposal system;and a reserve Operating Fund balance is maintained. The 2019-2020 Proposed Solid Waste Disposal Fees were transmitted to the King County Council in July 2018. Evaluation of Technologies • 2006 Material Recovery Facility Assessment(Cascadia 2006)- Provides an assessment of four materials recovery facilities where commingled recyclables collected at the curb are sorted and processed.The purpose was to quantify and characterize materials processed at the materials recovery facilities.Materials recovery facilities activity and capacity will continue to be tracked as necessary to monitor the need for improvements and to ensure there is processing capability for additional materials diverted from disposal in the future. • Comparative Evaluation of Waste Export and Conversion Technologies Disposal Options (R.W. Beck 2007)-Provides a planning-level " ° assessment and comparison of various solid waste conversion technologies and waste export. • Anaerobic Digestion Feasibility Study(H DR 2017)-Assesses the viability of several different scenarios using anaerobic digestion t • to process organic materials collected in Cedar Hills Regional Landfill King County. • King County Waste to Energy Study(Normandeau 2017)- Evaluates waste-to-energy technologies and recommends the technology that best matches King County's circumstances. Waste Prevention and Recycling Studies • Sustainable Curbside Collection Pilot(KCSWD et al.2008b) -Presents results of a pilot study to test the feasibility and public acceptance of every-other-week curbside garbage collection.Conducted in the City of Renton,the pilot study was performed in conjunction with Public Health-Seattle&King County and Waste Management, Inc.and was permanently implemented in 2009. 3-16 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2o-z8 Att A Page 70 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 • Greenhouse Gas Emissions in King County:An Updated Geographic-plus Inventory,a Consumption-based Inventory,and an Ongoing Tracking Framework(King County 2012)-Presents results from two different,but complementary,inventories of GHG emissions associated with King County,Washington. • Optimized Transfer Station Recycling Feasibility Study(KCSWD 2013)-Evaluates methods to optimize County resources being dedicated to recycling activities at division transfer facilities. • Waste Monitoring Program:Market Assessment for Recyclable Materials in King County(Cascadia 2015a)- Helps identify opportunities and establish priorities for market development and increased diversion of recyclable materials from the waste stream. Data from the market assessment are used to guide the direction of future recycling programs and services recommended in this Plan. Other Plans Considered The Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan is just one component of regional planning for land use, development,and environmental protection in King County.The division considers plans developed by the state, the county,and the City of Seattle in its own planning process to ensure consistency with other planning efforts in the region.The following list was used in the development of this Plan;in future planning efforts,the division will refer to the newest version of these plans. • On the Path to Sustainability and 2011 Plan Amendment-Picking .�IITI� Up the Pace to Zero Waste(City of Seattle 1998/2011)-The City of Seattle's solid waste management plan,including goals for ° recycling and waste prevention. • 2010 Local Hazardous Waste Management Plan Update(Watson et al.2010)- Presents plans for managing hazardous wastes Y'. . produced in small quantities by households and businesses and for preventing these wastes from entering the solid waste J stream. • The State Solid and Hazardous Waste Plan:Moving Washington Beyond Waste and Toxics 2015 Update(Ecology 2015) - Presents the state's long-term strategy for systematically eliminating wastes and the use of toxic substances.The plan _ includes initiatives that focus on expanding the recycling ofm ' organic materials and advancing green building practices. • King County Strategic Plan(King County 2015a)- Presents countywide goals for setting high standards of customer service and performance,building regional partnerships, Y M" stabilizing the long-term budget,and working together as Division staff conducting sampling one county to create a growing economy and sustainable communities.This Plan supports each of the primary goals of the King County Strategic Plan,with particular emphasis on environmental sustainability and service excellence. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 3-17 Att A Page 71 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 • Strategic Climate Action Plan(King County 2015b) -Synthesizes King County's most critical goals,objectives, strategies and priority actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prepare for the effects of climate change. It provides a single resource for information about King County's climate efforts. • 2016 King County Comprehensive Plan(2016 Update)(King County 2016a)-The guiding policy document for all land use and development regulations in unincorporated King County,as well as for establishing the establishment of Urban Growth Area boundaries and regional services throughout the county,including transit,sewers,parks,trails,and open space.Updates to the 2016 plan were adopted by the County Council in December,2016. • King County Equity and Social Justice Strategic Plan 2016-2022(King County 2016b)-The county's blueprint for change that will guide policies and decision-making,design and delivery of services,and workplace practices in order to advance equity. 3-18 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 72 Ordinance 18893 pdated April rr -foo Mmle- A � v V { r w ter, i a .III Att A Page 73 Ordinance 14893 update 2019 w AO iL sw Sustain bl M a t e,ri Mana m lIF , w i x a n to r m . MNM 4�r �. • Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Policies /Goal Achieve Zero Waste of Resources-to eliminate the disposal of materials with economic value-by 2030,with an interim goal of 70 percent recycling through a combination of efforts in the following order of priority: a. Waste prevention and reuse, b. Product stewardship, c. Recycling and composting,and d. Beneficial use. ���14144 S-1 Set achievable targets for reducing waste generation and disposal and increasing recycling and reuse. S-2 Enhance,develop,and implement waste prevention and recycling programs that will increase waste diversion from disposal using a combination of tools: a. Infrastructure, b. Education and promotion, �Y G c. Incentives, d. Mandates, e. Enforcement,and f. Partnerships. S-3 Advocate for product stewardship in the design and management of manufactured products and greater responsibility for manufacturers to divert these products from the waste stream. S-4 Prevent waste generation by focusing on upstream activities, including encouraging sustainable consumption behaviors,such as buying only what one needs,buying durable,buying secondhand, sharing,reusing,repairing,and repurposing. t S-5 Work with regional partners to find the highest value end uses for recycled and composted materials,support market development, and develop circular supply loops to serve production needs. S-6 Strive to ensure that materials diverted from the King County waste stream for recycling,composting,and reuse are handled and processed using methods that are protective of human health and the environment. Att A Page 75 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Policies S-7 Provide for efficient collection of solid waste,recyclables,and organics,while protecting public health and the environment, promoting equitable service,and maximizing the diversion of recyclables and organics from disposal. S-8 Promote efficient collection and processing systems that work together to minimize contamination and residual waste,maximize diversion from disposal,and provide adequate capacity. Att A Page 76 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Summary of Recommended Actions The following table includes a menu of recommended actions that the county and the cities should implement.Under the responsibility column,the entity listed first has primary responsibility for the action,bold indicates that the entity has responsibility for the action, and a star(*) indicates that the action is a priority. If the responsibility is not in bold,the action has lower implementation priority. Action Detailed Number and Action Discussion Responsibility Regional Leadership Lead by example by improving waste prevention and recycling in Page 4-7 public-sector operations,facilities,and at sponsored events,as well as through the purchase of sustainable products. Form a regional responsible recycling forum to work with public Page 4-15 and private partners to address production,use,and end-of-life management of goods.The forum will identify ways to strengthen recyclables markets,reduce contamination,and improve the quality and quantity of recyclable materials through more uniform city/county recycling approaches,education and outreach,and other means. Education, Outreach and Technical Assistance Provide regional education outreach support and incentive programs Page 4-8 to overcome barriers for residents and businesses to effectively prevent waste. Emphasize the primary importance of purchase and product use decisions that prevent waste,and secondary importance of recycling items/materials that couldn't be prevented. Work in partnership with other governments,non-governmental organizations,and the private sector to maximize the effectiveness of these efforts. Provide waste prevention and recycling education programs in Page 4-11 County schools throughout the county,and help schools and school districts establish,maintain,and improve the programs. Continue to educate customers on proper recycling techniques to Page 4-8 cocolluction companies nty, reduce contamination of recyclables and organic feedstocks going to the materials recovery facilities and compost facilities. Att A Page 77 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Summary of Recommended Actions • Detailed •- • Action Discussion Increase educational outreach and promotion to single-family,multi-family, Page 4-19 and non-residential customers to encourage recycling and reduce waste. Increase single-family food scrap recycling through a three-year Page 4-16 educational cart tagging program. Continue to develop infrastructure and increase regional and local Page 4-16 educational outreach,incentives and promotion to increase recycling of food scraps and food-soiled paper.These efforts should target single-family and multi-family residential developments,as well as non- residential buildings such as schools,institutions,and businesses. Provide information and technical assistance to external agencies,such Page 4-20 as local governments,schools,colleges,and other public and private organizations to increase their purchase of sustainable products.Support implementation of the county's Sustainable Purchasing Policy through waste reduction,recycling,use of recyclable products,and green building. Policy and Infrastructure Work with public and private partners to support the development of Page 4-18 reuse and recycling value chains,including markets,for target products and materials.Employ incentives and material-specific projects that reduce or eliminate barriers to reuse and recycling. Pursue product stewardship strategies through a combination of voluntary Page 4-12 and mandatory programs for products that contain toxic materials,are difficult and expensive to manage,and/or need sustainable financing, including,but not limited to,paint,carpet,fluorescent bulbs and tubes, mercury thermostats,batteries,unwanted medicine,mattresses,e-waste, paper and packaging,plastic bags and film,and sharps.Strategies may include Right to Repair legislation and framework legislation for addressing producer responsibility. Explore options to increase recycling and resource recovery through Page 4-15 innovative methods and technologies. and 6-3 Att A Page 78 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Summary of ReCOmmended Actions • Detailed •- • Action Discussion Assess and develop options if selected actions are not enough to achieve Page 4-3 an overall 70 percent recycling rate. Reduce consumer use of common single-use items-for example, Page 4-10 • promote reusable shopping and produce bags. Work with food producers,grocers,restaurants,and schools to prevent Page 4-11 food waste and to increase food recovery through donation of surplus meals and staple food items to local food banks. • Develop a process and criteria to amend the designated recyclables list if Page 4-13 conditions warrant adding or removing recyclables. Measurement Use the following targets to measure the progress toward the goal of zero Page 4-5 waste of resources: 1. Generation rate target: • Per capita:20.4 pounds/week by 2030,and • Per employee:42.2 pounds/week by 2030. 2. Recycling rate target: Interim goal of 70 percent. 3. Disposal rate target: • Per capita:5.1 pounds/week by 2030,and • Per employee:4.1 pounds/week by 2030. These targets should be evaluated at least every three years when data becomes available from the waste monitoring studies. Develop a target for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from disposed Page 4-12 waste by 2030,with 2007 emissions used as a baseline for comparison. Att A Page 79 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Summary of ReCOmmended Actions • Detailed •- • Action Discussion Grants Continue to support the cities'implementation of the Plan through Page 4-19 the county waste reduction and recycling grant program and allocation of Local Solid Waste Financial Assistance funds from the Washington State Department of Ecology.The county should strive to maintain the level of funding to cities,increasing waste reduction and recycling grant amounts as Local Solid Waste Financial Assistance funding decreases;and should revise or amend grant criteria to reflect priority Comprehensive Plan actions. Work collaboratively with cities and other stakeholders to develop a Page 4-20 new competitive grant program funded from the tip fee that would be available to private entities,non-profits,and cities to support innovative programs that help meet plan goals. Evaluate options to transition away from recycling collection events Page 4-19 as enhanced recycling services are provided at renovated transfer stations,improved bulky item collection becomes available and cost effective curbside,and product stewardship programs emerge. Develop a list of effective waste prevention and recycling efforts that Page 4-19 can be implemented using existing and new grant funds. Green Building Adopt green building policies and regulations that support the Page 4-1 design of buildings and structures that are carbon neutral,are energy efficient,and use recycled materials. Assist cities in developing green building policies and practices; Page 4-32 encourage green building through Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design TI(LEED'), Built Green T', Living Building Challenge,and other certification programs. Provide technical assistance and promote proper deconstruction, Page 4-35 building reuse,and reuse of building materials. Att A Page 80 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Summary of ReCOmmended Actions • Detailed •- • Action Discussion Construction and Demolition Materials Recycling Work collaboratively with cities to implement building codes Page 4-35 that require compliance with construction and demolition debris recycling and handling requirements contained in county code. The county will provide outreach/promotion for city permitting and enforcement staff. Continue to explore options to increase the diversion of construction Page 4-35 and demolition debris from disposal in the landfill,particularly for wood,metal,cardboard,asphalt shingles,carpet,and gypsum wallboard. Increase regional recycling of construction and demolition materials Page 4-35 through education and enforcement of construction and demolition debris recycling requirements. Ensure that construction and demolition debris is managed in Page 4-35 an environmentally sound manner by privately owned landfills via enforcement of construction and demolition debris handling requirements contained in county code. Collection Involve the Vashon/Maury Island community and service providers to Page 4-21 develop the appropriate type of recycling services provided curbside and at the transfer station. Include Vashon in the county's collection service standards for curbside services. Explore options to increase the efficiency and reduce the price of Page 4-28 • curbside and multi-family collection of bulky items,while diverting as many items as possible for reuse or recycling. Adopt the single and multi-family minimum collection standards. Page 4-30&4-31 Att A Page 81 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Summary of Recommended Actions • Detailed •- • Action Discussion Consider improvements to single-family collection services in the Page 4-29 unincorporated area to increase the recycling rate. Include non-residential recycling services in city contracts(consistent Page 4-33 with state law). Consider implementing an incentive-based rate structure for non- Page 4-33 residential garbage customers to encourage recycling. Update and enforce building code requirements to ensure adequate Page 4-30 and conveniently located space for garbage,recycling,and organics collection containers in multi-family,commercial,and mixed-use buildings. Make recycling at multi-family complexes convenient by Page 4-30 implementing best practices. Att A Page 82 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Ltainable Materials Mamaement In 1989,the state adopted the Waste Not Washington Act,making waste prevention and recycling the preferred method of managing solid waste and requiring jurisdictions to provide curbside recycling services to all residents living in urban areas. In King County,the division,cities,Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission (UTC), and solid waste collection companies worked together to launch a coordinated system for curbside collection of recyclables throughout the region.Working together over the last almost 30 years,both the public and private sectors have taken the region well beyond curbside recycling by creating myriad programs and services that foster the recycling and reuse of materials that might otherwise be thrown away and,more importantly,that prevent waste from being created in the first place. Since the 2001 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan was adopted,the collection system in the region has evolved significantly.The number of materials that can be recycled or processed for recycling and reuse has increased, technologies for collecting materials have improved,and participation in curbside recycling has continued to climb. Along with the growth of recycling in the region,however,comes issues that could potentially impact how much and what materials are recycled.Since inception of the waste reduction and recycling programs,markets and processing capacity for materials have fluctuated.Recent issues such as China's restrictions on multiple materials markets, contamination of recyclables and organics,and almost reaching local capacity to process organic materials,are testing the system's resilience.Working through these challenges with the cities and local haulers and processors will ultimately strengthen recycling,collection and processing in the region. Two key developments have added to the increase of materials collected T. ,a in single-family residential curbside recycling in the region. First is the - transition to commingled (or single-stream) collection.Since 2001, the collection companies have transitioned to commingled recycling, whereby all the recyclable materials are placed in one large cart for r curbside pickup. A second development is the addition of food scraps and food-soiled paper to yardwaste collected curbside.In 2001,the division began working with cities and collection companies to phase in curbside collection of food scraps and food-soiled paper in the yard waste (organics)cart.Compostable food scraps and food-soiled paper,which currently make up about one-third of the waste disposed by single-family residents,include all fruit,vegetable,meat,dairy products,pastas,grains, breads,and soiled paper used in food preparation or handling (such as paper towels).Food and yard waste,either separated or commingled, are referred to as organics. Nearly 100 percent of single-family customers who subscribe to garbage collection now have access to curbside food scrap collection.Only Vashon Island and the Skykomish and Snoqualmie Food scraps can be collected in small Pass areas,which house less than one percent of the county's residents, containers lined with compostable bags to do not have this service. make it easier to recycle 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 4-1 Att A Page 83 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 In addition to these major developments,programs such as Leadership in Energy and Environmental DesignT" and Built Green"are encouraging the building community to focus on waste prevention,recycling,and reuse of construction and demolition debris and helping to stimulate markets for the recycling and reuse of construction and demolition materials. In the 1980s,projections indicated that with the growing population and economy in the region,the amount of garbage that residents of King County would throw away would continue to climb steeply.Through the efforts of the county and area cities,businesses,and individual citizens,the amount of garbage disposed per resident per week dropped from 35 pounds in the 1980s to 15.2 pounds in 2014—a reduction of almost 57 percent.This reduction in disposal has contributed to extending the life of the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill (Cedar Hills) by more than 20 years. Yet even with the increased recycling and waste prevention seen over the years,recent waste characterization studies conducted by the division indicate that about 70 percent of all materials disposed in the landfill are resources that could have been recycled or reused.As discussed in this chapter,identifying what these materials are and who generates them can help us determine where future efforts should be focused to achieve ongoing improvements. Concentrating efforts on a particular class of waste generator(e.g.,residential or business)or commodity type can yield measurable results. Four categories of information,discussed in detail herein,can be used to evaluate the current status of waste prevention and recycling efforts and help develop strategies that will lead to future improvements: 1.Waste prevention programs achieving results in the region. 2. Recycling and disposal rates by type of waste generator(discussed in Chapter 3,Forecast and Data),including: • Single-family(up to 4 units) and multi-family residents(in some cities may include townhomes), • Non-residential generators,such as businesses,institutions,and government entities, • Self-haulers,both residents and businesses,who bring materials to division transfer facilities,and • Generators of construction and demolition debris. 3.Types and quantities of recyclable or reusable commodities that remain in the waste stream,such as food scraps, clean wood,metals,and paper. 4.The status of markets for recyclable materials,availability of take-back options for used products,and opportunities to partner with private-sector businesses,national coalitions,and other jurisdictions to effect change. Information from these four categories was used to shape the goals and recommended actions presented in this chapter.To set the stage,this chapter begins with a description of the benefits of recycling and a discussion of our regional goals for the future. From there the focus moves to ways to sustain the momentum by looking at additional waste prevention,resource conservation,recycling,and product stewardship opportunities.The chapter concludes with a discussion of the status and challenges of collection by customer type. Benefits of Recycling Efforts The regional commitment to recycling has many benefits—financial,social,and environmental.Financial benefits are probably the most immediate for many county residents and businesses.Convenient recycling services not only provide an alternative to the higher cost of disposal,but also provide a long-term significant cost savings for ratepayers by increasing the lifespan of Cedar Hills.As discussed in Chapter 6,Landfill Management and Solid Waste Disposal,Cedar Hills landfill is a more cost-effective means of disposal than the other disposal alternatives currently 4-2 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 84 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 available.After Cedar Hills reaches capacity and closes,minimizing the amount of waste that requires disposal will translate directly into lower fees for King County ratepayers. The social benefits of recycling can be described in terms of economic growth and job creation.Materials diverted from Cedar Hills for recycling must be sorted,processed,and transported.The 2016 Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report(EPA,2016) includes information about the recycling jobs,wages, 111 III and tax revenue benefits.The report shows MC that recycling and reuse of materials creates dit jobs,while also generating local and state tax revenues. In 2007,recycling and reuse V. activities in the United States accounted for: • 757,000jobs, • $36.6 billion in wages,and • $6.7 billion in tax revenues. This equates to 1.57jobs for every 1,000 tons of materials recycled.Construction and demolition debris recycling provides the largest contribution to all three categories (job,wage,and tax revenue),followed by The Recology Store is a place to both recycle items and to purchase items ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals such made from recycled materials(Photo courtesy of Recology CleanScapes) as aluminum. The positive environmental benefits of recycling are local and ultimately global.Environmental benefits are focused in two primary areas,both of which have wide-reaching and long-term impacts. First,the release of pollutants emitted during the production and disposal of products is decreased,reducing the potential for harm to human health and the environment.Second,savings in energy use and associated reduced greenhouse gas emissions will result from decreased demand to process virgin materials into products,which also contributes to a healthier planet. Figure 4-1 illustrates a circular supply loop.The figure graphically shows the opportunities,values,and benefits of organics recycling in King County. Goal and Targets The goal and targets for waste prevention and recycling were established through extensive discussions with the division's advisory committees:the Solid Waste Advisory Committee(SWAG) and the Metropolitan Solid Waste Management Advisory Committee(MSWMAC).The countywide goal and targets are intended to improve the effectiveness of established waste prevention and recycling efforts.The recommended actions for implementation presented at the beginning of this chapter were developed to provide general strategies for meeting the goal and targets and to identify the agency or agencies that would lead those efforts.The recommended actions are intended to serve as a guideline for the county and cities.They do not preclude other innovative approaches that may be implemented to help achieve the goal and targets. Factors other than waste prevention and recycling programs and services can increase or decrease the overall amount of waste generated.For example,the 2007 economic recession resulted in significant,unanticipated reductions in garbage collected,stemming primarily from the drop in consumer spending and business activity in the region.When establishing the goal and targets and measuring success in meeting them,it is important to consider the economy, policy changes,and other factors that may be in play. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 4-3 Att A Page 85 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Figure 4-1 Organics: Opportunities, values, and benefits in King County Food, yard, and wood wastes: Organics recycling retains useful materials in the economy,creates newjob opportunities,converts a would-be waste into beneficial, Opportunities, values, and marketable products for farmers and gardeners,reduces the need for petroleum-based chemicals and fertilizers,improves nutrient benefits In King County recycling,and reduces the impacts from disposal. 2015 To Landfill 341,200 tons ' (approximately 48%) We reduced GHG emissions by 3,730 MTCO2e*by landfilling Represents$11.5 million in economic,environmental and health costs Portion Organics in the landfill produce 1 Willi . returns to methane,most of which is production captured and converted to natural gas. _ Collection TO . - To To To Products food banks farms from Organics to feed people to feed Processing livestock -Current- 10,000 tons soil-building Conservative estimate of mulch,compost,fertilizer surplus,perishable food energy rescued by hunger fuels,heat relief organizations. construction materials engineered wood Processing -Potential- animal feed,soap,and To Resource Recovery others 361,000 tons (approximately 52%) We reduced GHG emissions by 67,680 MTCO2e by composting Nearly all organics currently collected for processing go to composting facilities. Other processing technologies for organics include anaerobic digestion,biochar,and co-digestion with biosolids. *metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent 4-4 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2o18 Att A Page 86 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Waste Prevention and Recycling Goal and Targets • AIM Achieve Zero Waste of Resources-i.e.,eliminate the disposal of materials with economic value-by 2030 through a combination of efforts in the following order of priority:waste prevention and reuse;product stewardship,recycling,and composting,and beneficial use. Waste generation rates to be achieved by 2030 Per Capita-20.4 pounds/week This target addresses residential waste from single-and multi-family homes. Per Employee-42.2 pounds/week This target addresses waste from the non-residential sector. Waste Dis ts • achieved by 2030 Reductions in disposal over time indicate an increase in waste prevention and/or recycling. Per Capita-5.1 pounds/week This target addresses residential waste from both single-and multi-family homes. Per Employee-4.1 pounds/week This target addresses waste from the non-residential sector. PreventionWaste • Establishing waste prevention targets and measuring success in achieving them is a challenge,because data quantifying the amount of waste not generated is difficult to obtain.However,by tracking overall waste generation(tons of material disposed+tons recycled)over the years,King County can attempt to identify regional trends in waste prevention.A decline in waste generation means that the overall amount of materials disposed or recycled,or both,has been reduced.The county also uses data from reuse and repair,building salvage, commercial food waste prevention grants,catalog/junk mail/phone book opt-outs,and material efficiencies spurred by product stewardship,to help determine whether waste prevention progress is being made. Recycling Target Recycling will continue to be an important strategy to reduce the disposal of solid waste.The recycling goal combines single-family,multi-family,non-residential,and self-haul recycling activity. It addresses the amount of waste being diverted from disposal at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill to recycling.It does not include construction and demolition debris(which have separate recycling goals),or other wastes,such as car bodies, which are not typically handled through the county system. In 2015,the overall recycling rate for the county was 54 percent. The goal for this planning period reflects the estimated recycling rate achievable if the recommended strategies in this plan are fully implemented (see Figure 4-3). Overall interim recycing goal: 70 percent 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 4-5 Att A Page 87 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 -o—a—o- What is Your Recycling Rate? It Depends on What You Count. "—Currently,there are no state or national standards for what should be counted in the"recycling rate" for a city or county.As a result,recycling rates reported by various jurisdictions may include different materials.For example,the recycling rate reported by some jurisdictions includes many materials that are not managed as a part of the county's system,so they are not included in establishing the county's recycling rate.This includes construction and demolition debris,asphalt and concrete, auto bodies,and biosolids.Many of these materials are very heavy and can considerably increase a recycling rate based on tons.In addition,some jurisdictions add percentage points to their recycling rate to account for the estimated success of their waste prevention efforts. The division has chosen to calculate King County's recycling rate based on the known amount of materials diverted from disposal at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill.As such,it does not include materials such as construction and demolition debris or car bodies that are handled largely by the private sector.Neither does the division include any estimate of waste prevention,primarily because of the lack of measurable data. For example,based on the definition above,the county's recycling rate in 2014 was 52 percent. Adding recycled asphalt and concrete would raise the calculated rate to approximately 62 percent. The rate would have been higher still if hard-to-measure materials such as car bodies and land clearing debris were added. Given the various methods for calculating a recycling rate,it is important to understand what materials are being counted before comparing rates across jurisdictions. Figure 4-2. Recycling rate over time 100% 90% 80% foal 70% 60% 50% 40% National Average Recycling Rate (2014) = 35% 30% 20% Regional Commitment to Single Stream Recycling 10% 0% 19901995 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 20112012 2013 2014 2015 4-6 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 88 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 As can be seen in Figure 4-2,the recycling rate has stalled,even as waste generation has increased in recent years.The role of individual cities will be critical in reaching our countywide waste prevention and recycling goal and targets.The way in which each city contributes to the overall goal and targets,however,may vary depending on the city's demographic make-up and other factors.For example,a city with a large concentration of apartments and condominiums might focus more efforts on programs for multi-family residents. Communities with primarily single-family homes , w might focus education and promotion on food scrap recycling for their residents. Another factor cities may consider is the make-up of their business(or non-residential) sectors.Cities with many restaurants,grocers,or other food- -40 related businesses might look at ways to promote ..w the recycling of food scraps or to partner these businesses with local food banks to donate surplus food to those in need.Similarly,cities with booming construction activity may want to take advantage of markets for the recycling and reuse of construction and demolition materials. Westwood Help Stop Food Waste campaign Likewise,the county will consider the make-up of the unincorporated area in which to focus waste prevention and recycling efforts. The county and the cities lead by example to improve waste prevention and recycling in their respective operations, at their facilities,and at sponsored events,for instance: • Some cities have held their own zero waste events and picnics, • The county and many cities collect food scraps and food-soiled paper at their offices and associated sites,and • The county enacted an ordinance to purchase copy paper that is 100 percent recycled content and reduce paper use by 20 percent. Figure 4-3 provides an example of how the region could reach a 70 percent recycling goal by collectively implementing mandatory recycling programs. Figure 4-3. One approach of regional cooperation toward 70% recycling goal using collective mandatory actions 1.0% I f0.5% A � ngle[ A [ amily 2.2% Single Every ° Multi Family Mandatory Other 2.5/o 1.8% Non- Family Separation Week Self-Haul Residential Carpet, Collection 3.2% Tires, Multi Mandator Separation Recycling 4.5% I Y p Y 9 Mattresses, Single Family Non Family Mandatory Asphalt, Separation Shingles, Residential Wood, Gypsum Metal, Mandatory Separation Food Cardboard, Paper,Yard Waste 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 4-7 Att A Page 89 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Tools Used to Meet the Recommended Goal and Targets The division and the cities have various tools at their disposal to promote waste prevention and increase recycling. Table 4-1 below identifies these tools and cites some of the successes achieved through their use. Table 4-1. Examples of successes achieved using various tools Tool Application Successes New transfer facilities are being designed with dedicated areas for Establishing the collection and recyclable materials such as yard waste,clean wood,and scrap metal. processing infrastructure is always the first step.It can be accomplished Approximately 99 percent of single-family curbside collection customers through enhanced curbside collection have access to collection service for food scraps and food-soiled paper, Infrastructure services,additional recycling options along with the yard waste. at transfer facilities,and partnerships with private-sector processing facilities Through E-Cycle Washington electronics manufacturers have developed a and manufacturers/retailers,e.g.,to statewide network of locations for recycling televisions,computers,and develop take-back programs. monitors.Likewise LightRecycle Washington established a network to collect mercury-containing lights. The division's Green Tools team provides education,resources,and technical Educational programs and targeted assistance on how to manage construction and demolition debris as a advertising play a key role in initiating resource rather than a waste. Education and new programs and sustaining the Many cities provide assistance to businesses to establish and maintain promotion momentum of existing programs. These efforts can be tailored to specific recycling programs.EnviroStars Green Business Program is a free program waste generators or materials. that offers rebates,resources,and incentives to businesses who take action to protect the environment and employee health and safety.Bellevue, Kirkland and King County are founding members. Incentives encourage recycling. For example,in a pay-as-you-throw To encourage waste prevention and recycling,curbside garbage collection (or variable rate)type program,if fees increase with the size of garbage can that customers subscribe customer generates less garbage,they to creating a"pay as you throw"(or variable rate)system.In addition, Incentives need a smaller garbage container,which embedding recycling in the rate can also act as an incentive. means a lower charge on their garbage bill.Incentives can also take the form Some cities provide kitchen containers and sample compostable bags to of give-away item that makes waste encourage residents to recycle their food scraps. prevention and recycling easier. 4-8 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 90 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Tool Application In order to discourage disposal of yard waste,its disposal in curbside garbage has been prohibited since 1993. Mandates that restrict the disposal of In 2005,fluorescent lights and many electronics were prohibited from specific materials have proven effective disposal at King County transfer stations to encourage the recycling of in increasing recycling,particularly in these items and use ofthe Take It Back Network Mandates instances where there is a viable and http://www.kingcounty.gov/depts/dnrp/solid-waste/programs/take-it-back. developed recycling market for those materials.Mandates can be legislated aspx. at the local,state,or federal level,or To increase recycling,the division requires self-haulers to separate their implemented through city contracts. materials at county transfer stations.Starting in 2018,cardboard,metal, yard waste,and clean wood is banned from disposal at transfer stations that provide recycling services for these materials. Enforcement of program rules ensures The construction and demolition debris program employs a King County Enforcement that materials are recycled or disposed sheriff to enforce the recycling and disposal rules for construction and of properly. demolition materials.Outreach and progressive fines are issued to violators to encourage them to learn how the materials should be handled. Partnerships enable a program to Product stewardship efforts rely on partnerships to implement programs. be amplified by bringing in other Partnerships The division routinely partners with other organizations to further product organizations or agencies to assist with stewardship goals through the Northwest Product Stewardship Council. the program The successful diversion of residential yard waste from disposal exemplifies the effective use of four of these tools. First,an infrastructure was created to make it easy to separate yard waste from garbage.Curbside collection programs were implemented in phases across the county,easy-to-use wheeled collection containers were provided to residents,and private-sector businesses began turning the collected yard waste into compost for building healthy soils. Promotions were used to inform residents of � � the availability of curbside collection as the service was phased in.Educational campaigns were launched to teach citizens how to compost yard waste from their own yards for use as a soil amendment. Because the cost of collecting yard waste for composting was less than the cost of disposal in the garbage,residents had an incentive to subscribe to yard waste collection service.Many cities provided an additional Food:Too Good to Waste campaign shares information W"»g with consumers about how to purchase and store food to minimize waste 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 4-9 Att A Page 91 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 incentive by including yard waste collection as part of their basic package of collection services at the curb. Finally, mandates were passed by the cities and the county to prohibit residents from disposing of yard waste in the garbage wherever separate curbside yard waste collection was available.The resulting collection system for yard waste successfully recycled almost 96 percent of the yard waste disposed by single-family residents in 2015. Taking a Sustainable Materials Management Approach The following discussion describes a different way to look at the waste prevention and recycling programs and activities already in place.It describes the advantages of a sustainable materials management approach that encompasses the full life-cycle of materials:design and manufacturing,use and reuse,and end-of-life. Figure 4-4 graphically depicts the sustainable materials management approach.This approach has been adopted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) as well as the Washington State Department of Ecology in the last update of the state solid waste plan (Ecology 2015).Sustainable materials management still focuses on recycling and disposal,but by including production,design,use,and reuse,it provides an opportunity to identify more resilient, sustainable ways to design products that prioritize durability and recyclability,and use less energy,water,and toxics. Figure 4-4. Materials life cycle Source:Moving Washington Beyond Waste and Toxics,2075 • • r r • 4-10 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 92 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Decisions to reduce waste can be made at several critical stages in a product's life cycle,helping to develop a circular supply loop: • When manufacturers decide what goods to produce,how to design them,how to produce them,and how to package them, • When consumers decide whether and what to purchase,and • When consumers adopt ways to use and reuse products more efficiently. The following sections provide examples of programs in the different phases of sustainable materials management. Design and Proauciion Food:Too Good to Waste-This program educates consumers on ways to prevent wasting food.When food is wasted,it also wastes all the water and energy used to produce,package and transport it from the farm to table. In addition,about 33 percent of the single-family garbage disposed at Cedar Hills is food,which significantly reduces landfill capacity and life. Green Schools Food Waste Reduction and Food Share-The King County Green Schools Program assists schools and school districts to reduce wasted food through a number of strategies: • Encourage students to take what they will eat and eat what they take, • Set up cafeteria share tables on which students may place or take unopened,packaged foods and drinks from the school lunch program,and • Donate unopened,packaged items and uneaten whole fruits that cannot be re-served to students. The goals of the School Food Share program are to minimize wasted foods and beverages and safely distribute unwanted items from school lunch programs to local food banks and meal programs. use ano reuse Threadcycle is a public education campaign sponsored by King County and Seattle Public Utilities that encourages residents to donate used clothing,shoes, } and linens for reuse or recycling. Local N ' thrift stores and other organizations are partners in the program and will take all clothing,shoes,and linens regardless of condition (except items that are wet,mildewed,or contaminated with hazardous materials). The EcoConsumer public outreach program sponsors Repair Groups and Repair Group event provides an opportunity for residents to bring in broken events. Each repair event or group items for repair operates differently,based on the needs of the local community. It might be a one-time event,or they may be held every few months. People can bring to these events household items including small furniture,small appliances,personal electronics,and clothing that need to be repaired.Experienced all-purpose fixers and sewing fixers will work on the items,and can also help residents to learn to do their own repair. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 93 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Waste Prevention, Recycling and Climate Change The purchase,use,and disposal of goods and services by King County residents,businesses,and governments are associated with significant greenhouse gas(GHG)emissions.Emissions can occur at all stages of a product's life-from resource extraction,farming,manufacturing,processing, transportation,sale,use,and disposal.In 2008,consumption-related GHG emissions in King County totaled more than 55 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents(MTCO2e)-more than double the emissions produced within the county's geographic boundaries(King County 2012). As a major employer and service provider in the region,King County government is also a major consumer of goods and services.These goods and services-especially construction-related services-account for 270,000 MTCO2e,or about 42 percent of the County's operations-related GHG emissions(King County 2012). Residents,businesses,and governments can reduce GHG emissions associated with goods and services by choosing sustainable options,reducing the amount they purchase,reusing and repairing goods when possible,and recycling after use.King County is involved in these efforts through the solid waste management services and procurement efforts that the county provides,as well as through the county's efforts to educate residents and businesses about ways to use less and recycle more.The county is also taking a number of steps to reduce the environmental footprint of the products used in government operations and to reuse previously wasted resources. Recycling outreach-The Solid Waste Division's Recycle More-It's Easy to Do campaign promotes basic recycling of curbside materials,food scraps and yard waste.Other programs that support increased recycling and waste prevention include the Green Schools Program,which supports conservation in schools. Recycling infrastructure-In King County in 2010,about 832,000 tons of recyclable materials were collected by private hauling companies at the curb and about 10,000 tons were collected at King County transfer stations.Turning this waste into resources resulted in the reduction of approximately 1.6 million MTCO2e of GHG emissions. Reusing resources-King County is helping develop,expand,and support markets for reused and recycled products.The LinkUp program has expanded markets for recyclable and reusable materials such as asphalt shingles,mattresses,and textiles.The EcoConsumer program has expanded reuse by promoting and supporting tool lending library projects in the county. End-of-Life Management Product stewardship is a life-cycle approach that is being implemented at the state,national and international levels. In practice,the product manufacturers-not government or ratepayers-take responsibility for their products"cradle to cradle"This means that manufacturers are given the authority to finance and provide for the collection,recycling and/or proper management of their products at the end of the product's life cycle. 4-12 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 94 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 The division is on the steering committee of the Northwest Product Stewardship Council (NWPSC)and has been participating in the development of product stewardship strategies for commodities that contain toxic materials or are difficult and expensive to manage,such as paint,carpet,mercury thermostats,rechargeable batteries,mattresses, junk mail,and telephone books. The division and NWPSC were instrumental in getting state legislation adopted to implement the E-Cycle Washington and LightRecycle Washington extended producer responsibility programs.Both programs provide drop-off sites for consumers to take their electronics and mercury-containing lights.The division also worked to get a secure medicine return program implemented in King County.The program started in February 2017,and has approximately 100 locations where residents can securely dispose of unused medications. What do I do with...?Hundreds of thousands of visitors use this application annually to find recycling,reuse,and disposal options. Businesses and organizations maintain their listing of the materials and products they recycle,reuse, or dispose of as a requirement of being included as a partner on this high traffic division website.One of the oldest recycling databases in the country,What do I do with...? has evolved over almost twenty years from a printed paper directory to a modern,mobile friendly application.The most searched-for materials are consistently:Appliances, Batteries,Construction/Demolition Debris,Electronics,and Furniture.The division constantly seeks to refine and improve the What do I do with...?website,which currently provides information on over 100 materials. Turning Wastes to Resources In 2004, King County adopted"Zero Waste w _ v of Resources"as a principle designed to � eliminate the disposal of materials with economic value.Zero Waste does not Aft mean that no waste will be disposed;it proposes that maximum feasible and a1 r cost-effective efforts be made to prevent, reuse,and reduce waste.The division t has been taking steps to eliminate the disposal of materials that have economic value and for which there are viable markets. King County's list of designated recyclables is defined and updated by Ecology's annual statewide survey of materials that have been recycled in Recida Mas Facilitadores or facilitators of recycling teach recycling and Washington.The current list is shown in composting basics at a community event in King County Table 4-2: 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 4-13 Att A Page 95 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Table 4-2. Designated recyclables Category Includes Carpet and Pad Carpet and pad remnants. Clean Wood Unpainted and untreated wood,including wood from construction and demolition projects,and pallets. Recyclable and non-recyclable materials that result from construction,remodeling,repair or demolition Construction and Demolition Debris of buildings,roads,or other structures and requires removal from the site of construction or demolition. Construction and demolition debris does not include land clearing materials such as soil,rock,and vegetation. Electronics Includes audio and video equipment,cellular telephones,circuit boards,computer monitors,printers and peripherals,computers and laptops,copier,and fax machines,PDAs,pagers,tapes and discs,and televisions. Furniture Includes mattresses and box springs,upholstered and other furniture,reusable household and office goods. Glass Clean glass containers and plate glass'. Clean ferrous and non-ferrous metals,including tin-plated steel cans,aluminum cans,aerosol cans,auto Metal bodies,bicycles and bicycle parts,appliances,propane tanks,and other mixed materials that are primarily made of metal. Moderate risk waste from households and small quantity commercial generators,including antifreeze, Moderate Risk Waste household batteries,vehicle and marine batteries,brake fluid,fluorescent lights,oil-based paint, thermometers and thermostats,used oil,and oil filters. Food scraps and food-soiled paper;fats,oils,and grease(FOG);biodegradable plastic kitchenware and bags'; Organics yard waste,woody materials under 4 inches in diameter;and stable waste(animal manure and bedding). Other Materials Includes latex paint,toner and ink cartridges,photographic film,tires,and other materials reported as recycled to the Department of Ecology in response to annual recycling surveys. Paper All clean,dry paper including printing and writing paper,cardboard,boxboard,newspaper,mixed paper,and aseptic and poly-coated paper containers. Plastic All clean,single-resin plastic numbers 1 through 7,including containers,bags,and film(wrap). Textiles Includes rags,clothing and shoes,upholstery,curtains,and small rugs. 1 Plate glass is not accepted in curbside programs. 2 Biodegradable plastic products must be approved by organics processing facility receiving the material. 4-14 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 96 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 While the list of recyclable materials is extensive,available markets and infrastructure can vary from region to region. The division prioritizes materials for recycling in King County based on four key factors: • The amount present in the waste stream, • The ability to handle the material-both collection and processing, • Viable and sustainable markets for the material,and • Environmental considerations. These factors are also used to determine the appropriate method for capturing the materials,i.e.,through curbside collection or at county transfer facilities.The division may also consider other technologies such as anaerobic digestion or demonstration projects of other evolving technologies that promote resource recovery as ways to recycle or reuse materials.Since the 2001 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan was issued,the list of materials that are being recycled has grown substantially. In 2017,over 931,000 tons of solid waste were disposed at Cedar Hills.As shown in Figure 4-5,at least limited options in the market exist for the recycling of about 70 percent of the materials disposed. Figure 4-5. Recycling potential of materials disposed in 2015 62% Readily Recyclable Limited Recyclabitiy 7 . Not Recyclable For years,the Pacific Northwest has relied almost exclusively on exporting recyclable paper and plastics to China for processing.In early 2018,however,China made the specification for contamination so low(0.5 percent)that it is extremely difficult to meet,essentially banning the import of 24 recyclable commodities,including unsorted paper and mixed#3-#7 plastic. Recyclable materials entering recycling facilities may be contaminated for a variety of reasons,including commingling the materials in one bin,new packaging types,and resident confusion.Some materials being collected as part of the approved recyclables list have no markets,contaminate other valuable recyclable material,and/or create problems in the processing system (examples include plastic bags,poly-coated paper,cartons and aseptic packaging).China's ban is intended to crack down on illegal smuggling of foreign waste brought in under the guise of recycling,improve environmental quality,and reduce the volume of contaminated recyclables legally brought into the country. In response,agencies,cities,and haulers in King County have formed the Responsible Recycling Task Force(Task Force).The Task Force will identify common ground for advancing recycling given China's restrictions on acceptable recyclables,focusing on short-,mid-and long-term actions.Tenants of responsible recycling include: 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste 2wanagementPlan-july2018 4-15 Att A Page 97 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 • Focus on the quality and quantity of recyclables,including reducing contamination, • Use consistent and harmonized messaging across the region, • Prioritize domestic processing and markets for recyclables(including the social justice and environmental impacts of export), • Create domestic demand for recycled feedstock, • Understand that responsible recycling is not free,and • Shift to measure recyclables that are made into new products. While this issue presents a policy challenge for the region,it offers an opportunity to improve on recycling in the region,reeducate the public on recycling best practices,reduce contamination,and reinforce waste prevention messaging. Priority Materials The following sections describe priority materials identified by the division for recycling through curbside collection and at county transfer facilities. Priority Materials for Curbside Collection Over time,new materials that can be efficiently and cost-effectively captured for recycling are added to curbside collection programs.Adding materials for curbside collection requires sufficient infrastructure for collection and processing,and viable and sustainable end use markets.Standardizing the materials collected across the county simplifies recycling education,reduces confusion among consumers as to what is recyclable,and increases collection efficiency.However,all materials listed as priorities are not required to be recycled in all city programs. When the 2001 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan was adopted,materials collected at the curb included newspaper,cardboard,mixed paper,plastic bottles,tin and aluminum cans,glass bottles and jars,and yard waste. Materials added since that time include food scraps and food-soiled paper;aerosol cans;small scrap metal;plastic jugs and tubs;plastic plant pots,trays,and clamshells;plastic and paper drink cups;and aseptic containers. Organics More than one-third of what gets disposed at Cedar Hills landfill is food scraps and food-soiled paper.Collection and processing of these food scraps is critical to meet the county's ambitious waste diversion targets and climate change goals. There is also a growing effort to capture a large portion of the food scraps that are still considered to be edible. A recent division study of service management businesses and restaurants in King County(Cascadia 2017b) estimated that approximately three-quarters of the food scraps these businesses generated was edible food. Significant opportunities remain to reduce and prevent the tons of food scraps that are disposed. Commercial haulers throughout King County offer organics collection to both residential and commercial customers. Nearly all single-family households(99 percent) in King County have access to curbside organics collection that includes food scraps and food-soiled paper products.Unpackaged food scraps and approved compostable paper products can be collected along with yard waste in the same containers. King County and many cities have implemented public education and outreach campaigns to promote and increase participation in food scrap 4-16 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 98 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 diversion through curbside organics collection.The division also funded a grant program to promote commercial food scraps recycling.While participation rates appear to be increasing,there remains room for improvement. Challenges to food scraps collection include customer access(such as at multi-family residential units where organics collection is not required or offered by property management),participation levels in diversion programs,political and institutional barriers,and the level of contamination of the organics collected.As collection of organics increases it will be essential to ensure adequate regional processing capacity and reduced contamination of material.The division is actively working with regional partners to: Engage in long-range planning to increase organics processing capacity, Encourage greater use of compost,and Encourage operational changes at processing facilities to mitigate impacts on the surrounding community. Priority Materials for Collection at King County Transfer Facilities The division has identified several priority materials to collect at all transfer stations once they are renovated or replaced: • Yard and wood waste, • Cardboard, • Clean wood (not treated or painted),and • Scrap metal. Some materials designated for curbside collection and/or as priority materials for transfer station collection are also collected by private-sector businesses. R _ Markets for Recyclable Materials LinkUp — Expanding Markets for Recyclable and Reusable Materials Market development is an important strategy to ensure that recyclable materials are successfully moving from waste to resource.The division is working to expand markets for recyclable and reusable materials and facilitate the infrastructure that supports those markets,through , its LinkUp Program.Working with businesses,public agencies,and other organizations,LinkUp develops projects that address specific market barriers(from collection to processing to end-use)that prevent or restrict a material or product from moving up the value chain for ultimate reuse or use as a raw material for manufacturing new products. In recent years, LinkUp has conducted projects to improve markets for asphalt shingles,carpet,mattresses,compost,and textiles. Projects have supported efforts,such as the development of collection and Developing markets for asphalt shingles processing infrastructure for asphalt roofing shingles,carpet,and has been one focus of the LinkUp program. mattresses;establishment of the hot mix asphalt pavement market for Shown here are asphalt shingles used in asphalt shingles;expansion of the Take it Back Network to include latex paving roads paint,and promotion of the network to the public;public education to promote donation of damaged textiles for reuse or recycling;and demonstration of the use of compost for agricultural applications by King County farmers. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july2018 4-17 Att A Page 99 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 2015 and 2017 Market Assessments In 2015 and 2017,Cascadia Consulting Group conducted market assessments for the division that focused on commingled curbside recyclables,organics,electronics,film plastics,and construction and demolition materials (Cascadia 2015b and Cascadia 2017). First,Cascadia conducted a preliminary analysis and ranking of potential focus materials. Evaluation metrics included disposed tons,disposed volume,GHG emissions if recycled rather than landfilled,ability to influence the county's recycling rate,and market strength.Table 4-3 shows the results of the preliminary analysis and ranking. Table 4-3. Findings from 2015 and 2017 market assessments Overall Food and food-soiled paper* High Clean wood Textiles Film plastic(same score as textiles) Electronics(covered by E-Cycle) #3-7 plastics Mattresses*(same score as#3-7 plastics) Medium Clean(new)gypsum Electronics(not covered by E-Cycle) Asphalt Shingles* Carpet Treated wood Low Painted(demo)gypsum Tires *Materials for which the division is already engaging in market support through the LinkUp program. Cascadia then conducted"mini assessments"of the top six ranked materials,combining two categories of electronics, and excluding textiles and mattresses,for which the division already has market support efforts underway.Findings from these studies,which looked at the material supply for recycling,processing capacity,and current markets, included: • Markets for commingled curbside recyclables,including paper,plastics,glass,and metals were generally stable in 2015. However,China's 2018 implementation of their"National Sword"policy to restrict the importation of mixed paper and mixed#347 plastics has resulted in the immediate closure of a significant market for these recyclable materials.Annually,around 138,000 tons of these recyclable materials from King County that would normally go to China now need to be processed elsewhere.At this time,alternative export and domestic markets for mixed paper and mixed plastics are extremely limited.Food scraps and plastic film/wrap are the biggest contamination challenge in curbside commingled recycling. 4-18 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 100 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 • Almost all organic materials collected within the King County system are being converted into compost products,which are primarily used as soil amendments.Anaerobic digestion(a biological process that transforms organic waste into renewable energy,and in some situations,a useable residual by-product) is an emerging processing technology in the region.More organics processing capacity is likely needed if there are to be significant increases in food scraps and food-soiled paper composting in King County and surrounding regions(See Chapter 5 for more information about processing capacity).Market prices and sales of compost products are reported to be stable. Expanding agricultural compost markets is of interest. • Wood and plastic films have significant barriers to successful recycling.Wood markets are stable but weak and highly dependent on use as hog fuel.Barriers to plastic film recycling occur at all points of the supply chain. Grants to Cities _ - Waste Reduction and - - Recycling Grants M The division provides grant funds and technical assistance to cities to help -A -- further waste prevention and recycling programs and services within their communities. Each distributes million n rant funds -, � . 'UL Y g Y _ g to cities;these funds are supported by the solid waste tipping fee.All cities in the service area are eligible for the funds. Clean wood is collected at the Bow Lake Recycling and Transfer Station The formula for their allocation includes a base amount plus a percentage based on the city's population and employment. Currently,much of these grant funds is used by the cities to hold recycling collection events in their communities. The cities and the county may be able to phase out these collection events and use the funds in other ways that support waste prevention and recycling in their communities as enhanced recycling services are added at renovated transfer facilities,curbside collection for bulky items becomes more cost effective and widely available,and product stewardship programs begin to offer more options for recycling.The grant monies can be used to support a number of activities,including: • Encouraging and promoting waste reduction, • Continuing to implement and improve general recycling programs, • Improving opportunities for the collection of specific commodities,such as paper, • Improving opportunities for the collection and/or composting of organic materials, • Increasing the demand for recycled and reused products, • Fostering sustainable development through the promotion of sustainable building principles in construction projects, • Managing solid waste generated by public agencies in a manner that demonstrates leadership, • Broadening resource conservation programs that integrate waste prevention and recycling programs and messages,and • Providing product stewardship opportunities. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 4-19 Att A Page 101 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Local Solid Waste Financial Assistance Grants Ecology also supports waste prevention and recycling programs in King County through the Local Solid Waste Financial Assistance(formerly known as the Coordinated Prevention Grant) program. Funds are allocated within the county based on population.The division uses funds allocated to the unincorporated areas to support waste prevention and recycling efforts such as recycling collection events,yard waste and food scrap recycling,and natural yard care education and promotion.The cities also receive funds directly from Ecology to support their own waste prevention and recycling programs(applications are coordinated through the division). Competitive Grant Program .: In 2012,the division worked collaboratively with the cities to develop a new competitive grant '' program to fund innovative projects and services that further the waste prevention and recycling goals outlined in this Plan.Cities,commercial collection companies,and other entities,such as non-profit organizations or schools,would be eligible to apply for the grant program.The program has not been approved by the cities or funded through the solid waste rate,but the r division will continue to work with the cities to identify opportunities to initiate the new competitive grant program in the future. Cities use some of their grant money to hold recycling In the meantime,the division has initially funded collection events a small competitive grant program through the Solid Waste Division budget with the focus on commercial food waste.A program funded through the solid waste rate would extend reach and impact. Descriptions of the funded projects can be found online at: your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/garbage-recycling/commercial-grants.asp Sustainable Purchasing King County is also working to reduce the impacts of its operations by purchasing products that have recycled content and are more resource-efficient and durable.The Sustainable Purchasing Program provides county personnel with information and technical assistance to help them identify,evaluate,and purchase economical and effective sustainable products and services. The division will continue to provide technical assistance to cities by sharing contracts,specifications,and procurement strategies.Many cities in the county have also implemented environmentally preferable purchasing programs. Another strategy to increase sustainable purchasing is to provide training and education about the benefits of compost applications in parks and landscape projects,topdressing grass in parks,and stormwater management applications. 4-20 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 102 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Collection The remainder of this chapter looks at the current collection challenges and recommendations for improvement for three sectors of generators-single-family households,multi-family households,and non-residential customers, which include businesses,institutions,and government entities. For each sector,the issues may vary and present different challenges due to collection methods and the regulations by which they are governed.Construction and demolition debris is discussed separately at the end of this chapter because of the unique nature of collecting and processing these materials. Residential Collection The residential garbage collection system in King County is a well-established system that serves the region in a safe, efficient,and cost-effective manner.With the shift toward increased collection services for recyclables and organics, customers can choose to subscribe to smaller,less expensive collection cans for their garbage.Container sizes now range from the micro-can at 10 gallons to the mini-can at 20 gallons and on up to the large 90+gallon cart.The reduced fee for the smaller cans creates an incentive to generate less waste and divert as much material as possible to the recyclables or organics carts. Throughout King County,individual city contracts for collection of garbage,recyclables,and organics differ in a number of aspects.Cities have entered into contracts with the collection companies at different times and then renewed contracts as they have expired. Each time a contract is negotiated and renewed,the city may make adjustments to their services such as changing the range of materials being collected,the collection frequency, container types or sizes,fee structures,and more.Changes to services may also be negotiated for existing contracts. The varying collection standards among cities that have resulted from these changes over time have led to inconsistencies in regional education and messaging,confusion among customers,and difficulties in measuring and potentially attaining region wide goals. To illustrate the varying collection standards that currently exist,Table 4-4 presents a summary of single-family collection services by city and unincorporated area,showing the types of contracts held,the collection company serving the jurisdiction,container sizes offered,collection frequency,and fee structures.The recycling rates for each jurisdiction and unincorporated area,with and without organic materials,are also presented for comparison.The UTC cost assessment in Appendix A(Section 3.3) - provides additional information about the UTC-regulated and contracted companies. Working with the community and the hauler,the division is exploring the inclusion of Vashon/Maury Island in the service level standards,as well as other ways to improve recycling services provided curbside and at the transfer station.Skykomish and A truck picks up in a neighborhood (Photo courtesy of Republic Services) Snoqualmie Pass will not be included in the service level standards at this time because of their remote locations and low population densities. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 4-21 Att A Page 103 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Table 4-4. 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(Nv n m r4 0, M v e v U @Jea 6UIIDADaa m m m m m ry m m ry M In ry ^ N o � = � � tC v CM (salue6ao bulpnpul) 0 = o ao m v m 3 v r4 O m m 10 ak 0 3 p e �,•- O area 6U11��(�aa w In 'n 'D N �n v a O v1 V N In o � N � v c = o v V (HIAA/jsna/sq0 e M a C) n m m 10 w ^ o v �o w ao rn z $ c Q �o O a ry ry ry ry ry ry ry m ry N ry ry m N lesods14 a6egae� 6 U aa�a6egae� ° o e v v a, E 3 u!papnpUI SDIUe6a0 x x x x v E e ° o v p a v +� x x x x x x x x x xv v c 3 _2 v a w '^ ui papnpUI 6UIIDADaa o a (aatulnn) e v ° v UOIIDaIIOD SDIUe6a0 JO 2 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 w w z z ADuanbaai ZI/910Z — Y a . o v (m (Ile;-aawwns-6ulads) ° U. uolIDalloDsDlue6a0JO2 2 0 0 z 2 0 2 0 w w z z v o e 4 ADuanbaai L1/910Z §ua o, g _ o -zw e V 0 0 B v o v O V UOIIDaIIOD 6UIIDADaa Ln R v CO v 0 2 0 0 z 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 z e v e N e c o 0 Jo�Duanbaai L 1/9102 w w w W w w w w w c c U e E c TaeD SDIUe6a0 e o o, v O o, k '0 \0 \0 '0N C N k O Y Nin paepuels rn rn rn rn z G\ rn G\ o. m G\ z z w � > e h � o ai v a R R taeD6UIIDADaa V a1 w w Ln v w w w w v a v t B a v o paepuels rn rn rn rn z rn rn rn rn rn rn z e U E c '� -C- -Z e UOI}aalIOD a6egaeE) Aaolepuevy x x x e a v v o a 0 N i1 a Din /JDeJTUOD v v u v v u > > > > > > v 0 W � U �(uedwOD w E a Y 2 2 2 2 2 v 23 c UOIID@IIOD 910Z u 2 2 2 2 2 8 .c z v � v v a v v 3 rCa ¢ to \ G B B O' eaay paIeAOdao�ulu� 6 d c a o 'u o Y 7 7 a U .O w .IO UOI DI S I.nf �nravvi ivi NYvi �n �Ho 2 } �nra vr31 YZOv �vO 0 uv v E ag ro s E E0o Ec E O O O ✓ eUi Lu .co vv co 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 4-23 Att A Page 105 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 As shown in Table 4-4,the single-family recycling rate varies significantly among the cities and unincorporated areas, ranging from 37 to 65 percent(combining organics and the curbside recyclables)with an average of 55 percent.While it would be difficult to identify a single factor or factors that will ensure a higher recycling rate,there are some factors that appear to lead to increased participation and amounts of waste diverted from disposal,as discussed in the following sections. Range of Materials Collected In addition to the materials identified for curbside collection in the last Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-newspaper,mixed paper,and cardboard;tin and aluminum cans;plastic bottles;glass bottles and jars;and yard waste-new materials have been added over time.These materials include food scraps and food soiled paper, aerosol cans,small scrap metal,plastic jugs and tubs,plastic plant pots,plastic trays and clamshells,drink/coffee cups, and aseptic cartons/containers (such as juice boxes).Some cities have added other materials for collection,such as electronics,fluorescent bulbs and tubes,and motor oil. Curbside collection,however,is not necessarily the most efficient and cost-effective way to capture every type of recyclable or reusable product.Some products cause problems for materials recovery facilities because of their size or composition,while others are better candidates for take-back programs by manufacturers and retailers to extract potentially harmful components and recycle other components. Examples of these types of materials and their particular challenges include the following: • Plastic bags and plastic wrap are prevalent in the waste stream,particularly residential.Collection of plastic bags in the recyclables cart creates a nuisance further down the line at the material recovery facilities.As the bags move through the facility they sometimes catch in and jam the sorting machinery,and they can blow around and cause litter problems. For these reasons,curbside collection may not be the best option for plastic bags and wrap at this time.More appropriate options for consideration may be an increased use of reusable shopping bags and the establishment or expansion of take-back programs at the retail level. For instance,the Wrap Recycling Action Program (WRAP),a national initiative,provides a network of drop-off locations for clean and dry plastic film,including wraps,bags and flexible packaging,to be recycled. • Electronic Products and Fluorescent Bulbs and Tubes Collecting these materials at the curb is complicated by the fact that some of them tend to break easily and - -- contain potentially hazardous _. n materials that must be safely disposed. In Washington p g State,legislation requires ., ** � manufacturers of computers, -. . "' • �� t � • .-' c. a • 'M monitors,and televisions to .� ,� r •` y �,�•q k ,� provide separate locations for free recycling of these items. '* V41 Handling electronics through F. • product stewardship ensures • ° that the various components, such as glass,plastic,and metals,are separated and recycled as appropriate and that any potentially Fluorescent tubes are collected at the Factoria Recycling and Transfer Station 4-24 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 106 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 hazardous materials are recycled or disposed in a safe and environmentally sound manner. Product stewardship efforts reduce costs to local governments and their ratepayers by eliminating the costs to recycle these products. Take-back programs have also been implemented for fluorescent bulbs and tubes.Cities such as Kent and Shoreline and have contracted with their recycling collection companies to develop a safe,convenient program for collecting fluorescent bulbs and tubes at the curb.The City of Bothell's garbage and recycling collection contract includes curbside collection of electronic products and fluorescent bulbs and tubes as well as collection at the The Recology Bothell store. Some cities offer collection of small appliances and home electronics not covered by Washington's current product stewardship laws. For appropriately sized products that do not contain hazardous materials,curbside collection is a viable and efficient option. • Polystyrene Foam-One type of plastic that is not recommended for residential curbside collection is expanded polystyrene foam,commonly known as Styrofoam,which includes clamshell containers for take-out foods and blocks of plastic that are used to package many electronics and other goods.These materials are light and bulky, can break easily into small pieces,readily mix with other materials causing contamination,and are difficult to separate out at the material recovery facilities. In addition,the quantity collected is so small that it takes a long time to collect enough of the material to ship to market.Although there are challenges to collecting expanded polystyrene foam packaging curbside,the City of Des Moines began offering its single-family residents this service in 2012. Block expanded polystyrene foam (not packing peanuts) is accepted and residents are asked to put the blocks in a clearly labeled plastic bag and place it next to their curbside recycling cart.This allows the expanded polystyrene foam blocks to be handled separately from the commingled recyclables.The cities of Issaquah and Seattle have taken another approach and banned the use of expanded polystyrene foam containers for take-out foods.Other cities,such as Kirkland and Redmond,have regular or semi-regular collection events to collect expanded polystyrene packaging. Size of Collection Container The size of the recycling collection cart can affect recycling success.Areas where most residential customers use smaller recycling carts have reported lower recycling rates and when larger carts have been provided the recycling rate has increased.As more materials are identified for commingled recycling,and food scraps are added to the yard waste cart,recyclables carts are getting larger and the size of garbage can to which customers subscribe should become smaller. Frequency of Collection Adjustments to the frequency of curbside collection for garbage,recyclables,and organics can also be used to influence recycling and disposal behaviors and reduce collection costs and truck traffic.Garbage collection across King County typically occurs on a weekly basis.This collection schedule has been driven,in part,by the presence of food scraps and other organics in the garbage that rapidly decompose and have the potential to lead to environmental or public health concerns.With separate collection of organics for recycling,there is an opportunity to modify weekly garbage collection to benefit ratepayers and to create a more environmentally sustainable system. One of the most important factors in determining the appropriate collection frequency for the various material streams,particularly for organics(yard waste and food scraps),is compliance with the public health and environmental standards in Title 10 of the Code of the King County Board of Health.To study the effects of changing the collection method and possibly the frequency of collection,in summer 2007 the division conducted a pilot 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 4-25 Att A Page 107 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Regulatory Changes Allow Adjustments in Collection Frequency Schedules After successful completion of the Renton pilot study,a variance to Title 10 of the Code of the King County Board of Health was approved to allow every-other-week collection of organics(with the yard waste)for single-and multi-family residents,as well as every-other-week collection of residential garbage.The variance applies as long as the following standards(excerpted directly from the variance) are met.During the next review of the Title 10 Health Code,these variances are scheduled to be adopted. Residential(Single-Family)Garbage Collection Residential garbage may be collected every other week provided that: • Garbage is contained in a provided cart. • A food scrap collection program is available and actively promoted to residents. • The garbage collection and food scrap collection services are offered on alternating weeks to ensure that customers have access to at least weekly disposal or composting options for problematic compostables. • Residents are instructed to bag all garbage before placing it in carts to reduce vectors,free liquids,and litter. Residential(Single-and Multi-family)Organics Collection(with yard waste) • When mixed with yard debris,residential food scraps may include all vegetative,meat,dairy products,pastas,breads,and soiled paper materials used for food preparation or handling; provided that all collected materials are picked up by haulers which deliver the mixed yard waste to a permitted transfer and/or permitted composting facility for serviced customers. • Combined food scraps and yard debris shall be collected no less frequently than every-other- week,year-round provided that there are no leachate generation,odor,or vector problems. • Combined food scraps and yard debris shall be collected in carts.Residents shall be instructed to place food scraps only in the cart provided to them.Any extra customer-provided cans or large paper bags shall contain only yard debris. • Compostable bags may be used to consolidate food scraps placed in carts if and only if the bags have been approved by the facility receiving the material for composting.Plastic bags shall not be used for yard/food debris. • Haulers shall make available a cart-cleaning or replacement service for customers with carts which have unacceptable residue or odor levels to avoid improper disposal of rinse water to storm drains,yards,etc.,and reduce the need for customers to self-clean their containers. • Educational and promotional materials from the county,city,and haulers shall inform residents about the benefits of recycling food scraps and soiled paper;and appropriate options for managing it,including the use of approved compostable bags;and appropriate options and restrictions for cleaning carts. 4-26 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 108 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Commercial/Multi-family Food Scraps Collection(without yard waste) • Food scraps shall be collected in leak-proof,contractor-provided containers with tightly- fitting lids. • Containers shall be kept clean through the use of contractor-cleaning,compostable bagging, compostable cart lining or boxing,or limiting the types of materials collected from a particular customer. • Containers shall be cleaned by the customer or the hauler immediately upon the request of City, County,or Public Health personnel. • Customers shall be informed of container cleaning restrictions(i.e.,proper disposal of rinse water and any residues from containers outside of storm drains,landscaping,etc.). • Customers shall be informed of what is not acceptable in containers and the need to keep container lids closed when not in use and inaccessible overnight. • Collection of commercial/multi-family food scraps shall occur weekly at a minimum.Any exception to the minimum weekly schedule will have to bejustified by information on a particular customer's food scrap composition,where it can be shown that less frequent collection can occur without leachate generation,odor,and vector problems. study in cooperation with the City of Renton,Waste Management(the collection company),and Public Health.The purpose of the study was to explore the public health and environmental impacts,customer responses,and effects on potential waste diversion that would result from changes in collection. In particular Public Health was concerned about the feasibility of collecting meat and bones every other week in the yard waste cart and changing garbage collection to less than weekly.To explore these concerns,approximately 1,500 Renton households participated in the six-month pilot study to look at two different collection schedules: • Every-other-week collection of all three solid waste streams-garbage,recyclables,and organics,and • Every-other-week collection of garbage and recyclables and weekly collection of organics. The pilot study showed positive results for both collection schedules tested.There were no negative health or environmental impacts observed,and customers were highly satisfied with the collection schedules and the container sizes provided to adjust for the shift in schedule.Study results indicated not only a 20 percent decrease in the amount of garbage disposed,but an overall reduction in the generation of garbage,recycling,and organics.An added benefit was the reduction in truck traffic and transportation costs with the less frequent collection cycles. As a result,the City of Renton rolled out a citywide program in January 2009 to offer every-other-week collection of garbage and commingled recyclables,with every week collection of organics. Renton is the first city in King County to provide every-other-week garbage collection as the standard collection service for single family households.By 2013,Renton's disposal per household had dropped by 23 percent. While other factors such as the economic downturn likely played a role in disposal reductions,data from all of King County over the same time period estimated a disposal drop of 8 percent,suggesting that every-other-week garbage is a significant tool to reduce disposal and increase recycling. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july2028 4-27 Att A Page 109 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Fee Structure Curbside Recycling Services: In nearly all areas of King County,households paying for garbage collection services also cover the embedded cost of recycling collection services. In most cases,unlimited amounts of recyclables can be set out. In contrast,the fee for garbage service varies depending on the number or size of containers each household sets out.A variation of this pay-as-you-throw system is to couple it with a linear rate structure in which there is no "bulk discount"for having a larger container and the price per gallon is the same across all service levels. Consequently,King County residents have a clear financial incentive to reduce the amount they dispose and increase the amount they recycle. Curbside Organics Services:Sixteen cities,comprising about 55 percent of the population in the county,have adopted rate structures that embed the cost of organics collection in the curbside garbage collection fee,providing a further incentive for residents to reduce disposal and maximize use of the recycling options for which they are paying. In 2016,the average pounds of garbage disposed per household in these cities was 12 percent lower than the average for the rest of King County. Curbside Collection of Bulky Items for Residents An ongoing issue with collection is finding the most efficient and cost-effective way to handle bulky waste—larger, individual items that do not fit in a garbage can or recycling cart.This type of waste includes recyclable items such as appliances,potentially reusable items such as furniture,and other large items that must be disposed. Bulky waste collection services are available from collection companies throughout the county;however,these services are not widely used. Residents may not use the service because it is expensive,ranging from $25 to$128 per item,with the possibility of additional charges '" for travel time and labor.Customers may also be unaware of the collection options available to them.The primary alternatives to bulky curbside collection are self-hauling the materials „r to transfer stations for disposal or recycling,or taking them to collection events sponsored by the county or the cities. Neither of these self- haul options is an efficient way of handling the materials because of the number of vehicle trips, the increased number of transactions at transfer �= stations,and the high cost of staging Bulky items are taken to a special recycling collection event collection events. The current recommendation is to work with collection companies and the UTC to explore options to increase the efficiency and reduce the price of curbside collection of bulky items.For example,the cost would be lower if a small charge were included in the regular garbage fee,and curbside collection days were regularly scheduled and promoted,thereby increasing the efficiency of the collection routes.Collection systems for bulky items should be designed,to the extent possible,to divert reusable items to charitable organizations for resale,reuse community organizations(Green Bee or Buy Nothing community groups), and recyclable items to processing facilities. 4-28 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 110 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Single-Family Residential Minimum Collection Standards Single-family collection services for garbage,recyclables,and organics are well established.As discussed earlier, however,there are many variations among the cities in the specific methods of collection and rate structures.The division has evaluated the factors that appear to lead to higher recycling rates and an increase in the diversion of materials from the garbage. Based on this evaluation,it is recommended that minimum collection standards be adopted by the cities and unincorporated areas to provide the optimal service level for reducing waste and increasing the diversion of recyclables and organics from disposal. Working with the community and the hauler,the division is exploring the inclusion of Vashon/Maury Island in . the service level standards,as well as ' other ways to improve recycling services -- provided curbside and at the Vashon Recycling and Transfer Station.Skykomish �+.. and Snoqualmie Pass will not be included i in the service level standards at this time because of their remote locations and low population densities. The minimum collection standards can be implemented as the county updates its service-level ordinance and jurisdictions ° amend their collection contracts (some of these targeted standards may not require Curbside collection (Photo courtesy of Recology CleanScapes) changes to contracts or the county's service-level ordinance).A description of the recommended collection standards follows in Table 4-5. Continuing education and promotion will also be important for increasing recycling and reducing wastes generated by single-family residents.The cities and the county will increase education and promotion to encourage the recycling of food scraps and food-soiled paper. In concert with the commercial collection companies,the cities and the county will also continue to focus promotions on the proper recycling of the standard curbside materials to increase participation and reduce contamination in the recycling containers. Financial incentives will also be explored through the fee structure for garbage and recyclables and grants to cities. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 4-29 Att A Page 111 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Table 4-5. Single-family minimum collection standards Garbage Recyclables Organics Required Mixed solid waste Newspaper,cardboard,mixed paper,and Yard debris Materials for polycoated paper Food scraps Collection* Plastic bottles,jugs,and tubs Food-soiled paper Tin and aluminum cans Glass bottles andjars Aseptic packaging Small scrap metal Container Type Containers or wheeled Wheeled carts Wheeled carts ca its Container Size Subscriptions available 90+gallon if collected every other week 90+gallons if collected every other week for various sizes Smaller size if collected more frequently or if Smaller size if requested by customer requested by customer Frequency of Minimum ofonce a Minimum of every other week Minimum of every other week Collection month Fee Structure Fee increases with Recyclables collection included in garbage fee Organics collection included in garbage fee container size Additional containers available at no extra charge Additional carts may be included in base fee or available at an extra charge Customers requesting smaller carts may be offered a reduced rate *Subject to status ofrecyclables on King County's Designated Recyclables List Multi-Family Residential Collection Multi-family recycling has not been as successful as single-family recycling.There are a number of contributing factors,including space constraints for collection containers and a higher turnover of residents and property managers.These factors make it difficult to implement standardized collection services and provide consistent recycling messaging to this diverse sector.Some local progress has been made,however,in developing consistent design standards to accommodate waste in multi-family complexes. In addition,in many areas of the county there is a trend in the construction of mixed-use buildings,which contain retail shops on the lower level and residential units above. 4-30 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 112 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Mixed-use buildings present somewhat similar challenges for recycling,including: • A lack of space for adequate garbage,recycling,and organics collection (often competing with parking needs and other uses), • A need for collaborative planning among property developers,garbage and recycling collection companies,and cities early in the development process to ensure that adequate space is designated for garbage,recycling,and organics containers in the building design,and • Different customer types,both residents and employees,with different recycling needs. Recycling could be increased substantially at multi-family complexes and mixed-use buildings by adopting minimum collection standards for multi-family collection.The multi-family standards vary somewhat from the single-family standards to account for differences in service structure.To improve recycling at mixed-use buildings,the cities and the county must consider both the multi-family collection standards and the recommendations for non-residential collection.A description of the recommended collection standards follows in Table 4-6. Table 4-6. Multi-family minimum collection standards Garbage Recyclables Organics Mixed solid waste Newspaper,cardboard,mixed paper,and Yard debris polycoated paper Food scraps Required Materials for Plastic bottles,jugs,and tubs Food-soiled paper Collection* Tin and aluminum cans Glass bottles andjars Aseptic packaging Small scrap metal Clearly mark Clearly mark containers indicating materials Clearly mark containers containers indicating acceptable for recycling.Information should indicating materials acceptable Required Informational Labeling materials that are include pictures. for organics container. garbage.Information Information should include should include pictures pictures Container Type Wheeled carts or Wheeled carts or dumpsters Wheeled carts or dumpsters dumpsters Container Size Subscriptions available Service equal to garbage service Subscriptions available for vari- for various sizes ous sizes Weekly,or more often Weekly or more often if needed Weekly or every other week Frequency of Collection if needed Fee based on container Recyclables collection included in garbage fee Subscription service available for Fee Structure size and/or collection an added fee frequency Additional containers available at no extra charge *Subject to status ofrecyclables on King County's Designated Recyclables List 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 4-31 Att A Page 113 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Increased education and promotion are needed to improve recycling at multi-family complexes. It will require concerted efforts on the part of many to standardize the collection infrastructure and provide ongoing education and promotion for property managers and residents alike. To further increase recycling in multi-family and mixed use buildings,the division, "No loll, in cooperation with other jurisdictions, property managers,and owners of multi- .rt r.. r family properties,collection companies and � � ,�� 'I other stakeholders,has conducted several i research and pilot studies(KCSWD 2014b and 2016b).The findings from these studies conclude that successful recycling depends on: :•* • Collection logistics:Effective programs place recycling containers for convenience,access,and ease of use;provide sufficient space and capacity for collection both inside and ` outside of the buildings;provide tools for collection,storage,and transport Recycling and garbage containers at an apartment complex.The signs of recyclables and organics from units detail what should be put in each bin to collection points;and clearly label collection containers. • Policies and regulations:Clear policies ensure that recycling is available and addresses issues such as contamination. Examples might be service level ordinances,city contracts that embed recycling in garbage rates,and building code requirements. • Education and outreach:Effective recycling and food waste collection in multi-family buildings hinges on education and outreach.Strategies such as door-to-door outreach,property manager trainings,and onsite assistance have been successful. In addition,education and outreach that addresses non-English speaking communities is crucial. Improving multi-family recycling will likely require,at a minimum,the following actions: • Clarify and strengthen building code requirements-The division's GreenTools program has been working collaboratively with cities to develop standards that can be used for multi-family buildings. If adopted,these standards will help ensure that enough space is designed to allow for recycling in future construction. • Research collection and demographic characteristics,complex by complex- Planning outreach strategies should begin with a careful look at language and other population demographics,collection infrastructure, tenant turnover rate,and other applicable characteristics of each complex.Outreach strategies must be comprehensive and flexible to fit the complex. Customized combinations of outreach tactics and education reinforcement,designed to address the researched characteristics of that complex,help ensure successful outreach which will increase recycling and decrease contamination. 4-32 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 114 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 • Provide manager and maintenance staff education- Involvement and support from the property manager and staff is important to the long-term success of multi-family recycling. The institutional knowledge property managers can provide and the role they play in delivering education to each tenant and at each container are important considerations. This function should be supported with training and materials. • Provide ongoing recycling education for residents- Recycling education needs to be provided on a continuing basis because most multi-family complexes have high tenant turnover. Providing education materials with the lease and at least annually coupled with information through newsletters and posters ensure that residents get the message and it is reinforced on a regular basis. • Involve collection companies to assist with service improvements and education-The collection company should be involved to provide insight and information about complexes'recycling infrastructure systems and to help with education outreach and feedback to the tenants about the quality of the recycling and level of contamination. Companies should monitor the recycling performance of - 5' i -71 the complexes and tag or refuse pickup _ of loads that are contaminated. Smog Green, • Expand organics collection-Currently, Think Clean, only a few cities are offering collection of food scraps and food-soiled paper to multi-family residents.The cities and * '' the county will need to work with the Aim am- collection companies to determine what containers and collection methods will work best for multi-family complexes. Education and promotion will be a critical A collection truck picks up garbage at a business(Photo courtesy of component of the new multi-family food Waste Management) scrap collection programs. Non-Residential Collection The non-residential sector comprises a range of businesses,institutions,and government entities from manufacturing to high-tech and retail to food services.This sector has achieved recycling successes in the last few years,with a recycling rate of almost 71 percent in 2014,according to Ecology statewide recycling data. Unlike the residential waste stream,the types of materials discarded by the non-residential sector differ widely from business to business.Thus,the recycling potential for any particular business or industry can vary greatly. For example,restaurants and grocers are the largest contributors of food scraps,while manufacturers may generate large quantities of plastic wrap and other packaging materials. Because of the diversity of businesses in the region,a more individualized approach is needed to increase recycling in this sector.One area with significant room for improvement is the diversion of food scraps and food-soiled paper. The largest increase will be realized as more restaurants and grocers contract with private-sector companies to collect their food scraps for composting,and more cities begin to offer embedded commercial organics collection. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 4-33 Att A Page 115 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Strategies for increasing recycling in the non-residential sector present some of the same challenges as the multi- family sector,including: • The lack of consistent and/or adequate building standards for locating collection containers. • The need for financial incentives for business owners,property managers,and tenants to take advantage of recycling services.For example,cities that include recycling services in their garbage rate provide a financial incentive for businesses to recycle. • A need for consistent and ongoing technical assistance and education. Involvement and support of the business owners and property managers is important to the long-term success of recycling at individual businesses or complexes.Educating building maintenance staff about properly collecting recyclables from building tenants is important to ensure the proper handling of recyclables. Education for employees about proper recycling methods is also crucial. To assess the relative size of the non-residential waste stream in different jurisdictions,the division looked at the number of jobs located within them.About 94 percent of jobs in the King County service area are located within incorporated cities.More than 73 percent of these jobs are in cities where the garbage collection contracts include recyclables collection in the garbage fee.These contracts typically define the capacity required for recycling collection as 150 to 200 percent of the amount of garbage capacity,and target collection of the same materials as residential curbside programs. Non-residential customers have the option to take advantage of recyclables collection offered by their service provider or to contract with other collection companies that may pay for the more valuable recyclable materials, such as high-grade office paper.For cities with collection contracts,adding recycling service to their contracts and including the cost of service in the garbage rate does lead to higher non-residential recycling rates and ensure that recycling 0 0 tl, services are available to all businesses. However,while including recycling service in the rate requires all businesses to pay for the service,it does not require that • k • '� those businesses use the service that the city contractor provides. Businesses in unincorporated King County and cities with UTC-regulated collection services can choose from a wide array of recycling service providers in King County for their recycling g needs. Promotion of these services by the s county and these cities will help increase awareness among businesses of the available options. For example,the county's"What do I do with...?"website(www.kingcounty.gov/ Food waste comprises a large part of the waste stream at restaurants whotdoldowith) is one place businesses can look for a service provider. Another strategy that might increase recycling for some business customers is to consider a rate structure based on weight or composition of waste,rather than the size of the container.A study was conducted to measure container weights for non-residential wastes on five weekday collection routes in the City of Kirkland over a 12-month period (KCSWD et al.2008a).This study determined that businesses with large amounts of food scraps generate garbage 4-34 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 116 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 that is significantly heavier than the garbage generated by businesses without large amounts of food scraps.In Washington,non-residential garbage rates are based on the size of the garbage container.So generators of heavy materials,such as food scraps,pay less than they might if the rates were based on weight,as they are in some jurisdictions across the country. Because a weight-based rate would likely cost more for generators of large amounts of food scraps,it would provide an incentive for increased participation in organics recycling programs.Another strategy is to offer organics collection to businesses at no additional cost or at rates less than garbage. Construction and Demolition Materials Collection and Recycling Construction and demolition debris is from the construction,remodeling,repair,or demolition of buildings,other structures,and roads and accounts for approximately 30 percent of all waste generated in King County.Construction and demolition debris includes clean wood,painted and treated wood,dimensional lumber,gypsum wallboard, roofing,siding,structural metal,wire,insulation,packaging materials,and concrete,asphalt,and other aggregates. The county banned the disposal of large loads of construction and demolition debris at the county-owned transfer stations and Cedar Hills landfill in 1993.In the following years,until 2016,the division contracted with two private sector companies to manage the majority of the region's construction and demolition debris. Construction and demolition materials are typically hauled from a job site by: 1)the contractor or individual working at the job site,2)an independent construction and demolition debris hauler permitted to handle construction and demolition debris for recycling only,or 3)a collection company permitted to haul materials for both recycling and disposal. Construction and demolition debris processing of recyclable materials occurs using either source-separated or commingled methods.Source-separated processing,which occurs particularly on large projects with adequate space,involves sorting specific types of construction and demolition material on the job site(e.g.,metals,concrete, and clean wood)and transporting them to one or more recycling facilities.Commingled processing involves placing all recyclable construction and demolition debris in one container and then transporting the loads to a facility that uses mechanical and manual methods to sort the recyclable materials. Non-recyclable construction and demolition waste should be hauled directly to a construction and demolition debris transfer station where the waste is transferred to rail cars for transport to a - landfill. The division does not accept construction " " s and demolition waste at its transfer stations or Cedar Hills landfill,except for incidental amounts. King County " Ordinance 18166,effective January 2016, requires that construction and demolitionm waste must be taken to a designated privately-operated construction and demolition debris recycling and/ or transfer facility.The division has agreements with the designated facilities that require these facilities to recycle readily recyclable materials.These Container with construction and demolition debris for recycling 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 4-35 Att A Page 117 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 facilities are banned from landfilling certain materials including:clean wood;cardboard;metal;gypsum scrap(new); and asphalt paving,bricks and concrete.All other construction and demolition waste may be disposed.As markets develop,the division will consider banning other construction and demolition materials as well. With improvements in the ability of processing facilities to separate materials,the current trend is toward the commingling of recyclable construction and demolition debris. If recyclable construction and demolition debris and garbage are commingled,however,the recyclables are more difficult to extract and the processing facilities end up having lower facility diversion rates.These mixed loads should therefore be disposed of in their entirety. Independent construction and demolition debris haulers with commercial permits can transport recyclable construction and demolition materials from job sites to either source-separated or commingled construction and demolition debris processors.These independent haulers cannot,however,transport construction and demolition materials for disposal.Only collection companies permitted by the UTC to haul solid waste can transport construction and demolition materials for disposal. The designated facilities listed in Tables 4-7 and 4-8 have agreements with the division and are a part of a network of designated facilities where construction and demolition materials can be recycled and/or disposed. Figure 2-4,a map in Chapter 2,shows the locations of these facilties.These facilities agree to meet criteria that the division specifies for recycling of construction and demolition materials.The division contracts with the King County Sheriff's department to provide enforcement that helps to ensure that materials are being recycled.Cities are encouraged to adopt regulations that complement the King County ordinance.The division's GreenTools program is available to provide technical assistance to cities and has a model ordinance for cities to use. Table 4-7. Designated facilities for non-recyclable construction and demolition waste (July 2018) Construction and Demolition Material Location King County Tons Facility Processed in 2017 Republic Services Third&Lander Recycling Center&Transfer Station 2733 3rd Ave South,Seattle 10,358 Black River Recycling&Transfer Station 501 Monster Road,Renton 44,823 Waste Management Cascade Recycling Center 14020 NE 190th,Woodinville 14,237 EastmontTransfer/Recycling Station 7201 W Marginal Way SW,Seattle 19,654 Recycling Northwest 701 2nd Street NW,Auburn 28,086 4-36 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 118 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Table 4-8. Designated facilities for recyclable construction and demolition waste (July 2018) Construction and Demolition Location King County Tons Material Facility Processed in 2017 Alpine Recycling 3504112th Street E,Tacoma 2,439 DRS Seattle(managed by DTG) 7201 E.Marginal Way S.,Seattle N/A DTG Renton 701 SW 34th Street,Renton 77,077 DTG Woodinville 5906 238th Street SE,Woodinville 18,059 DTG Maltby 8610 219th Street SE,Woodinville 7,010 Maltby Container and Recycling 20225 Broadway Avenue,Snohomish 81740 Recovery 1 1805 Stewart Street,Tacoma 6,352 United Recycling-Seattle 74 S.Hudson Street,Seattle 2,314 United Recycling-Snohomish 18827 Yew Way,Snohomish 23,896 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2018 4-37 Att A Page 119 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 4 q " Greet) Bin aMM Vii'" ow Asa uw syLwXr r.ar`r. ^ .roka ,arrwM..� i Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Solid Transfer and rocessin Pg System Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Policies T-1 Provide solid waste services to commercial collection companies and self-haul customers at transfer stations,and to self-haul customers at drop boxes. T-2 Provide solid waste transfer services in the urban and rural areas of the county that may be tailored to local and facility conditions and interlocal agreements with King County cities. T-3 Engage cities and communities in the siting and development of facilities,and in developing mitigation measures for impacts related to the construction,operation,and maintenance of transfer facilities, as allowed by applicable local,state,and federal laws. T-4 Build,maintain,and operate Solid Waste Division facilities with the highest green building and sustainable development practices. T-5 Provide for collection of recyclable materials at all transfer facilities -recognizing resource limitations,availability of markets,and service area needs-focusing on maximum diversion of recyclables from the waste stream and on materials that are not easily recycled at the curb or through a readily available producer or retailer- provided program. Att A Page 122 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Summary of Recommended Actions The following table includes a menu of recommended actions that the county and the cities should implement.Under the responsibility column,the entity listed first has primary responsibility for the action,bold indicates that the entity has responsibility for the action,and a star(*) indicates that the action is a priority. If the responsibility is not in bold,the action has lower implementation priority. • Detailed •- • Action Discussion Except as noted in action 2-t,continue to implement transfer station Page 5-16 • modernization as set forth in the Solid Waste Transferand Waste Management Plan and approved by the Metropolitan King County Council in 2007,including siting and building a new Northeast recycling and transfer station and closing the Houghton station when the new station is complete.Adapt the siting process included in the Solid Waste Transfer and Waste Management Plan to meet community needs in the Northeast service area. Although approved for closure under the Solid Waste Transfer and Waste Page 5-16 • Management Plan,reserve the option to retain the Renton station until the new urban transfer facilities have been completed and the impact of closure has been fully evaluated. Evaluate adding a second scale and an additional collection container at the Page 5-22 • Cedar Falls Drop Box to improve capacity. After the new recycling and transfer stations(including the new South station) Page 5-22 • are sited,if service level assessments indicate the need for additional capacity in the rural areas,consider siting drop box facilities. Periodically evaluate the level of service criteria to ensure that the criteria Page 5-11 • remain relevant. Explore prospects for the transfer of commercial loads of organics through Page 5-26 • county transfer stations. Continue to implement a resource recovery program at new recycling and Page 5-5 • transfer facilities to remove targeted materials from the waste stream. Att A Page 123 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Summary of Recommended Actions • Detailed •- • Action Discussion Encourage recycling processors to continue to improve facility sorting and Page 5-25 processing equipment and practices to remove contaminants and separate recyclables into marketable commodity grades. Page 5-26 In collaboration with stakeholders,pursue and identify new technologies • and expanded processing capacity to serve the region,and more sustainably manage organic waste. Continue to evaluate and assess the feasibility of advanced materials recovery Page 5-28 • and anaerobic digestion at division facilities. In the event of an emergency,reserve the transfer system for municipal solid Page 5-24 • waste and make the recycling of related debris a priority. Identify potential temporary debris management sites where emergency Page 5-24 • debris can be stored until it is sorted for recycling or proper disposal. Provide education and outreach on the proper management of home- Page 5-6 • generated sharps. Att A Page 124 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 SQ,Iid Waste Transfer and Processing The increased focus on environmental stewardship has reshaped the role of transfer stations in managing solid waste, creating the need for more robust and modern facilities that will facilitate a sustainable system in the future. This chapter outlines a transfer system plan that will improve current levels of service,with the flexibility to adapt to changing needs and emerging technologies.The chapter also discusses plans for effectively managing local and regional emergencies. The Transfer System and Services The concept of a regional transfer and disposal network in King County grew out of a nationwide movement in the 1960s to impose stricter standards for protection of public health and the environment.The original purpose of the transfer network was to replace the open,unlined community dump sites in use at the time with environmentally safe transfer facilities where garbage could be delivered by curbside collection trucks and self-haulers. From these transfer sites garbage could then be consolidated into larger loads for transport to the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill (Cedar Hills) (see Figure 5-1). Table 5-1 lists the locations of current transfer facilities,along with the tons of garbage,yard and wood waste received, numbers of customers served,and recycling services provided for at each facility. 0 i ram 'Ar Jot as s - 41a+ . . +r r .. Bow Lake Recycling and Transfer Station 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 5-1 Att A Page 125 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Figure 5-1. Locations of solid waste facilities Bothell -------------------------- z Lake Forest 1 Shorelin; park[ woodinv le w S en r ADu'vaff Seattle Kirkl nd 0 p Redmond Yarrow Poin n 520 Hunts P C is Cly H II d Medin Bellevue ea A Sammamish erc Factoria I an c Newcastle Issaquah S ie i 1 orth end urien Tuk it Re Cedar Hills Regional Landfill / Renton 769 SeaTac L.0 No Cedar Falls Vashon ar Lake 18 Vashon Island ?Des Moi Kent vington Maple Valley � 767 0 f� 1 f V Auburn Federal Way Blac Diamo d ona O Algona _Milto_n --Pacific 169 U O Enumcaw King County solid waste facilities °faW Landfill Transfer Station Drop Box King County Boundary 0 2 4 S E Q Cities Miles Unincorporated Area a�,roo n wowo menol�nvMnng omo�a omo�a o„tea 1-7 5-2 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 126 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Table 5-1 . Current facilities and services C IA North County Standard curbside recyclables" appliances, Shoreline Recycling& bicycles and bicycle parts,clean wood, Replace First Northeast Transfer Station" 2008 57,619 15,927 101,013 fluorescent bulbs and tubes,scrap metal, Transfer Station. 2300 North 165th St textiles,yard waste,flags,plastic film and Complete 2008. Shoreline 98133 plastic grocery bags,expanded polystyrene foam blocks and coolers,household sharps. Northeast County Standard curbside recyclables,scrap metal, Factoria Recycling& textiles,appliances,clean wood,yard waste, Transfer Station household sharps,and moderate risk waste Replace Factoria Transfer 13800 SE 32nd St 2017 142,425 697 110,461 including recycling of batteries(household, Station. Bellevue 98005 vehicle or marine),fluorescent bulbs and Complete 2017. tubes,thermometers and thermostats, propane tanks. Houghton Transfer Close Houghton Transfer Station mid- Station when replacement 11724 NE 60th St 1960s 154,547 638 128,674 Standard curbside recyclables,textiles. capacity is available.Process Kirkland 98033 to review capacity needs starting in 2018. Central County Standard curbside recyclables,appliances, Bow Lake Recycling& bicycles and bicycle parts,clean wood,scrap Replace Bow Lake Transfer Transfer Station metal,yard waste,fluorescent bulbs and tubes, 2013 285,874 8,023 212,035 Station. 18800 Orillia Rd South plastic film and plastic grocery bags,expanded Complete 2013. Tukwila 98188 polystyrene foam blocks and coolers, household sharps. Close Renton Transfer Station when replacement capacity is available. Renton Transfer Station No decisions have been made 3021 NE 4th St mid-1960s 64,569 721 87,456 Standard curbside recyclables,textiles. regarding closure pending Renton 98056 completion of the new South Recycling and Transfer Station and decisions for a potential Northeast Station. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 5-3 Att A Page 127 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 IA M IA LL South County Close Algona Transfer Station Algona Transfer Station and replace it with a new 35315 West Valley Hwy mid- 154,975 N/A 145,452 None. South Recycling and Transfer Algona 98001 1960s Station. Site selected,anticipated opening date in 2023. Rural County Cedar Falls Drop Box Standard curbside recyclables,textiles,yard 16925 Cedar Falls Rd SE 1990 3,820 704 20,903 waste. North Bend 98045 Enumclaw Recycling& Standard curbside recyclables,appliances, Transfer Station 1993 24,169 2,163 53,601 clean wood,scrap metal,textiles,yard waste, 1650 Battersby Ave East fluorescent tubes and bulbs. Enumclaw 98022 Skykomish Drop Box 74324 NE Old Cascade 1980 1,522 52 3,695 Standard curbside recyclables. Hwy Skykomish 98288 Vashon Recycling& Standard curbside recyclables,appliances, Transfer Station scrap metal,textiles,yard waste,fluorescent 18900 Westside Hwy 1999 7,674 2,302 20,013 tubes and bulbs,household and business SW generated sharps,construction and Vashon 98070 demolition debris'° Only paid transactions are recorded. Replaced the First NETransfer Station. Standard curbside recyclables are glass and plastic containers,tin and aluminum cans,mixed paper,newspaper,and cardboard. Construction and demolition debris is accepted for disposal. 5-4 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Mafiagen2e7d Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 128 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Resource Recovery at Transfer Stations Resource recovery is separation of recyclables that happens after disposed materials are received by the county. It is a growing aspect of division business. Historically,the division's recycling programs have been limited to source separation by curbside customers. However,since 70 percent of the materials brought to the transfer stations could be recycled,sorting out target materials can help reach recycling goals.The division is increasing its resource recovery efforts.Based on a successful pilot project that separated tons of recyclables at the Shoreline Recycling and Vji °�"`- 1 _ Transfer Station,new staff were approved for expanded sorting of recyclables from mixed waste at the Shoreline, Bow Lake,and Enumclaw stations. Recycling bins are also provided near where self-haul customers unload their ,• cars at those stations. �. In addition to providing the standard recycling services, Bow Lake,Enumclaw,and Shoreline Recycling and Transfer ' Stations have increased the amounts of cardboard,scrap metal,and clean wood recycled by actively removing these materials from mixed waste with use of an excavator and by providing additional staff to engage customers in ATransfer Station Operator recovers cardboard from a mixed load of solid waste the separation of recyclables from mixed waste loads at the point of disposal. -o—o—o- Materials Recovery by the Numbers In 2017,additional staffing,recycling bins,and signage in the self-haul areas resulted in the recovery of 7,184 tons of cardboard,metal,and wood,an increase of 1,323 tons over 2016. Tons)Materials Recovery(Additional April 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total Bow Lake 0 1,160 2,814 3,426 7,400 Enumclaw 6 156 286 776 1,224 Shoreline 1,184 2,114 2,761 2,982 9,041 1,190 3,431 5,861 7,184 17,666 Services for Moderate Risk Wastes Many common household products,such as pesticides and certain cleaning products,contain ingredients that are toxic,flammable,reactive,or corrosive.Disposed improperly,these products,referred to collectively as moderate risk waste,can pose a threat to human health and the environment.Moderate risk waste generated in King County is managed through the Local Hazardous Waste Management Program (LHWMP).This program is jointly managed by 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 5-5 Att A Page 129 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 King County,the City of Seattle,the 37 cities within our service area,and Public Health.The guiding policies and plans are contained in the joint Local Hazardous Waste Management Plan(Watson 2010),mandated under RCW 70.105. The county accepts moderate risk waste from residents through two avenues:the traveling Wastemobile and the stationary drop-off site at the Factoria Recycling and Transfer Station.In addition,the City of Seattle operates two moderate risk waste collection sites within its borders,which are open to all King County residents.Wastes collected through these services are recycled,reused,or incinerated when necessary.None is disposed at Cedar Hills.Moderate risk waste collection for residents is funded through a surcharge on garbage disposal,residential and business garbage collection, and wastewater discharge fees.Residents and businesses using `` the services are not charged at the drop-off locations.Jurisdictions receive funds from the LHWMP to provide the service. Created in 1989,the county's Wastemobile was the first r program of its kind in the nation. It is a mobile service that travels to communities within King County,staging collection of moderate risk waste at each site for two or three days at a time. The traveling Wastemobile had 21 events in 2017 that served 11,851 King County residents,collecting 272 tons of moderate risk waste.This represents a customer increase of five percent from 2016.The Wastemobile also provides a mobile moderate risk waste collection at The Outlet Collection Seattle(formerly the Supermall) in Auburn each Saturday and Sunday. In 2017, k3 235 tons of moderate risk waste were collected at this location - -�7 4pf71.,.arw from 9,481 customers,six percent more customers than used the service in 2016.The county's Factoria Recycling and Transfer Station offers moderate risk waste drop-off service six days a The moderate risk waste collection facility at the week. In September 2017,the new Factoria state-of-the-art new Factoria Recycling and Transfer Station collects moderate risk waste facility opened. It has more capacity and moderate risk waste from households and small functionality than the previous facility did,enabling the division businesses to effectively and safely collect hazardous waste.In 2017,a little over 13,000 customers brought 281 tons of moderate risk waste to Factoria. Since 2008, Factoria and the Wastemobile have also accepted moderate risk waste from small businesses. In 2017,this program served 267 small-quantity generator business customers and collected 18 tons of moderate risk waste. Collection of Sharps Sharps are medical products,such as hypodermic needles,scalpel blades,and lancets,which require special handling to ensure their safe collection,transfer,and disposal.Without proper containment,sharps can pose a safety hazard to workers through potential exposure to blood-borne pathogens or other disease-causing agents.Within King County, the disposal of sharps is regulated by Title 10 of the Code of the King County Board of Health and by King County's Waste Acceptance Rule PUT 7-1-6(PR),9/17. Disposal of sharps in the general waste stream is prohibited.Separate,secure receptacles for sharps collection are provided for residents and small businesses at the Vashon Recycling and Transfer Station with prior authorization from the division's Special Waste Unit. Residents may also deposit home-generated sharps in separate,secure receptacles at the Factoria,Shoreline and Bow Lake Recycling and Transfer Stations.Business-generated sharps are not accepted 5-6 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 130 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 at the transfer facilities,except at Vashon with prior authorization from the Special Waste Unit.Sharps generated by medical facilities or businesses are accepted for disposal at Cedar Hills with prior authorization from the Special Waste Unit. There are alternative methods for the proper management of sharps. For example,some health care providers and pharmacies will take back used sharps in pre-approved containers.There are also mail-in programs available. Trends in Transfer Station Usage Figure 5-2 shows the tons of garbage received at the transfer stations and the landfill over the last 27 years.The drop in total tons disposed in the early to mid-1990s is attributable to the success of waste prevention and recycling programs that began in the late 1980s,the withdrawal of the City of Seattle from the county's system in 1991,and the ban on most construction and demolition debris from the division's solid waste system in 1993. In 2004,the amount of garbage taken directly to Cedar Hills decreased significantly due to an increase in the fee charged to commercial collection companies that were hauling wastes directly to the landfill.The economic downturn is primarily responsible for the tonnage reduction since 2007.The division does not expect a rapid return to earlier tonnage levels. Figure 5-2.Total tons processed at transfer facilities and disposed at Cedar Hills (1990 - 2017) 1,400,000 Transfer Facilities 1,200,000 Cedar Hills 1,000,000 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 O N M � Ln l0 n 00 O1 O N M � Ln l0 n 00 O1 O 0� d1 ON � 0� 0� 0� 0� 0� 0� O O O O O O O O O O d1 d1d1 d\ d1 d1 d1 d1 d1 d1 O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Seventy-two percent of the garbage received at the transfer facilities in 2017 was brought by the larger,commercial collection trucks,with the remaining 28 percent delivered by business and residential self-haulers(shown in Figure 5-3).While the larger garbage loads come from the commercial haulers,self-haulers account for 87 percent of the customer transactions (Figure 5-3).At some of the urban stations that are operating at or near maximum capacity, the mix of self-haul and commercial customers can cause long traffic queues and crowded conditions on the tipping floor.Transfer station capacity depends on a number of variables such as the mix of collection trucks versus self- haulers,available tipping stalls for each,on-site queue capacity for each,and trailer loading ability(in the case of the 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2018 5-7 Att A Page 131 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Figure 5-3. Percent of tons and transactions at transfer facilities by hauler type (2017) tons transactions Commercial haulers Self-haulers 28% so 87% older stations with no preload compactors). The division has managed these problems,to the extent possible at each station,by providing separate queuing lanes for the two customer types and allowing maximum separation on the tipping floor,for safety as well as efficiency.Crowding is somewhat eased by the fact that self-haulers typically use the stations more on weekends,while commercial transactions occur primarily on week days. To understand who self-hauls to the transfer facilities and why,the division conducts periodic surveys of customers through on-site questionnaires at each facility.Self-haulers consist of single-and multi-family residents and non- residential customers,such as landscapers,small contractors,industries,offices,stores,schools,government agencies, and increasingly,independent haulers for hire.The most common type of self-hauler is the single-family resident. Of the self-haul trips,about 88 percent are made by residential customers,who bring in about 75 percent of the self- haul tons.About 12 percent of the trips are made by non-residential self-haulers,bringing about 25 percent of the self-haul tons. The number one material disposed by self-haulers is dimensional lumber(a subset of construction and demolition debris),followed by yard waste,other construction and demolition wastes,furniture,and scrap metal.The division's waste characterization studies indicate that approximately 70 percent of the materials disposed by self-haulers are recyclable. Planning Capacity at New Recycling and Transfer Stations New recycling and transfer facilities are being designed to safely and efficiently serve both commercial and self-haul customers.When a new station is designed,maximum capacity is not targeted to occur when the station opens,but is dependent upon vehicular projections into the future,usually 20-30 years.The mix of traffic and tonnage on weekends and weekdays varies significantly,so itis usually vehicular capacity on weekends that drive queue length,number of tip stalls,and therefore overall size of the facility.On weekdays,tonnage drives the operation of a station. 5-8 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 132 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Waste characterization studies conducted at transfer stations also survey self-haulers on-site at the transfer facilities (Cascadia 2016).The most common reason for transfer station visits was"large amount of garbage"(18 percent). Other primary reasons for self-hauling included,"items too big to fit in garbage can;"(16 percent)"cheaper or saves money"(14 percent),"other"(10 percent),and"cleaning home or workplace"(nine percent).The most frequent response from nonresidential customers was"large amount of garbage"(26 percent). Evaluation and Planning for the Urban Transfer Stations The county's implementation of the Solid Waste Transferand Waste Management Plan(Transfer Plan)is underway to renovate the aging transfer system to better serve its customers.This investment in the transfer system will help the division meet demands created by the growth in population since Cedar Hills began accepting waste in the mid- 1960's,by technological changes in the industry,and by ongoing advances in the recycling and salvage of materials from the waste stream. The Planning Process Since 1992,continuing growth in the county and technological changes in the industry have intensified the need for significant improvements and updates to the division's infrastructure.The 2001 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan(2001 Plan) reasserted the need for an updated transfer system (KCSWDl 2002).Given the scope of changes anticipated,both the cities x and the county recognized the need for a more coordinated approach to the planning and decision-making process. In 2004, the County Council adopted Ordinance 14971,which prioritized evaluation of the urban transfer station network as an integral part of the waste management plan and established a process for collaborative participation by the cities in solid waste planning. Codified in KCC 10.25.110,Ordinance 14971 outlined an iterative process of analysis and reporting that would culminate in a plan containing recommendations for upgrading the solid waste system.The ordinance also established a forum for cities, division,and County Council staff to collaborate on solid waste planning through the advisory committees-the Solid Waste The Algona Transfer Station was built in the mid-1960's Advisory Committee(SWAC)and the Metropolitan Solid Waste Management Advisory Committee(MSWMAC).The legislation also created the Interjurisdictional Technical Staff Group(ITSG)to assist MSWMAC with its work.ITSG included staff representatives from the cities,County Council staff,and the division.The group was very active during the initial stages of data gathering and analysis for the planning process,but is no longer meeting.Much of the initial work was to evaluate the whole system and develop recommendations that would help inform and guide the direction of this Plan. Along with division staff,the committees first analyzed various aspects of the solid waste system through four iterative milestone reports.These reports identified the need to renovate the county's urban transfer facilities by evaluating the 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 5-9 Att A Page 133 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 current conditions of each facility,discussed options for public and private ownership and operation of solid waste and recycling facilities,and identified packaged alternatives for the future configuration of the transfer station network. These four milestone reports culminated in the Transfer Plan,which provides recommendations for upgrading the transfer station system and services;methods for extending the lifespan of Cedar Hills;and options for preparing the landfill for eventual closure.Through the process of analysis and reporting,the division's stakeholders had a significant role in shaping the recommendations in the Transfer Plan.At the conclusion of the process,they communicated their support of the plan to the King County Executive and the County Council. Before final approval of the Transfer Plan,the County Council requested an independent third-party review of the Transfer Plan.The review was conducted by the firm Gershman,Brickner&Bratton,Inc.,who fully supported the primary objectives of the plan to modernize the transfer station system and maximize the lifespan of the Cedar Hills landfill.Based on Gershman,Brickner&Bratton's review and the support of both SWAC and MSWMAC,the County Council unanimously approved the Transfer Plan in December 2007. In 2012,as the division moved to implement the Transfer Plan,several cities raised questions about how changes in core planning assumptions may call for a change in if/how to proceed with the replacement of the Algona, Factoria, and Houghton transfer stations.With a lower tonnage forecast than was predicted in 2006 when the Transfer Plan was agreed to,and the indication that five cities were going to exit the system in 2028 resulting in an additional drop of system tonnage,it was decided to conduct a Transfer Plan Review,starting in 2013.At the end of that process,it was confirmed that a new Factoria Recycling and Transfer Station should be built and siting for a new South County Recycling and Transfer Station should continue. However,siting for a new Northeast Recycling and Transfer Station was postponed while alternative options were explored. In 2014,Council Motion 14145 directed the division,in collaboration with stakeholders,to continue to evaluate a mix of capital facilities and operational approaches to address system needs over time,including implementing operational approaches such as transaction demand management strategies that would provide service for the northeast county without building an additional transfer station;and to compare trade-offs and benefits with the Transfer Plan. The division transmitted a final report to the County Council on June 30,2015 as directed by Motion 14145. The report reaffirmed that the siting process for the South County Recycling and Transfer Station should continue,but that the siting process for the Northeast Recycling and Transfer,. e Station should be postponed. Instead,the report recommended that the division conduct a demand management pilot to test whether instituting longer The new Factoria Recycling and Transfer Station opened in the fall of 2017 5-10 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 134 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 hours and peak pricing at the Factoria Transfer Station would influence customers to either use the station at different hours or to use another station. During lengthy discussions with the division,advisory committees raised numerous concerns about the demand management pilot,including its impact on service levels,traffic,and regional equity. In 2017,with the city of Bellevue signing the Amended and Restated Solid Waste Interlocal Agreement(Amended and Restated ILA),and higher tonnage than was forecast in 2014 coming into the system,the county concluded that the demand management pilot as planned would likely not be effective.County Council Ordinance 18577 and accompanying Motion 14968 canceled the demand management pilot and initiated a further planning effort for transfer capacity in the Northeast service area.The legislation allocated one million dollars to planning work to assess waste transfer capacity needs in the Northeast area of King County and options to meet these needs.It also directs the division to plan for needed transfer station capacity in the Northeast area that would be in addition to the existing Factoria Recycling and Transfer Station. By early 2018,the remaining four cities,Clyde Hill, Hunts Point,Medina and Yarrow Point,also signed the Amended and Restated ILA. Service Level Evaluation Criteria In the first milestone report(KCSWD and ITSG 2004),the division and advisory committees developed 17 criteria to evaluate the urban transfer facilities.To determine the appropriate standards of performance,the division consulted the local commercial collection companies and other experts,and applied national environmental and transportation standards. Details on the application of these evaluation criteria to individual facilities are contained in the second milestone report prepared by the division and advisory committees and approved by the County Council (KCSWD 2005a).Criteria to address costs and rate-setting considerations were applied during the development of system alternatives in the final milestone report(KCSWD 2006a). The evaluation criteria were applied to five of the six urban stations-Algona,Bow Lake,Factoria,Houghton,and Renton.The former First Northeast station was not evaluated because it was in the process of being rebuilt.The rebuilt station opened in 2008 as the Shoreline Recycling and Transfer Station.These criteria were again evaluated and confirmed as appropriate during the 2013/14Transfer Plan Review process.They provide guidance for evaluating existing stations and designing new ones,but the facility site and other constraints may mean that new facilities do not entirely meet all criteria. For the urban station evaluations,the 17 criteria were grouped into three broad categories-level of service to customers,station capacity and structural integrity,and effects on surrounding communities.As expected for these five aging facilities,the majority of the criteria were not met,resulting in decisions to reconstruct or close the stations when sufficient replacement capacity was available. The three categories of evaluation criteria are described below: Level of Service • Estimated travel time to a facility-This criterion measures how conveniently located the facilities are for customers,measured by the maximum travel time to the closest facility in their service area.The standard was established as 30 minutes for at least 90 percent of the customers. It provides an indication of whether the transfer stations are well dispersed throughout the county. • Time on site-Time on site measures the time to get in and out of the station,including unloading time. It was evaluated separately for commercial haulers (with a standard of 16 minutes)and business and residential self- 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 5-11 Att A Page 135 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 haulers(each with a standard of 30 minutes). It provides an indicator of whether a transfer station can handle customers efficiently. • Facility hours- Individual days and hours of operation for each station are based on the division's usage data and customer trends.Some of the urban stations are open in the early morning or late evening hours to serve the commercial haulers.Currently,the only days that the entire system is closed are Thanksgiving,Christmas,and New Year's Day. • Level ofRecycling Services-The final criterion in this category was whether recycling services provided at the stations met the waste prevention and recycling policies established in the 2001 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan. In general,the policies directed that all stations should 1) provide for collection of the curbside recyclables,including glass and plastic containers,tin and aluminum cans,mixed waste paper, newspaper,and cardboard,2)where feasible,provide areas for source-separated yard waste collection,and 3) maintain the capacity to add collection of new materials based on market opportunities and community needs. Station Capacity Station capacity is likely the single greatest limitation of the five urban transfer stations,both now and in the future.It was measured using a number of criteria that affect daily operations,future expansion,and emergency capacity. • Vehicle and tonnage capacity- Two major operational - -� considerations measured were station capacity for vehicle traffic and solid waste tonnage,both at the time of the study and over the 20-year planning horizon.Optimal operating capacity is the maximum ;cert It 00t number of vehicles and tonnage that can be efficiently processed through the station each hour EA10 based on the station design and v customer mix.To derive criteria that — would indicate how well a station could be expected to perform,the division modeled its criteria after the transportation standards used Recycling at the Enumclaw Recycling and Transfer Station to measure roadway capacity.The transportation standards were modified to assign measures of capacity to transfer facilities.The optimal level of service was defined as"able to accommodate vehicle and tonnage throughput at all times of the day,except for occasional peak hour times. Based on the criteria,a station that provides the optimal level of service more than 95 percent of the time is considered underutilized,meaning it offers more capacity than required for the area it serves.A level of service in which capacity is exceeded during only 5 to 10 percent of operating hours is considered optimal. • Space for three days'storage-Available storage capacity establishes whether a transfer station can continue to operate,or accept garbage,for at least three days in the event of a major regional disaster. 5-12 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 136 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 • Space forstation expansion-Stations were evaluated to determine 1)whether there is space for expansion on the existing property or 2)whether there is adjacent land available on which to expand operations.These two standards were used primarily to determine if the station could be expanded in its current location or if a new location would be needed to efficiently manage current and future needs. • Meets facility safety goals-While all stations hold current permits from Public Health and meet health and safety standards,overall safety is a concern as stations become more congested and operations more constricted. The presence of these physical challenges at the stations does not mean they operate in an unsafe manner;it does mean that it takes extra effort by staff and management at the stations to ensure the facilities are operating safely. • Roof clearance-This criterion measures a station's capacity to handle the larger commercial collection trucks. Through discussions with the commercial collection companies,it was determined that a minimum clearance of 25 feet was needed to allow the new,larger trucks to unload efficiently.The longer truck/trailers with automated lifts,which allow the garbage to slide out the back of the trailers, require higher vertical clearance than trucks did in the past. Before - - -- impovements were made to some of the older stations,the collection trucks could hit and potentially damage station roofs,supporting - structures,or hanging lights as � � they unload. • Ability to compact waste-This criterion examines whether the station is equipped with,or has the space to install,a waste compactor. Waste compactors increase efficiency and reduce costs by compressing more garbage into The roof at the Houghton Transfer Station was raised in 2012 to accommodate larger trucks fewer loads for transport to the landfill or other disposal option.When garbage has been compacted,transfer trailers can carry about one-third more tons per trip,resulting in less traffic,less wear on local roads,less fuel use,and a reduction in greenhouse gases. • Structural integrity-The purpose of this criterion is to ensure the facility meets code requirements for seismic, wind,and snow events.All facilities were constructed in compliance with the applicable standards of the time and were grandfathered in their current condition and presently meet the"life safety"standard,meaning the station would not endanger occupants in the event of an emergency.The current standard for assessing new transfer buildings for seismic performance is the Immediate Occupancy standard,developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency(FEMA).This standard means that the facility could be occupied immediately following a seismic event. Because the King County Emergency Management Plan identifies transfer stations as critical facilities in the event of an emergency,this FEMA standard applies to all new stations. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 5-13 Att A Page 137 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Effects on Surrounding Communities One of the division's highest priorities is to minimize the effects of its facilities on host cities and surrounding communities.Through its advisory committees and meetings with cities,the division works to understand city and community issues and concerns and bring their perspectives to system planning.Working together,five criteria were developed to evaluate effects on communities. • Meets applicable local noise ordinance levels-This criterion is to ensure that a facility does not violate state or local (city)standards for acceptable noise levels.State and city standards are based on maximum decibel (dBA) levels that consider zoning,land use,time of day,and other factors. Evaluations were based on the existence of any reports of noise violations to the cities and additional noise level measurements performed at each station by a consultant. • Meets Puget Sound Clean Air Agency standards for odors-The primary measure of odor issues is complaints by the public or employees.Complaints are typically reported to the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency(PSCAA)or directly to the division.Complaints to PSCAA are verified by an inspector.If an odor is verified and considered to be detrimental, PSCAA issues a citation to the generator of the odor.The division also tracks and investigates odor complaints. • Meets goals for traffic on local streets-This criterion measures the impacts on local streets and neighborhoods from vehicle traffic and queuing near the transfer stations.The area that could be affected by traffic from self- haulers and commercial collection trucks extends from the station entrance to the surrounding streets.The division hired a consultant to evaluate this criterion based on two standards: 1)that additional traffic meets the local traffic level of service standard as defined in the American Association ofState Transportation Officials Manual and 2)that traffic does not extend onto local streets during more than 5 percent of the station's operating hours. • Existence ofa 100-foot buffer between the active area and nearest residence-This criterion calls for a 100-foot buffer between the active area of the station and the nearest residence. • Compatibility with surrounding land uses-The final criterion used to evaluate the stations was the most subjective and difficult to apply.It looks at consistency with land use plans and zoning regulations,aesthetics, and compliance with state and local regulations.This criterion was evaluated for each station during lengthy discussions between the division and its advisory committees. Since the level of service criteria were first applied to the transfer stations in 2005,the division has made changes and upgrades to the system. New recycling and transfer stations have been completed at Bow Lake and Factoria,and the roofs at Houghton,Algona and Renton were raised to meet the roof clearance standard. In 2017,the division applied selected criteria to the transfer stations again,using the current system conditions and an updated tonnage forecast. Table 5-2 presents the updated results for criteria that could be affected by these changes.Although the Shoreline station was not part of the original analysis,it is included in the update for reference. 5-14 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 138 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Table 5-2. Key service level criteria applied to urban transfer stations 2.Time on site meets standard for 90%of trips a.commercial vehicles <16 min=yes NO YES YES 0 0 YES b.business self-haulers <30 min=yes YES YES YES YES YES YES c.residential self-haulers <30 min=yes YES YES YES YES YES YES 4.Recycling services...meet policies in 2001 Solid Waste Plan a.business self-haulers YES/NO NO YES YES NO NO YES b.residential self-haulers YES/"JCS "JCS YES YES ",n NO YES 5.Vehicle Capacity a.meets current needs YES/NO NO YES YES YES YES YES b.meets 20-year forecast needs YES/NO NO YES* YES* NO NO NO *This is very close;the result is within .5 percent of meeting the criteria. 6.Average daily handling capacity(tons) a.meets current needs YES/NO YES YES YES NO YES YES b.meets 20-year forecast needs YES/NO NO YES YES NO YES YES 7.Space for 3 days storage a.meets current needs YES/NO NO YES YES NO vu YES b.meets 20-year forecast needs YES/NO NO YES YES NO NO YES 11.Ability to compact waste a.meets current needs YES/NO NO YES YES 10 ,�0 YES Remaining criteria not listed above includes: 1. Maximum Time to a Transfer Facility 10. Meets facility safety goals 15. Meets goals for traffic on local streets a. meets current needs a. Meets LOS standard b. meets 20 year forecast needs 12. Structural integrity b. Traffic does not extend onto local a. Meets goals for structural integrity streets 95%of time 3.Facility hours meet user demand b. Meets FEMA immediate occupancy standards 16. 100 foot buffer between active area& 8. Space exists for station expansion nearest residence a. inside the property line 13. Meets applicable local noise b. on available adjacent lands through ordinance levels 17.Transfer station is compatible with expansion surrounding land use 14. Meets PSCAA standards for odors 9. Minimum roof clearance of 25 feet 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 5-15 Att A Page 139 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Plans for the Urban Transfer Stations Based on the application of evaluation criteria,the division and its advisory committees developed a plan to modernize the transfer system,including the addition of waste compactors and other changes needed to provide efficient and cost-effective services to the region's customers. Activities approved by the County Council in the Transfer Plan include the following: Bow Lake-deconstruct the existing transfer station and construct a new recycling and transfer station on the existing site and adjacent property-complete, Factoria-deconstruct the existing transfer station and construct a new recycling and transfer station on the existing site and adjacent property-complete, Algona-close the station after it is replaced by a new recycling and transfer station in the South County area-site selected, Houghton-close the station when replacement capacity is available at a new Northeast recycling and transfer station,and Renton-close the station when replacement capacity is available. Although approved for closure,this Plan recommends reserving the option to retain the Renton station in some capacity,should its closure leave Renton and surrounding rural areas underserved.After the new transfer stations have been completed,the impact of closure can be fully evaluated.Table 5-3 shows the planned changes for the urban transfer stations and the two areas identified for construction of new stations. The new Bow Lake Recycling and Transfer Station is located on the site of the old Bow Lake Transfer Station and on adjacent property purchased from the Washington State Department of Transportation. During construction, the facility remained open to commercial haulers and self-haulers.The new transfer building opened in July 2012, immediately followed by deconstruction of the old transfer building to make way for an expanded recyclables collection area and new scale house.The station was completed in 2013. The new Factoria Recycling and Transfer Station was built on the existing site and adjacent property purchased by the division for construction of the new facility.The old station remained open as the new transfer building was constructed.Once the new building was complete,the old building was deconstructed to make room for the stationary moderate risk waste facility and recyclables collection area.The new facility was completed in late 2017, cost approximately 90 million dollars,and will not be expanded on the upper Eastgate Way property near the Factoria Recycling and Transfer Station per Ordinance 18577 and accompanying Motion 14968. A new South County station,estimated to cost about 113 million dollars,will replace the current facility in Algona on a site just north of the existing station.A new Northeast Recycling and Transfer Station is recommended,with an estimated cost of approximately 133 million in 2017 dollars. Initial planning for Northeast area transfer capacity is underway with more substantive work toward a new Northeast Recycling and Transfer Station anticipated after Plan approval in 2019. All new stations will be built to similar standards of service and sustainability as the Bow Lake, Factoria,and Shoreline Recycling and Transfer Stations.There will be differences to accommodate community needs(e.g.,Factoria retained a stationary moderate risk waste facility),and each station will be appropriately sized and designed to meet tonnage and customer requirements.All stations will have improved capacity,waste compactors,and additional space for collection of recyclable materials.The capacity to accept yard waste and other recyclables from commercial collection companies and to sort and remove recyclables from mixed loads will also be considered for new transfer facilities. For each new station,the division will seek the highest appropriate environmental certification as mandated by the County Green Building Ordinance. 5-16 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 140 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Figure 5-4. Locations of existing and planned solid waste facilities Bothell Lake Forest Park Bothellz � Woodinville Skyt omish �1 Shoreline Kenmore Duvall 1980's 2008IV I i Kirkland Redmond Houghton Seattle 1965 Yarrow Point ezo Hunts Point Carnation Clyde Hill Medina Bellevue Beaux Sammamish Arts Factoria Mercer Island 2017 Newcastle Issaqu '"° Snoqualmie 7 1 jNorth Bend Renton i/ Burien Tukwila 1965 ss I j�Vashon SeaTac Cedar Hills Regional Landfill 1999 Normandy Park Ce Bow Lake a 9aFalls 80' 2012 \ Des Moines \ nt j Covington Maple Valley I Auburn �\ Federal Way Black Diamond \ Algona \ 1965 Pacific -----�, General areas for siting a new transfer station Northeast Enumclaw .l 1993 Type of facility c --� New,retained or rebuilt transfer station \�J J Transfer station to be closed when replacement capacity is available Cedar Hills Regional Landfill 0 1 2 4 6 8 Drop box Miles 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 5-17 Att A Page 141 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 The timeline for completing the siting,design,construction,and closure of the urban transfer stations is shown in Table 5-3. Table 5-3.Timeline for the facility renovation plan 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Factoria open South siting design and permit construction open Algona close Northeast planning siting design and permit construction open Houghton close Renton' close or modify operations 1 Division recommends reserving the option to retain the Renton Transfer Station in some capacity. Transfer Facility Siting As described earlier in this chapter,the need for new transfer facilities was identified through a comprehensive analysis of the transfer system network,with extensive involvement from the division's advisory committees.While general areas for site locations were identified (Figure 5-4),specific sites or specific site selection criteria were not. The siting of a transfer facility is based on the technical requirements of operations and site constraints,such as site size and shape;however,a successful siting effort must also be tailored to address the needs and concerns of the service area communities.Many of the already renovated stations were rebuilt on the same site that the old station was built on in part due to the challenges finding a suitable site in the urban area.The siting process involves a number of steps—from development of site selection criteria to final selection of a site—and public involvement plays an important role each step of the way.The following section describes how the division implemented the standards and practices developed for transfer station siting during the planning process in its search for a new south county facility site.A similar process adapted to the needs of Northeast area communities will be used to site a new northeast county facility. Siting a New South County Recycling and Transfer Station The search for a site to replace the Algona Transfer Station with a new South County Recycling and Transfer Station began in 2012.The new station will serve the same communities that are served by the current Algona station— Algona,Auburn,Federal Way,and Pacific. A Siting Advisory Committee(SAC)was formed to advise the division from a community and system-user perspective by identifying community concerns and impacts,developing criteria used to evaluate potential sites,and expressing opinions and preferences.SAC members included representatives from cities,local agencies and businesses, chambers of commerce,school districts,commercial garbage and recycling collection companies,transfer station users,environmental and neighborhood groups,tribes,and interested citizens. 5-18 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 142 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 In addition to forming a SAC,the division worked to ensure that members of the communities to be served by the new station were aware of the project,were able to receive information about the project,and had opportunities to give input on the project.Public information efforts to non-English speaking communities included translating public information materials into Spanish, Russian,and Korean and providing translators at public meetings. In addition,the division conducted an initial Equity Impact Review(see text box for more information)to provide more information about the communities surrounding the potential sites. After an extensive site selection process and the completion of an Environmental Impact Statement(EIS),the County selected a site at 35101 West Valley Highway South,Algona,WA which is just north of the existing station.As indicated in Table 5-3,the next phase of this project,design and permitting,will be undertaken in the next two years,followed by another two years of construction. It is anticipated that the existing Algona Transfer Station will continue to operate until the new station is complete.At that point,the old station will close.Up-to-date information about the South County Recycling and Transfer Station project can be found on the division's website:www.kingcounty.gov/ depts/dnrp/solid-waste/facilities/algono.aspx. The Equity Impact Review The Equity and Social Justice Strategic Plan 2016-2022(King County 2016b) establishes a goal to"Develop facility and system improvements responsive to the values and priorities of residents and stakeholders and achieve pro-equity outcomes"The purpose of the Equity Impact Review is to fulfill that goal and to ensure that equity impacts are considered during the siting,design,and operation of a new facility.It is a process to identify,evaluate,and communicate the potential impacts on equity—both positive and negative—of the project.There are five phases of the Equity Impact Review which correspond to the different stages of the project.For instance,an initial Equity Impact Review was conducted during the siting of the South County Recycling and Transfer Station.The review determined the populations that would likely be impacted by the project and what the impacts might be.An expanded Equity Impact Review that will address approaches that will best meet community priorities and concerns will be an integral part of the design and operation of the facility. Providing Transfer Capacity in the Northeast Service Area As early as the 1992 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan,the Houghton Transfer Station was identified as being in need of replacement.Throughout the years,subsequent evaluations and studies,including the Transfer Plan, confirmed the need for a new station and the closure of the old one.The existing Houghton station was constructed in the mid-1960s on 8.4 acres of land.The station is bordered by the closed Houghton landfill on the north side,Bridle Trails State Park on the south side,and private homes on the east and west sides.The station has an open-sided, direct-dump style transfer building,a scalehouse,a modestly-sized no-fee recyclables collection area for a limited range of materials,and trailer parking areas. A New Northeast Recycling and Transfer Station is Recommended Although previous plans recommended a new station,a Northeast station decision was not finalized,offering the opportunity to re-evaluate transfer needs as part of this plan.County Ordinance 18577 directed that this plan"... must address current waste transfer needs in the Northeast area of King County and how those needs are proposed to be met"The Public Review Draft Plan issued in January 2018 identified three options to meet Northeast area 4 C „�c� „z1«� tau„x'lti r� ✓u r ra,,,� yr J ;y X018 -19 Att A Page 143 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 transfer needs: 1) Houghton station"as is,"2) site and build a new Northeast recycling and transfer station,and 3)a combination of existing and/or new facilities. After public comment and careful consideration of the three options,the option to site and build a new Northeast recycling and transfer station is recommended,with the Houghton station to be closed after the new station is complete.The location,services offered,and financial and transportation impacts to the community are components of providing regional equity in transfer services in the Northeast service area.A new station will provide similar services in the Northeast service area that updated transfer stations in other urban service areas now provide.The Northeast area is among the fastest growing parts of the county and was the third busiest station in terms of both tons and transactions in 2017.A new station will meet key levels of service to accommodate current and future tons and vehicles,both on a daily basis and when emergencies require extra storage. It would include compaction which could decrease truck traffic from the station to the landfill by almost a third.It would be designed to move customers through the station efficiently,reducing customer disposal time.It also would allow for full service recycling to help meet county goals.A new station is the highest cost option,but its costs are in line with the cost of modern stations recently built in other parts of the urban area.Siting a new station could take time and generate host community opposition. Initial planning for Northeast area transfer capacity is underway with more substantive work toward a new Northeast Recycling and Transfer Station anticipated after Plan approval in 2019.The division will use experience gained in siting the South County Recycling and Transfer Station to refine its approach to understanding capacity needs,evaluating potential sites,and involving the community.Criteria for any facility that might ultimately be built in the Northeast service area would be developed with members of that community.A first step in this process will be a dialogue to understand the needs and concerns of all of the stakeholders in the northeast service area. Other Northeast Capacity Options Considered The Houghton station"as is"and a combination of facilities,described below,were considered as options in the Public Review Draft Comp Plan,but are not recommended as the best way to provide transfer capacity in the Northeast service area. Keep Existing Houghton Station Open This option would keep the existing station open indefinitely and largely in its current condition.This option is the "no action"or status quo alternative to addressing transfer capacity in the Northeast service area. It would be the least expensive option but would continue to provide lower levels of service for the Northeast compared to other urban parts of the County system.Recycling options would be limited,compaction to reduce truck traffic would not be available,and there would not be enough space to efficiently accommodate the future tons and numbers of customers. Host city concerns about continued operation of the open sided station adjacent to a residential neighborhood would continue. Combination of Facilities This option would use a combination of facilities to meet transfer capacity needs based on expected population and employment growth,transportation corridors and other criteria to determine the types and sizes of transfer stations needed to serve the area. It would consider various combinations of facilities to meet transfer capacity needs. For example,one combination that was used to develop the comparison in Table 5-4 would be to leave the existing Houghton Transfer Station open to serve only self-haulers and site and build a separate facility elsewhere in the service area to serve commercial haulers.Although this option could meet more level of service targets than the Houghton station alone,it carries some of the challenges of both the Houghton"as is"option (continued open sided station,limited space)and the new NE station option (siting a new facility,potential host community opposition). 5-20 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 144 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Table 5-4 Comparison of key characteristics of three transfer options considered Comparative Houghton"As Is" Northeast Recycling Combination of Attribute and Transfer Station Facilities Total cost per Ton(2029)' $2.39 $13.11 $9.79 GHG Reductions from Transfer Station Recycling (2,165 MTCO2e) (32,098 MTCO2e) (28,802 MTCO2e) (2029)2 Level ofService 3 Will not meet any of the 6 Will meet all 6 key level of Will not meet all 6 key level of key level of service criteria. service criteria. service criteria. Curbside mix, textiles, Curbside mix, Curbside mix, cardboard, textiles, clean wood, cardboard, Recycling textiles,and scrap metal, clean wood, cardboard. yard waste, scrap metal,and appliances,and yard waste. other recyclables TBD. • Limited recycling and Siting a new station may take Limited recycling and flexibility Risks flexibility for the system time and be costly,and for the system in the future, in the future,and Siting a new station,and • Host city opposition. Potential host city opposition. Potential host city opposition. 1 Cost includes both capital and operating costs.Previous estimates of cost per ton and impact on the curbside rate only included capital costs 2 Using WARM model,calculates the GHG reduced by recycling at the station 3 Key level of service criteria:Time on site,Recycling services offered,Vehicle capacity,Average daily handling capacity(tons),Space for 3 days storage,and Ability to compact waste Evaluation and Planning for the Rural Transfer Facilities Historically,the rural areas were served by small community landfills.As those landfills closed, most were replaced by either a transfer station or a drop box.The Duvall and Hobart(near Maple Valley) landfills were closed without replacement. Currently,rural King County is served by two recycling and transfer stations,in Enumclaw and on Vashon Island;and two drop boxes,in North Bend (Cedar Falls)and Skykomish. The Vashon Recycling and Transfer Station 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 5-21 Att A Page 145 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 In 2007,the division applied the same 17 criteria used for the urban stations to the rural facilities. Because the drop boxes are essentially collection containers covered by roof structures,there is no building per se to evaluate,so many of the criteria did not apply.Criteria specific to the rural system were not developed because a preliminary look indicated that the rural facilities,for the most part,met the standards set for the urban system,although they may be open for fewer hours and days.To provide an appropriate level of service to area residents and the commercial collectors,the division periodically reviews the operating hours of rural facilities and makes adjustments as needed. The Enumclaw Recycling and Transfer Station,which opened in 1993,serves the City of Enumclaw and southeastern King County.The City of Enumclaw provides its own garbage collection service and takes the wastes to the transfer station.The station offers a wide variety of recycling opportunities and is equipped with a waste compactor.This station met all of the evaluation criteria,with the capacity to provide a wide range of services and the flexibility to respond to future needs. The Vashon Recycling and Transfer Station opened in 1999 to serve residents and businesses on Vashon Island.This station also met all of the evaluation criteria. It accepts a wide range of recyclables and is also equipped with a waste compactor. Because of its remote island location,the facility accepts some construction and demolition materials and special wastes for disposal that the other stations do not.The division partnered with Zero Waste Vashon,a community group focused on finding practical ways to recycle waste,to conduct a pilot program to collect yard waste mixed with food waste.The program started in October 2015 and was made permanent in 2016.The division will continue to partner with Zero Waste Vashon to find solutions to managing Island waste in a cost effective and environmentally appropriate fashion. The drop boxes are scaled-down facilities,designed to provide cost-effective,convenient drop-off services in the more remote areas of the county.The Cedar Falls Drop Box,which opened in 1990,serves self-haulers in the North Bend area. It has three containers-two for garbage and one for yard waste-and provides a collection area for some recyclables.This facility met all applicable evaluation criteria except for vehicle capacity,which is primarily due to heavy weekend use.Currently,the same scale is used by both inbound and outbound traffic,which can lead to backups on weekends when the station is most busy.The division is considering a number of improvements to this facility,including a second scale to address heavy weekend use,another container for garbage or yard waste collection,and expanded recycling opportunities. The most remote facility operated by the division is a drop box in the Town of Skykomish. Built in 1980,the drop box serves Skykomish and the communities of 4- Grotto and Baring.Skykomish provides its own garbage collection service and takes w' the wastes to the Skykomish Drop Box.The drop box is also used by self-haulers,who can bring garbage and recyclables to the facility.The Skykomish facility is unstaffed; # payment is made at an automated gate using a credit or debit card or pre-paid solid waste disposal card.There are cameras at the site to monitor activities,and division µ staff makes regular visits to the site to perform maintenance. In addition,the King County Road Services Division has a facility The Skykomish Drop Box 5-22 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 Att A Page 146 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 next door,from which Road's staff help monitor the site.The drop box met all the applicable evaluation criteria and appears to provide an appropriate level of service for the area.The facility received a new roof in 2008,after the old roof collapsed under record snowfall in January of that year. Some rural area customers may be affected by changes to the urban transfer system,primarily self-haulers who currently use the Houghton or Renton transfer stations.When a new urban facility is ultimately sited in the Northeast service area,the facility location may or may not adequately meet the service needs of rural areas.Should it be necessary,the division may consider siting drop box facilities to serve residents.Construction of regional transfer stations in these rural areas is not being considered. The division recommends deferring decisions about whether to site drop boxes in these potentially underserved areas and whether to close the Renton transfer station until after the new urban transfer stations have been completed and the impact on service capacity has been fully evaluated. City Mitigation Transfer stations provide an essential and beneficial public service.However,the stations have the potential to cause undesirable impacts on host cities and neighboring communities,such as increased litter,odor,noise,road/curb damage,and traffic,as well as aesthetic impacts.The division works to mitigate these impacts in a number of ways, such as collecting litter,landscaping on and around the site,limiting waste kept on-site overnight to reduce the potential for odor,making road modifications,and siting facilities on or near major roadways to keep traffic off local streets. Seven cities in the division's service area currently have county-owned transfer facilities within their boundaries: • Algona-the Algona Transfer Station, • Bellevue-the Factoria Recycling and Transfer Station, • Enumclaw-the Enumclaw Recycling and Transfer Station, • Kirkland-the Houghton Transfer Station, • Renton-the Renton Transfer Station, • Shoreline-the Shoreline Recycling and Transfer Station,and • Tukwila-the Bow Lake Recycling and Transfer Station. As new transfer stations are constructed in the near future,the division will work with host and neighboring cities to build stations that are compatible with the surrounding community. For example,during the design of the Shoreline Recycling and Transfer Station,the division worked closely with the community to identify impacts and mitigation measures.One result is that transfer trailers drive directly from the station onto Interstate 5 using King County Metro Transit's dedicated freeway ramps rather than city streets for access. In addition,sidewalks on nearby streets were improved;a new walking path was constructed at nearby Ronald Bog Park;trees were planted;and the portion of Thornton Creek that flows through the site underwent significant restoration.The transfer building was also moved farther from residences and is fully enclosed to mitigate impacts from noise,odor,and dust. The division has also worked closely with the City of Bellevue on the replacement of the Factoria Transfer Station. The initial plan was for a new facility to be constructed on property that fronts Interstate 90 adjacent to the south side of the old station. However,as a result of discussions with Bellevue,the division purchased adjacent property to the northwest of the old station to complete the new facility. The Amended and Restated ILA(included in its entirety in Appendix C) identifies the roles and responsibilities of the county and the cities in the regional solid waste system.The county agrees to collaborate with host and neighboring cities on both environmental review and project permitting.Additionally,the Amended and Restated ILA 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july2018 5-23 Att A Page 147 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 recognizes that,in accordance with RCW 36.58.080,a city is authorized to charge counties to mitigate impacts directly attributable to a county-owned solid waste facility. It must be established that such charges are reasonably necessary to lessen or eliminate impacts and the revenue generated may only be used for impact-mitigation purposes. Direct impacts may include wear and tear on infrastructure,including roads.The city and county will work cooperatively to determine the extent of the impacts and appropriate mitigation payments and will document any agreement. Mitigation,including any necessary analysis,is a cost of the solid waste system and as such would need to be included in the solid waste rate. Transfer Services after an Emergency Relatively common emergencies,such as seasonal flooding and winter storms,as well as major events,such as earthquakes,can create a significant amount of debris.Debris generated during these types of events can obstruct roadways,cause power outages,and interrupt essential services.A coordinated and effective plan ensures that debris is properly managed to lessen the impacts on communities,the economy,and the environment in the immediate aftermath of an emergency without causing additional problems later in recovery. To this end,the division prepared the King County Operational Disaster Debris Management Plan(Debris Management Plan)(KCSWD 2009)for unincorporated King County.The Debris Management Plan is intended to facilitate rapid response and recovery efforts during a disaster.The Debris Management Plan will be reviewed periodically,prior to the storm season,and updated as needed. The Debris Management Plan supports the 37 incorporated cities that are part of the King County solid waste system with a framework and recommendations that can be used by the cities to develop their own operational disaster debris management plans.The cities have the flexibility to develop a debris management plan that best addresses their individual needs without compromising continuity within the county.Several cities have now adopted individual plans.The City of Seattle has its own debris management plan and the City of Milton is participating in Pierce County's debris management program. The county's Debris Management Plan stipulates that during emergency response and recovery,the roles within the King County solid waste system do not change.This means that the division will continue to accept municipal solid waste at the transfer stations to the extent possible and will maximize recycling in accordance with RCW 70.95.010(8) and KCC Title 10.The transfer facilities will not be used for disposal of disaster debris that could be recycled. The debris created by a larger event,such as an earthquake,would likely consist primarily of recyclable materials,such as concrete,metal,and wood.The division's Debris Management Plan is coordinated with emergency plans prepared by other jurisdictions to maximize the recycling of these materials.The division works with the King County Regional Communications and Emergency Coordination Center(RCECC)and the Local Hazardous Waste Management Program to coordinate public information and help cities and residents identify recycling options in the event of a debris- causing emergency. Recycling the majority of emergency debris will maximize the division's capacity to continue to handle municipal solid waste over the short-and long-term. In the event of an emergency,transfer services may be suspended in the short-term.The division's priorities are to: 1. Ensure the safety of staff and customers, 2. Confirm the structural integrity of facilities and environmental control systems, 3. Coordinate with the RCECC to determine any immediate needs for division staff or equipment,and 4. Resume service. 5-24 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 148 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 The division will maximize the use of existing transfer facilities after an emergency through operational measures such as increased staffing or hours.If some transfer facilities are closed or damaged as a result of the event, customers will be rerouted to remaining stations,and commercial haulers may be routed directly to Cedar Hills landfill Additionally,the division and the cities may establish temporary debris management sites where debris can be stored until it can be sorted for recycling or proper disposal. It is recommended that potential sites in unincorporated King County and in cities be identified by each jurisdiction in advance of an emergency.The acceptance policies at these sites would be determined in response to the nature of the event and the debris that is generated. Processing Collected Materials Processing Commingled Recyclables The division expects that the private sector will continue to expand processing capacity for commingled recyclables as the need arises. In addition,numerous other private-sector facilities have emerged across the county where individual residents and businesses can bring source-separated recyclables,from paper,cans,and bottles to printer cartridges and cellular telephones,for processing. While the conversion to commingled collection makes recycling easier for consumers and has resulted in increased recycling,it presents some challenges for the recovery and processing facilities.One of the challenges is cross- contamination of materials as they are sorted and separated. This is a problem particularly for the paper stream,where `+ materials such as plastic milk jugs end up in the baled paper. :; y .Y �" �•, t Plastic bags sometimes catch in e �,. ' and jam the sorting machinery at materials recovery facilities, and they can blow around and ' ° ��++ .mo cause litter problems. Paper - w mills overseas typically perform y!M additional sorting of the _ . . materials to recover misplaced recyclables;however,most domestic paper mills dispose Sorting line at the Cascade Recycling Center(Photo courtesy of Waste Management) of these materials. In the case of glass,even small amounts of contamination in the sorted material can reduce the quality and affect the potential end use of the recycled glass.These problems illustrate a fundamental conflict between the benefits of commingled recycling (it makes collection easier and leads to increased recycling) and the need for the materials recovery facilities and end users to minimize the costs of handling these materials. For the processing of commingled recyclables to be most efficient,it is important that consumers are careful about preventing contamination in the recycled loads by: 1) preparing recyclables for the collection cart(i.e.,rinsing out bottles and jars,breaking down cardboard boxes)and 2) placing materials in the proper collection container 3)closing container lids to keep materials dry.Contamination in the recyclables can cause a wide array of problems during processing,which can lead to a reduction in the value of the materials processed for market or,in extreme 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 5-25 Att A Page 149 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 cases,the disposal of entire mixed loads.This issue can best be remedied through education programs on proper recycling techniques offered through local governments and the collection companies.See Chapter 4 for a discussion of issues regarding markets. As the region moves forward,the recommended role of the county and cities is to focus on increasing the supply and improving the quality of recyclable materials delivered to processors.The value of materials for recycling can be maximized through public education-to decrease contamination in the recycling stream and ensure that materials are properly prepared before being placed in the recycling container-and through market development-by encouraging businesses to invest in technologies used to sort and process recyclables. There are materials that present unique challenges or require more definitive decisions about the optimal way to process them,such as container glass,food-contaminated paper,compostable and degradable plastic,plastic bag and film,plastic caps,poly-coated paper,and shredded paper.The division,along with several cities,has participated in the Northwest Region Commingled Workgroup to identify key issues with commingled collection and processing and to develop recommendations for addressing them.The division will be working with the cities,the collection companies,and processors to determine which of these recommendations will be implemented in King County. Processing Organics Organic waste(yard,wood and food waste) represents the largest recyclable commodity that is landfilled-320,000 tons,more than a third of the total tons disposed at Cedar Hills landfill.Diverting these materials is key to meeting our goals.Currently composting is the primary processing option for these materials in the region. The volume of organics that is currently collected from King County businesses and residents for recycling is close to exceeding the regional permitted capacity for such processing.The current amount of recycled organics represents 90 percent of the region's processing capacity. Table 5-5. Regional compost facilities 2017 Summary of organics recycled by region Jurisdiction King County City of Seattle Snohomish County TOTAL Tons Per Year 257,829 177,315 65,800 500,944 2018 Summary of organics permitted capacity by processor Processor Cedar Grove: Cedar Grove:Everett Lenz:Stanwood TOTAL Maple Valley 17825 Cedar Grove Rd SE, 3260 36th PI NE 5210 SR 532 Address MapleValley,WA Everett,WA Stanwood,WA Tons Per Year 250,000 228,000 75,000 553,000 5-26 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 150 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 There is only one facility in King County permitted to handle food waste. Relying on one large regional facility that is operating near its maximum permitted capacity is a concern,especially if the region wants to increase the amount of organics that are recycled instead of being disposed.This facility is pursuing operational changes to help mitigate odor concerns,and continues to be the subject of community odor complaints.One reason that capacity is constrained in the region is because organics cannot be transported to Central/Eastern Washington for new processing capacity because of the Washington State Apple Maggot Quarantine regulations(RCW 17.24). Maintaining the quality of finished product is critical to compost markets,and processing challenges include: • Contamination of composting feedstocks,particularly from glass and plastic film. • Composting feedstocks are in transition. Regional commercial facilities were largely designed for yard waste,not the mix of food,yard,and compostable AL packaging that is collected and processed today.A need exists for upgraded technology to manage the new material mix. • Processors have expressed a desire to better anticipate the future feedstock mix,noting a Cedar Grove Composting Facility(Photo courtesy of Cedar Grove) need for better information on volumes and incoming materials to inform investments in capacity,equipment,and labor. • Financing for technology upgrades at existing facilities. • Composters report that market prices and sales for compost products have been stable. However,maintaining the quality of finished product is key to maintaining adequate market demand for compost;processors must balance the costs of adding processing steps(such as for additional contaminant removal)with maintaining competitive market prices for finished product. If organics diversion significantly increases in King County and the surrounding region,more processing capacity will be needed. In order to significantly increase diversion of organic materials that are disposed from single and multi-family homes and businesses,a regional dialogue with exploration of alternatives and solutions for expanding capacity is necessary.This will help minimize environmental and community impacts related to regional organics processing and ensure an adequate capacity and infrastructure is in place for regional organics processing,including contingency plans in the event regional capacity is constrained. A range of options should be pursued to address organics recycling capacity including continued organics and soils education to promote the recycling and use of organics on landscapes,market development such as local buy-back programs,the pursuit of new technologies and additional private or public infrastructure development. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 5-27 Att A Page 151 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Emerging Processing Technologies Resource recovery goes beyond sorting to include technologies such as anaerobic digestion,advanced materials recovery,pyrolysis,and gasification.Most of these technologies hold promise for the future but do not yet have extensive track records in reliably handling the amount of waste in King County's system.A brief discussion of anaerobic digestion and advanced materials recovery follows.For a discussion on pyrolysis and gasification,see Chapter 6,Landfill Management and Solid Waste Disposal. Anaerobic Digestion In 2016,the division hired HDR Engineering to evaluate options for adding anaerobic digestion to regional organics processing (KCSWD 2017b).Anaerobic digestion is a biological process that transforms organic waste into renewable energy,and in some situations,a useable residual by-product. HDR evaluated anaerobic digestion technologies using both source-separated organics with minimal contamination,and municipal solid waste containing approximately one third organic waste.The division required HDR to focus on local conditions,feedstocks,and markets. While the study does not identify a clear role for anaerobic digestion in the county's solid waste system,it does recommend further research into several small-scale anaerobic digestion options for source-separated organics,with varying levels of public and private sector collaboration.For instance,with grant money from the division,a small- scale anaerobic digester is being piloted on Vashon Island.Source-separated organics-based anaerobic digestion solutions are currently more affordable and more reliable than municipal solid waste-based systems.As a feedstock, municipal solid waste typically benefits .",' greatly from advanced pre-processing, which is costly and currently has mixed success rates. All Currently,source-separated organics in " King County are managed by private-sector r companies,and do not even come to the county's transfer stations.However,source- separated organics are likely the best feedstock for successful anaerobic digestion based on minimal contamination which Example of a small anaerobic digester in Redmond lowers pre-processing costs,eases the (Photo courtesy oflmpoct BioEnergy,Inc.) anaerobic digestion process,and results in a marketable organic by-product. Advanced Materials Recovery Advanced materials recovery as it is envisioned at the county recycling and transfer stations would involve both floor sorting of recyclables by division staff and installing some mechanical sorting systems at select facilities(most likely Bow Lake,the new south station,and any other new stations).An additional consideration might be a separate advanced materials recovery facility(public,private,or a partnership)capable of processing sufficient mixed waste to reach a 70 percent recycling rate for the county.This alternative would reach recycling goals more quickly than waste prevention would,as it relies less on changes in customer behavior.However,feasible system configurations and cost effectiveness are not yet known and would require more study,including a cost benefit analysis. 5-28 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 Att A Page 152 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 G I � e Att?,,,Page 453, �. • i i• Landfill Managem and Solid Disposal 4 �xk r Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Policies D-1 Operate and maintain the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill to meet or exceed the highest federal,state,and local standards for protection of public health and the environment. D-2 Maximize the capacity and lifespan of the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill. D-3 Monitor and maintain closed landfills to meet or exceed the highest federal,state,and local standards for protection of public health and the environment. D-4 Plan for future disposal when Cedar Hills Regional Landfill closes to ensure no gap in service.Siting a replacement landfill located in King County will not be considered. D-5 Garbage shall not be disposed of,nor shall soils be stockpiled, within 1,000 feet of the property line at the landfill,in accordance with the Settlement Agreement. The solid waste division shall reserve sufficient funds to acquire any parcels from willing sellers as necessary to establish or maintain the buffer. Att A Page 155 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Summary of ReCOmmended Actions The following table includes a menu of recommended actions that the county and the cities should implement.Under the responsibility column,the entity listed first has primary responsibility for the action,bold indicates that the entity has responsibility for the action,and a star(*) indicates that the action is a priority. If the responsibility is not in bold,the action has lower implementation priority. • Detailed •- • Action Discussion Further develop the Cedar Hills regional landfill to maximize disposal capacity.To account for technological advances,do not specify the next disposal method after ultimate Cedar Hills closure in this Plan. Conduct analysis of post Cedar Hills disposal options prior to the next Page 6-5 Plan update to ensure adequate lead time for selecting,planning for, and implementing the next disposal method. Continue to track,evaluate,and test other disposal and conversion technologies for their potential to handle all or a portion of the Page 6-9 county's future waste.Provide updates on findings to division advisory committees on a regular basis. To prepare for potential emergencies,work with state and regional authorities to coordinate an updated Debris Management Plan for Page 6-14 King County. Investigate beneficial reuse options for closed landfills,designing monitoring and environmental systems that will facilitate reuse of the properties,provide potential revenue,and provide continued benefit Page 6-17 to the surrounding communities. • Implement a bird management plan for Cedar Hills Regional Landfill Page 6-8 Att A Page 156 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 ndfill Mamcrement Solid Waste Disposal This chapter discusses the County's current disposal practices at the Cedar Hills landfill,as well as presenting important long-term disposal choices that must be decided as part of the approval of this Plan. It also provides information on how special wastes are disposed,disposal of waste after an emergency is handled,and programs to address disposal of illegally dumped waste are operated.Finally,it addresses how past disposal sites-closed landfills -are managed. Current Disposal at the Cedar Hills Landfill For more than 50 years,King County has relied on the Cedar Hills landfill as a local means of cost-effective solid waste disposal.Although another disposal method will ultimately be needed,the county has used several approaches to maximize value for ratepayers and extend the landfill's life beyond the 2012 closure date predicted in the 2001 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan. Since 2001,new practices and policies have made better use of landfill space,new capacity has been built,the tons going to the landfill have been reduced,and studies have identified opportunities to further develop Cedar Hills to maximize disposal capacity through the planning horizon of this Plan. The Solid Waste Transfer and Waste Management Plan(Transfer Plan),approved by the County Council in December 2007,included the following recommendation: "Explore opportunities for taking advantage of available landfill capacity to extend the life of this cost-effective disposal option;revise the Cedar Hills Site Development Plan and seek to maximize the capacity(lifespan)of the landfill,subject to environmental constraints,relative costs to operate, and stakeholder interests.' To implement the Transfer Plan recommendation,the division is pursuing three primary strategies to extend landfill life: • Diversion of waste, • Operational efficiencies,and • New area development. These three strategies seek to extend the life of the landfill by increasing landfill capacity and density,which are defined as follows: • Landfill capacity-the amount of space,often referred to as airspace,which is permitted and available for disposal of waste.Landfill capacity is calculated based on the height,footprint,and slopes of the landfill. • Density-how tightly materials are packed together,in this case solid waste in the landfill.A higher density means more waste packed into a given amount of space.The density of solid waste within the landfill is a function of both operational practices,the types of waste,and natural processes. Density is increased as waste is compacted by heavy machinery on the face of the landfill and by the natural settling that occurs over time as solid waste decomposes. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2028 Att A Page 157 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Diversion of Waste Reducing the amount of waste delivered to the landfill (waste diversion) is the most effective strategy for extending landfill life.The division will continue to practice current methods of waste diversion and may implement further strategies,as discussed below and in more detail in Chapter 4,Sustainable Materials Management. Current Strategies for Waste Diversion Waste is currently diverted from Cedar Hills through two primary methods-waste prevention and recycling and a ban on the acceptance of most construction and demolition debris. Waste prevention and recycling efforts have proven a successful strategy for extending the life of the landfill.During a 20-year period,an estimated 10 million tons of materials that would otherwise have been disposed in the landfill were recycled,extending the landfill's life by approximately 10 years. Banning most construction and demolition debris from Cedar Hills has also contributed to extending landfill life.Since the disposal ban went into effect in 1994,an estimated 4 million tons of construction and demolition debris has been diverted from the landfill (see Chapter 4,Sustainable Materials Management for more information about construction and demolition debris recycling and disposal). Potential Strategies for Waste Diversion The division will continue to consider diverting a portion of the solid waste stream to another recycling,recovery, or disposal option(s)while the landfill is still in operation.However,a cost-benefit analysis,including a comparative analysis of greenhouse gas emissions,would precede any decision to pursue early diversion because the cost of adding a new disposal method to the cost of operating Cedar Hills may outweigh the benefits of extending landfill life. Possible diversion options include waste conversion technologies such as anaerobic digestion,demonstration projects of other evolving technologies that promote resource recovery,or exporting some waste to an out-of-county landfill.Environmental,social,economic,and other criteria also would play into any waste diversion decision. Operational Emciencies The division has made a series of operational changes to increase landfill capacity and density.These changes include reducing the amount of soil and rock buried in the landfill,using more efficient unloading and compaction equipment,and taking advantage of natural settlement.Some of the key changes and efficiencies achieved are described below: • The division has implemented strategies to minimize the placement of soil in the landfill.For example,in the past, six inches of compacted soil was used to cover the entire surface of the active solid waste disposal area at the end of each working day.Daily cover serves to control litter and discourage foraging by animals,such as rodents and birds.However,the use of soil consumes valuable landfill space.The division now uses retractable tarps to cover most of the waste at the end of each day to reduce the amount of soil buried in the landfill.The tarps serve the same function as daily soil cover.At the start of each day's operations,the tarps are rolled up,and more solid waste is placed directly on top of the previous day's waste.Soil is still used to cover side slope areas.However,as much of this soil as possible is removed before more waste is placed,and the soil is then reused.Together,these practices have resulted in a reduction of the volume of soil buried in the landfill. 6-2 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 158 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 • Tippers now empty trailers and containers rather than the walking floor trailers previously used.Walking floor trailers require a large,rock covered surface for the trucks to drive on as the walking floor rolls the garbage out the back of the trailer. These large rock surfaces are not required with the tippers. Instead,the garbage trailers are backed onto the ^ fT tipper,which tilts the trailer,allowing the garbage to slide out of the back and into the refuse area.The use of tippers not only reduces the use of a �° rock,it also decreases unloading time Tippers empty trailers more efficien-uy for each trailer by at least half,and reduces damage to equipment and tires. • Heavier equipment and improved methods have increased waste compaction. Packing the waste to a greater density allows more airspace for additional solid waste in each landfill area. • Another strategy for increasing landfill capacity is taking advantage of the natural settlement that occurs as waste placed in each area decomposes.As this natural settling occurs,the level of the landfill drops below the permitted height,allowing more waste to be added to bring the height of a previously filled area back up to its planned level.To take advantage of this natural settlement,the division has delayed final closure of Areas 5 and 6,and will delay final closure of Area 7,to allow settling to occur so that additional waste can be added before final cover is applied. With these operational changes,more solid waste can be placed within the already designed and permitted refuse areas.The division will continue to pursue these and other best management practices that preserve airspace and make more efficient use of landfill capacity. The division will also work with subject matter experts to determine best practices related to use of top lifts and temporary covers,including how long temporary covers should be used prior to applying final cover. The division will provide a report on the best practices with implementing actions to the King County Council no later than April 1,2020. wew Area uevelopment During 2009 and 2010,the division explored alternatives for developing new refuse areas to extend the landfill life. A wide range of alternatives was originally identified. Based on a preliminary assessment of operational and engineering feasibility,as well as likely environmental impacts,five action alternatives were developed that would extend landfill life for an additional three to 13 years beyond the then projected closure date.The environmental impacts of these alternatives were evaluated in an environmental impact statement(EIS),with the Final EIS issued in July 2010.The EIS determined that none of the five action alternatives would result in any significant unavoidable adverse environmental impacts compared with the no action alternative(KCSWD 2010a). The preferred alternative from the Final EIS develops 56.5 acres for a new Area 8 in the southwestern portion of the landfill and extends landfill life for eight to nine years. It maximizes the use of readily available space at the landfill, with the least amount of disruption to existing landfill structures. Garbage shall not be disposed of,nor soils be stockpiled,within 1,000 feet of the property line at the landfill,in accordance with the Settlement Agreement. At the same time,this alternative preserves the flexibility to implement further development should it be necessary in the future and balances the cost of future development and operations with savings to the rater)aver. 6-3 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 159 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 In 2000 King County entered into a Settlement Agreement in the following consolidated class action cases:Anderson et al v.Cedar Grove Composting Inc,et al(King County Superior Court Case No.97-2-22820-4 SEA and Rick I. �,- - - - and Kim M.Brighton,et al v.Cedar Grove Composting etal(King County Superior Court Case No.97-2-21660-5 SEA(hereinafter referred to as the"Settlement Agreement"). Following publication of the Final EIS,the division submitted a Project Program Plan for implementing the preferred alternative to the Developing a new area requires extensive excavation and preparation County Council for approval (KCSWD 2010b). The County Council approved the Project Program Plan in December 2010. Permitted Capacity Planned for Cedar Hills through 2028 Q_o_o Cedar Hills has built capacity remaining in four areas(Areas 5,6,7,and 8).The estimated capacities are based on the difference between existing landfill contours(September 2,2017 aerial survey) and the approved design contours at completion. As the landfill ages,it settles.Airspace from settlement can be recovered for disposal.Settlement occurs due to consolidation and to loss of mass from leachate and more importantly,gas production.As gas is collected,it is removed from the landfill.The airspace gas once occupied consolidates and the landfill settles.Soil surcharge can be used to accelerate settlement.Areas 5 and 6 both have areas of soil stockpiled over them to accelerate settlement.This soil will be recovered later for other uses.Cedar Hills landfill has additional planned capacity in Area 8.Area 8 is currently under construction,which began in 2017 and will be ready for use in 2018.In addition to Area 8,a top lift over Areas 7 and 8 is planned to bring those areas to a permitted maximum design elevation of 800 feet.Such activity would be done only to the extent that such activity would be consistent with the terms and conditions of the Settlement Agreement,which requires King County to make a good faith effort to keep the maximum height of areas 5,6,and 7 of the Landfill at or below 788 feet above sea level. The table below presents current and planned capacity in cubic yards and tons by area,as of September 2, 2017.It is based on an air space utilization of 1,600 pounds of refuse disposed per cubic yard of air space consumed,and an average yearly 1,025,000 tons(forecasted between 2017 and 2028). 1,600 pounds per cubic yard is the airspace utilization achieved in Area 7 using current operational practices(compaction,daily cover usage,and rock recovery).The terms and conditions of the Settlement Agreement may impact the actual utilization of the Area Capacity described in the table. Area Capacity Estimated Cubic Estimated Tons Estimated Yards Number of Years 5 Top Lift 1,923,000 1,538,400 1.4 6Top Lift 1,367,000 1,093,600 1 7 2,070,000 1,656,000 1.5 8 7,842,000 6,273,600 5.7 7&8 Top Lift 1,061,000 848,800 0.8 Total 14,263,000 11,410,400 10.4 6-4 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 160 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 The Next Disposal Option A Disposal Option Must Be Selected as Part of This Plan's Approval With permitted capacity(Area 8)at the landfl predicted to be used by 2028,the disposal option for beyond 2028 must be selected.The selection is needed to provide substantial lead time to complete fi nancial,operational,and infrastructure preparations,including completion of environmental review under the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). Interlocal agreements also require the county to consult with partner cities at least seven years before Cedar Hills closes,triggering a consultation in 2021 if no new Cedar Hills capacity is built. For these reasons,selecting a disposal option as part of approval of this Plan is essential to ensure there is no gap in the division's ability to dispose of waste and meet contractual obligations. Further Development of Cedar Hills is Recommended For the Public Review Draft Plan issued in January 2018,the division used information from the Conversion Technology Report(R.W. Beck 2007),the Waste-to-Energy Study(Normandeau 2017),and an updated Cedar Hills Site Development Alternatives Final Report(KCSWD 2017a)to identify three options to meet the county's disposal needs after currently permitted capacity at Cedar Hills is used: 1) Further develop Cedar Hills,2)waste export,and 3)waste to energy(mass burn)facility.After public comment and careful consideration of the three disposal options,the option to further develop the Cedar Hills Landfl is recommended. This recommendation will further develop Cedar Hills to maximize disposal capacity,extending the division's over 50- year practice of managing its waste locally.The increased capacity shall not all result in either disposal of garbage or stockpiling of soils within 1,000 feet of the property line at the landfill,in accordance with the Settlement Agreement, but will develop new cells within the existing footprint of the landfill and increase the height from the permitted 800 feet up to 830 feet,only to the extent that such activity would be consistent with the terms and conditions of the Settlement Agreement,which requires King County to make a good faith effort to keep the maximum height of areas 5,6,and 7 of the Landfill at or below 788 feet above sea level. Based on the 2018 tonnage forecast,maximizing the development of the landfll should extend capacity through the planning horizon of this Plan.Landfli life could be extended if recycling increases,recessions occur,or more complex development approaches are used.To account for emerging technologies,the next disposal option after Cedar Hills is not specified in this Plan,but would be evaluated in collaboration with regional partners prior to the next Plan update to ensure no gap in service.The recommended further development is consistent with county policy to maximize the life of the Cedar Hills landfill.The Conversion Technology Report(R.W.Beck 2007)and more recent division analysis concluded that Cedar Hills disposal is the most economical way to handle King County's waste.Other advantages include the division's experience in landifoperation, availability of space in a county-owned landfill with state of the art environmental controls,and collection of landfill gas to produce renewable energy. Developing Cedar Hills to the maximum extent feasible has the lowest rate impact of the three options considered, the lowest greenhouse gas emissions and the lowest risk because of long-term experience in its operation.Other benefits include that waste created in King County will continue to be managed locally,the division will maintain control over the system,and landfill gas will continue to be delivered to the Bio-Energy Washington facility,resulting in pipeline-quality natural gas,revenue for the division,and reduced greenhouse gas emissions.Table 6-1 includes a comparison of key attributes of the three options. To reduce impacts on neighboring communities,King County shall implement a bird management plan. 6-5 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 161 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Table 6-1. Comparison of key disposal option characteristics (planning level estimates) DevelopComparative Further Waste Export Attribute Cedar Hills Out-of-County Landfill Facility Cost per Ton' $41 $55 $136 Life Cycle Greenhouse z z s Gas Emissions (EPA's (134,000) (78,000) 12,000 to 80,000 MTCO2e MTCO2e MTCO2e WARM Model) Annual Greenhouse Gas Emissions (EPA's 91,0004 91,0004 1,200,000 eGGRT) MTCO2e/year MTCO2e/year MTCO2e/yea r Recycling Rate No change No change 2%increase Risks SEPA,Permitting Rail Capacity,Control Siting,Sizing 1 Estimated cost per ton in 2029. 2 WARM model calculation for 2029.(King County SWD).For more information,see Appendix D. 3 WARM model calculation.(Normandeau 2017). 4 Landfill options show estimated emissions in 2029. rdecision odels used by Regulatory Agencies to Calculate Greenhouse Gas Emissions he Waste Reduction Model (WARM) is a U.S.Environmental Protection Agency(EPA)-approved tool for estimating relative lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with disposal ptions such as landfilling,composting,mass burn,or anaerobic digestion.WARM answers the question:Which of my next disposal options result in the lowest lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, accounting for both emissions and offsets? WARM requires a profile of disposed materials,which was drawn from the division's 2015 Waste Characterization.WARM then assigns emissions to the materials and converts the emissions into metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents(MTCO2e).Each material's emissions represent lifecycle emissions from mining to manufacturing to disposal.Because those emissions did not happen in a single year or place,WARM results cannot be directly ascribed to a particular year or facility site. WARM emissions are not precise—they represent the relative emissions of different choices (i.e.Option A has lower emissions than Option B).WARM results from this plan's landfill options show negative values largely due to offsets created by displacing fossil fuels with landfill-derived gas and sequestration of carbon due to burial of organics. • The eGGRT model creates a greenhouse gas(GHG) inventory of emissions from a specific facility (such as a landfill or mass burn facility) in a given year.This model answers the question:What are the emissions from historically disposed materials at my landfill this year? eGGRT default values can over-ride site-specific data so that model results and facility monitoring data may not entirely agree.The division reports eGGRT-estimated Cedar Hills landfill emissions each year for the Washington Department of Ecology and EPA.Year-to year eGGRT emission changes from that specific facility can be tracked and compared with emissions from other facilities.The agencies also use the results to set priorities for developing facility emission-reduction programs. 6-6 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 162 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Other Long Term Disposal Options Considered Waste export and a waste to energy(mass burn)facility(described below)were also considered as disposal options in the Public Review Draft Comp Plan.Those options are not recommended as the next disposal option after current permitted Cedar Hills capacity(Area 8) is used in 2028,but could be undertaken after an expanded Cedar Hills ultimately closes.This plan does not consider the option of developing a replacement landfill either in King County or in another county,in keeping with policy established in the 2001 Plan.Conditions in King County such as land availability, environmental considerations,public acceptance,cost,and other issues would impede any effort to site a replacement landfill in the county.In addition,there are existing landfills outside of King County with significant capacity available. Waste Export This option would export waste via rail to an out-of-county landfill after permitted capacity at Cedar Hills is used by 2028.Waste export by rail is a proven disposal option used by neighboring jurisdictions,including the City of Seattle and Snohomish County.There are several regional landfills available by rail with combined capacity sufficient to handle the county's waste in the long term (KCSWD 2017c).This option would transfer a significant portion of the County's waste management activities into the private sector for long haul and landfilling.This option is not recommended as the next disposal option after 2028 for several reasons. It has higher costs than further development of the Cedar Hills landfill. It requires modifying transfer stations for rail-ready transport,division operational changes, and requires sufficient lead time for contracting for services. The Waste Export option would require all of the county's waste to be exported on trains.According to the Washington State Freight Rail Plan,it is unclear if the freight rail system will have adequate rail capacity by 2028 (Normandeau 2017)to accommodate all of the county's waste. In addition,according to the Washington State Department of Transportation 2014"Landslide Mitigation Action Plan,"rail service can be disrupted by landslides and flooding. If service interruptions stretch from days to weeks,unsanitary conditions could occur at transfer stations and eventually in the neighborhoods where collection services must be stopped.Scarce rail capacity and service disruptions could increase costs and require robust contingency planning. Waste to Energy Facility Under this option,all of the region's municipal solid waste would be directed to a waste to energy facility built in King County when current permitted capacity at Cedar Hills is reached by 2028.As discussed previously,a recent study identified a mass burn facility as the best waste to energy technology for consideration by King County(Normandeau 2017).Mass burn facilities operate successfully in many parts of the U.S.and the world. To handle the county's projected tonnage,the facility would require approximately a 40 acre site and be designed to handle 5,000 tons-per-day so that it could operate 20 years before further disposal capacity is needed.After 20 years, an added/expanded waste to energy facility or other disposal method would be required.A waste to energy facility would reduce waste to ash 90 percent by volume and 75 percent by weight,while offsetting some costs through the sale of electricity and increasing recycling by as much as two percent by recovering metals after the waste is burned. Non-processable,bypass waste,and ash would be transported to an out-of-county landfill by rail.This option is not recommended as the next disposal option after 2028 for several reasons. It has the highest cost of the options considered,it requires guaranteed amounts of consistent feedstock,has potential for inefficient operation in early years when less capacity is used,and it has the highest greenhouse gas emissions of the options considered.As with waste export,rail capacity constraints could disrupt export of ash and bypass waste.At 5,000 tons per day,the facility would be among the largest in the world with associated implementation and siting risks. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Wlaste Management Plan-_July 2018 6`7 Att A Page 163 flrrlinanrc 1889:3 Updated April 17,2019 Next Steps Several actions will need to be taken in order to further develop the Cedar Hills Landfill beyond its current permitted capacity.The following steps are needed at Cedar Hills to maximize disposal capacity: • Move facilities currently located at the landfi II that are on areas permitted for refuse disposal. • Revise the Project Program Plan (KCSWD 2010b)and Cedar Hills Site Development Alternatives Final Report(KCSWD 2017a)for the development of Cedar Hills and conduct a new SEPA environmental review,since increasing the height of the landfi II up to 830 feet was not considered in the 2010 EIS(KCSWD 2010a). • Apply to Public Health—Seattle and King County for a permit modifi cation to allow the landfi II to be expanded up to 830 feet in height only to the extent that such modification would be consistent with the terms and conditions of the Settlement Agreement,which requires King County to make a good faith effort to keep the maximum height of areas 5,6,and 7 of the Landfill at or below 788 feet above sea level. • Develop new landfi II cells. • While Cedar Hills expansion is underway,the region will need to review the latest technological advances and take those into account during the next Plan update to properly evaluate disposal options for the ultimate closure of Cedar Hills. Given the longer life of the facility,King County will develop and implement a bird management plan for the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill. The bird management plan shall include at least the following elements: • An inventory of birds at least seagull-sized or larger that inhabit the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill,including species and number of birds,to be updated annually; • Design suggestions to minimize attractiveness of the site to birds; • A description of proposed bird control methods including equipment,construction activities,permits required (including federal and state fish and wildlife permits),and other operation and maintenance requirements related to bird control; • Description of staff resources and training needed to implement the control plan thoroughly and completely; • Performance metrics related to bird management;and • A monitoring plan to,on at least an annual basis,assess the efficacy of the bird management plan and allow further adaptation and improvement of the plan.It will also provide a basis for determining if bird use of the area changes through time. In recognition of the longer life of the landfill and to ensure transparency of landfill operations,the solid waste division shall transmit to the council each year the annual report submitted to the local health jurisdiction and the department of ecology,as required by WAC 173-351-200(11),as amended. Even with further development,Cedar Hills landfill capacity will ultimately be exhausted and a new disposal option will be needed.The next disposal option is not specified in this plan so that the latest technological advances can be considered when the choice is made.The Transfer Plan suggested that one disposal option-waste export-is best evaluated within 5 years of initiating service to ensure decisions consider current market conditions.Other disposal options such as waste to energy likely require a longer lead time.Although the Amended and Restated Interlocal Agreement requires consultation with cities at least seven years before Cedar Hills closes,evaluation of the next disposal option should begin prior to the next Plan update to ensure enough time for method selection,planning,and implementation. JFactors in Selecting a Long-Term Disposal Method In cooperation with advisory committees,the division identified several criteria be used in selecting a long-term disposal option (see below).It is particularly important that disposal options are consistent with the commitment of the County and its partner cities to Zero Waste of Resources by 2030.Any long-term disposal option also must be responsive to increases in population,housing,and solid waste tonnage,as well as the specific composition of King County's waste.The 2018 tonnage forecast projects solid waste tons increasing to 1,275,000 tons by 2028 and continuing to grow,reaching 1,564,000 tons in 2040.This forecast assumes that the region's recycling rate remains at 52 percent. King County's Office of Performance,Strategy and Budget will engage with the Solid Waste Division and the regional partners to develop a plan for long-term disposal,to be recommended to the King County Executive, who will transmit legislation to the King County Council implementing the next long-term disposal method. The Executive will transmit a progress report that outlines how this plan will be developed,including timing for development and transmittal of this plan,to the Council by December 31,2021. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste I >u>aEmeu 1'a2 Jay X01-,' 6-8 Att A Page 164 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Screening and Evaluation Criteria for Disposal Options The division,in collaboration with its advisory committees,has developed criteria by which disposal options may be screened and evaluated when making future decisions.The screening and evaluation criteria fall into six categories,each with a number of sub-categories on the following page: • Environmental Availability Human health Capacity Climate change Start date Air quality Operating life of facility Water quality Siting,design,permitting,and construction Energy production requirements Resource conservation Operating and maintenance personnel Compatibility with waste prevention Financial assurance and insurability and recycling • Economic Social Capital cost Environmental justice Financing Social justice/equity Operating cost Effects on livability and character Revenue generated of communities Risk • Operating history Contract and operational requirements Proven performance Minimum level of waste required Ability to handle amount of waste Composition of waste required Operator record Contract flexibility Safety record Length of commitment required Environmental compliance Opportunity for contract reopeners Compliance with regulatory requirements Waste not accepted/ability to handle Ability to respond after an emergency special waste Ability to provide performance guarantees Residue disposal requirements Compatibility with waste prevention and recycling Compatibility with current collection and transfer systems Technologies for the Future A number of other thermal,biological,and chemical technologies,some established and some emerging,could handle all or specific components of the county's waste stream in the future(RW Beck 2007,KCSWD 2014a,and Normandeau 2017). Hundreds of companies are forming,developing new methods,obtaining patents,and improving waste conversion technology systems.Many universities,consultants,and organizations are conducting studies and producing 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 6-9 Att A Page 165 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Terms Waste conversion technologies are non-incineration technologies that use thermal,chemical,or biological processes,sometimes combined with mechanical processes,to convert the unrecycled portion of the municipal solid waste stream to electricity,fuels,and/or chemicals that can be used by industry. Incineration is a disposal method that converts waste materials into ash,flue gas,and heat using controlled flame combustion. Waste-to-energy technologies recover energy from municipal solid waste and include both waste conversion technologies and incineration with energy recovery,such as mass burn waste-to-energy, refuse-derived fuel,and advanced thermal recycling. Systems are unique technological methods for processing specified feedstock that are developed and patented by companies. Feedstock is the input material used by waste conversion and waste-to-energy technologies. reports,and partnerships are forming to fund,build,and operate facilities.Meanwhile,jurisdictions are undertaking rule-making efforts to define terms and establish regulations that both facilitate the development of sustainable technologies and protect the environment and the public.Waste conversion technologies are also now being defined separately from incineration,e.g.,"Waste conversion technologies are non-incineration technologies that are used to convert the non-recyclable portion of the municipal solid waste stream to electricity,fuels,and/or industrial chemical feedstocks"(SWANA 2011). Waste conversion technologies use thermal,biological,or chemical processes that are sometimes combined with mechanical processes.Technologies using a thermal process include pyrolysis,gasification,and plasma arc gasification.Hydrolysis/fermentation,anaerobic digestion,and aerobic composting use biological processes. Depolymerization uses a chemical process. The feedstock used by waste conversion technology systems can be municipal solid waste;selected materials removed from municipal solid waste,such as organics;or municipal solid waste combined with sewage sludge. Each system has unique requirements regarding the types,size,and amount of feedstock processed per day. Below is a sampling of conversion technologies,as described by Jeremy K.O'Brien of the Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA 2011).These technologies are not currently considered to have the capability to reliably and cost-effectively handle all the materials in the regional system. Gasification is a commercially proven manufacturing process that converts such hydrocarbons as coal, petroleum coke,biomass(such as wood and agricultural crops or wastes)and other organics to a synthesis gas(syngas),which can be further processed to produce chemicals,fertilizers,liquid fuels,hydrogen,and electricity.In a gasification facility,hydrocarbon feedstock is injected with air or oxygen and steam into a high- temperature,pressurized reactor until the chemical bonds of the feedstock are broken.The resulting reaction produces the syngas.The syngas is then cleansed to remove such impurities as sulfur,mercury,particulates, and trace minerals. 6-10 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 166 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Pyrolysis is a process that involves the thermal decomposition of feedstock at high temperatures (750°F-1,500°F) in the absence of air.The resulting end product is a mixture of solids (char),liquids(oxygenated oils),and gases(methane,carbon monoxide,and carbon dioxide).The oils and fuel gases can be used directly as boiler fuel or refined for higher-quality uses such as engine fuels,chemicals,adhesives,and other products. The solid residue contains most of the inorganic portion of the feedstock as well as large amounts of solid carbon or char. Plasma arc gasification technology is a heating method that can be used in both pyrolysis and gasification systems.This technology was developed for the metals industry in the late nineteenth century. Plasma arc technology uses very high temperatures (7,000°F)to break down the feedstock into elemental by-products. When municipal solid waste is processed,the intense heat actually breaks up the molecular structure of the organic material to produce such simpler gaseous molecules as carbon monoxide,hydrogen,and carbon dioxide.The inorganic material is vitrified to form a glassy residue. Anaerobic digestion is the bacterial breakdown of organics in the absence of oxygen. It can occur over a wide temperature range from 50°F to 160°F. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste can occur naturally,as in a landfill,or in a controlled environment,such as a municipal solid waste anaerobic digestion facility.In the latter,municipal solid waste is first processed for removal of inorganic and recyclable components,reduced in size,and then placed in an airtight vessel called a digester,where the process occurs. Biogas is one of the by-products of anaerobic digestion facility and it can be used as fuel for engines,gas turbines,fuel cells,boilers, and industrial heaters. It can also be used in other processes and in the manufacture of chemicals.Anaerobic digestion would be a good option when the food waste is separated at its source from other wastes. The division is committed to the continued exploration of these and other emerging technologies. In addition,the division is monitoring changing definitions,legislation and regulations,companies,and partnerships. Disposal of Special Wastes Most of the waste delivered to the division's facilities is municipal solid waste(garbage)from residential and non- residential sources.A portion of the waste stream,however,requires special handling and waste clearance before disposal because of legal,environmental,public health,or operational concerns.Of the approximately 800,000 to 1 million tons of solid waste disposed each year,between 6,000 and 9,000 tons is designated as special waste.These special items include industrial wastes;asbestos-containing materials;off-specification,recalled,or expired consumer products;over-sized materials;treatment plant grit and vactor wastes;and other miscellaneous materials. It does not include moderate risk wastes. The division continues to educate customers on the county's waste acceptance policies through public outreach materials and hands-on customer service.Since 1993,the division has conducted a waste screening program to ensure that materials in the waste stream are handled in accordance with federal and state regulations(Resource Conservation and Recovery Act,Title 40,Subtitle D and WAC 173-351).Under this program,waste screening technicians,in cooperation with other staff,perform random manual and visual screening of incoming loads of waste at each transfer facility and at Cedar Hills to identify and properly manage any potentially unacceptable wastes. About 11,000 loads of waste are screened at division facilities each year.Waste screening,combined with ongoing surveillance and control of incoming solid waste by transfer station and landfill operations staff,is a significant step in the county's solid waste enforcement program. In cases where special waste policies are repeatedly disregarded, division staff enforces compliance through a progressive process of warnings,citations,and eventually fines for improper disposal of special wastes. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 6-11 Att A Page 167 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Under the county's Waste Clearance Policy PUT 7-2-1(PR)and Waste Acceptance Rule PUT 7-1-6(PR),the Special Waste Unit provides a free service to customers to evaluate wastes and determine if they can be accepted for disposal and under what conditions.Special waste staff process and provide more than 400 waste clearances for disposal each year.Conditions for disposal could include wetting to control dust,bagging,hauling directly to the Cedar Hills landfill,specific packaging and labeling requirements,separation from other waste in a special waste disposal area,or certification of disposal by authorized landfill staff.Procedures for disposal of special waste are often defined by local, state,or federal regulation. The method for handling special wastes once the Cedar Hills landfill closes will be considered during the evaluation of alternative disposal options. Managing Illegal Dumping and Litter Managing municipal solid waste that is dumped on open ground is one of the division's responsibilities. Illegal dumping and litter can cause environmental contamination and pose both safety hazards and risks to public health. Addressing the issue of illegal dumping requires several coordinated programs and the participation of many county departments,the cities,and other agencies.The division manages or participates in programs that strive not only to reduce littering and illegal dumping on public and private property,but also to assist its victims. Illegal dumping Illegal dumping is a continuing problem for agencies,businesses,and the general public who find yard waste, appliances,car bodies,and other wastes dumped on their personal property,on public property,and on road rights of way.The division continues to lead the implementation of recommendations made in 2004 by a county task force charged with strengthening and coordinating the county's response to illegal dumping complaints. In 2008,the County Council adopted an ordinance to refine the county's role in enforcing laws that prohibit illegal dumping on public and private lands. The ordinance enhances the county's authority to cite and prosecute illegal dumpers. For example,it allows the county to charge a restitution fee to illegal dumpers and,in turn, -� 4 provide monetary relief to victims of the illegal ' dumping.The fee can be waived if the illegal dumper cleans up and properly disposes of4 the waste. Coordinating illegal dumping reporting and response through the Illegal Dumping Hotline ' (206-296-SITE) is a major element in the county's surveillance and control system for illegal dumping. Regional responsibilities for illegal dumping enforcement,clean up,and prevention arefII identified in Table 6-2. Clean-up of an illegal dumpsite 6-12 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 168 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Table 6-2. Illegal dumping clean-up responsibilities ResponsibilityEntity Washington State Department of Ecology Provides Local Solid Waste Financial Assistance-Community Litter Cleanup Program funding for cleanup to local agencies.Sets statewide policy. Puget Sound Clean Air Agency Responds to illegal dumping of materials where asbestos is suspected,such as some demolition materials,and addresses illegal dumping where incineration occurs. Public Health-Seattle&King County Primary enforcement agent for illegal dumping complaints on private property. Department of Planning and Provides code enforcement.Addressesjunk and debris on private property. Environmental Review Responds to complaints and removes illegally dumped materials from public roads and rights of way Road Services Division in unincorporated King County. Local Hazardous Waste Management Addresses illegal dumping and mishandling of potentially hazardous waste materials. Program Responds to complaints about illegal dumping and litter near county solid waste facilities and Solid Waste Division manages:programs for illegal dumping cleanup,the Illegal Dumping Hotline,county-wide illegal dumping prevention programs,and the junk vehicle program. Water and Lands Resources Division Investigates illegal dumping and litter complaints involving surface water. Enforce municipal littering and illegal dumping ordinances and provide cleanup of litter and illegally Cities dumped material from city streets and properties. The division also developed a program called the Community Cleanup Assistance Program,which enables environmental site inspectors from the county,cities,and other agencies to issue free disposal vouchers to property owners who are victims of illegal dumping. Community Litter Cleanup The division's Community Litter Cleanup Program,funded in part by a grant from Ecology,supports the cleanup of litter and illegal dumpsites on public lands and waterways in King County.The program also supports prevention and education,through advertising,signage,and other measures. In 2016,litter crews cleaned up over 176 tons of debris from 151 sites.About 17 percent of the debris—including items such as tires,appliances,and junk vehicles—was recycled. Secure Your Load In accordance with state law,since 1994 the division has assessed a fee to the drivers of vehicles with unsecured loads arriving at its staffed transfer facilities and landfill.An unsecured load has not been fastened in or attached to the vehicle with tarps,rope,straps,netting,or chains,so as to prevent any part of the load or the covering from becoming loose,detached,or leaving the vehicle while it is moving. 2019 ComprehenszveSolzd Waste Management Plan-july2028 6-13 Att A Page 169 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 According to the Washington State Department of Ecology's Focus on Secured Loads(Ecology 2009a),road debris causes about 400 accidents every year on Washington State highways and roughly 40 percent of litter on highways comes from unsecured loads. The requirement to secure loads is in the"Rules of the Road"(RCW 46.61.655),which is enforced by the Washington State Patrol.State law(RCW 70.93.097)and King County Code(Title 10.12.040) require the division to charge an unsecured-load fee,which is assessed by scale operators. In 2006,the division launched the Secure Your Load outreach program to raise public awareness of the importance of securing loads.The division has worked closely with the King County Sheriff's Office and the Washington State Patrol to enforce the law,and with Ecology and the Maria Federici Foundation to raise public awareness. In 2013,to strengthen its deterrent effect,the fee for an unsecured load arriving at a division facility was raised to$25.Division staff have received training from the Washington State Patrol to help them accurately identify unsecured loads and uniformly assess the fee.The increased fee for unsecured loads supports safe,clean communities. Disposal Services after an Emergency The King County Operational Disaster Debris Management Plan(Debris Management Plan)(KCSWD 2009) outlines the process for managing disaster debris within the boundaries of unincorporated King County and for coordinating with the 37 cities with which King County has interlocal agreements.The Debris Management Plan is aligned with other national,state,and county plans,including the 2014 King County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan,as well as regulations and policies that will affect how King County manages disaster debris. Debris management operations are grouped into three response levels-routine,medium,and high.The response level is determined by the division based on the geographic scope and impact of an actual or anticipated incident. Routine incidents are relatively common emergencies such as small landslides or minor flooding,which can be supported with existing resources and require minimal coordination. • Routine incidents are relatively common emergencies such as small landslides or minor flooding,which can be supported with existing resources and require minimal coordination. • Medium-impact incidents require more than routine coordination,and generally involve multiple jurisdictions. These include incidents such as moderate earthquakes,minor or moderate flooding in multiple locations,and storms with snow,ice,and/or high winds.The situation may require mutual aid or contract resources,and it may be necessary for the King County Executive to proclaim an emergency. • High-impact incidents require a high degree of coordination and generally involve requests for state and federal assistance.These include incidents such as large earthquakes,severe flooding,or severe storms.In most cases, an emergency will have already been proclaimed by the King County Executive. A regional approach to planning is essential for managing the multi-jurisdictional impacts of emergencies in the Puget Sound area and for coordinating the limited disposal capacity in western Washington.This disposal capacity is subject to two major constraints.First,most jurisdictions in the region export their solid waste to landfills east of the Cascade Mountains.Without local landfill space,disposal capacity relies on the region's transportation network,which could be compromised in a major emergency.Second,the only operational landfill in King County-Cedar Hills-does not accept for disposal construction and demolition debris-the most common aftermath of high-impact incidents- only municipal solid waste. 6-14 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 Att A Page 170 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 The coordinated regional Debris Management Plan emphasizes recycling to the extent possible.The plan calls for the use of temporary debris management sites for storage of debris until it can be sorted for recycling or proper disposal. The division has worked with the King County Regional Communications and Emergency Coordination Center to coordinate public information and help cities and residents identify recycling options in preparation for and in response to emergency events of all types. The ability to respond after a major regional emergency is one criterion that will be used to select a disposal option to be used once the Cedar Hills landfill closes. Restoration of Closed Landfills The division is responsible for maintaining and monitoring closed landfills that were constructed under different standards than those that guide landfill development today.Depending on the year the landfill closed,a minimum maintenance and monitoring post-closure period is specified in the Washington Administrative Code,but the timeline is not definite in state law.Although most of the closed landfills have reached the end of the required minimum post-closure period,regulations and the understanding of closure requirements have changed,requiring ongoing maintenance and monitoring.See Figure 6-1 for the location of the closed landfills. Post-Closure Monitoring and Maintenance At seven of the nine closed landfills,the division routinely monitors groundwater,surface water,wastewater,and landfill gas.The Bow Lake and Corliss landfills were excavated to build new transfer stations on site,so very little,if any,waste is left and monitoring is no longer necessary.Studies are underway at the Vashon,Cedar Falls, Hobart,and Enumclaw landfills to determine what additional actions are needed for these landfills to reach a stable state.When a stable state has been reached,post-closure activities at these landfills may be reduced or terminated. Under the current monitoring program,sampling data are collected from more than 180 groundwater,surface water,and wastewater monitoring stations,and approximately 100 landfill gas monitoring stations.These data are summarized in quarterly and annual reports submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology and Public Health.Public Health also routinely inspects all of the closed landfills. The closed landfills were constructed under different standards than those that guide landfill development today.With the exception of portions of the Vashon landfill constructed after 1989,they are unlined and do not,in some cases, incorporate all of the environmental control systems present in a modern landfill.Thus,the unique characteristics of each site-in particular ` the underlying geology,what lies downstream, and the waste that was originally placed in the landfill-play an important role in the post-closure needs of the site.These factors also influence the need for ongoing monitoring and maintenance of the existing landfill control systems.Since all but the Vashon closed landfill have reached the end 2019 Compre&2szveSolzd Waste Management Plan-july2028 6-15 Att A Page 171 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Figure 6-1. Map of closed landfills Corliss Duvall ' L.F i l Cedar Hills Regional Landfillx, _ r;• „ 169 - Vashon Cedar Falls® Bow Lake 78 f . Hobart Puyallup/Kit Corner 169 +C Enumclaw King County solid waste facilities Uxi6 Open landfill Closed landfill +E King County Boundary Q Cities 0 2 4 8 Unincorporated Area Miles 1-7 6-16 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 172 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 of their required post-closure periods,each is being evaluated to determine what actions are required to bring the landfill to a stable state.In some cases,there may be no need to continue monitoring;at other sites,monitoring may continue at a reduced frequency and for a reduced range of constituents found in the medium being tested. When the Cedar Hills landfill reaches capacity and closes,the bottom liner,capped top,and extensive gas and water control systems will inhibit releases to the environment for many years.Applicable regulations will define the minimum post-closure period (currently 30 years).Landfill closure is guided by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Title 40,Subtitle D, Part 258,Subpart F-Closure and Post-Closure Care,as well as Washington Administrative Code 173-351.The post-closure period may be shortened or lengthened based on the perceived risk to human health and the environment.After the post-closure period,there is expected to be some reduced level of monitoring and care to ensure the integrity of the cap and other environmental controls. Beneficial Reuse of Landfill Properties The county continues to examine possibilities for the beneficial reuse of closed landfill properties.While the presence of landfill control systems at these landfills can limit the types of beneficial reuse projects that can be implemented, such as at the Enumclaw landfill,the county has been successful in converting several properties wholly or in part to new purposes.Future beneficial uses also could create revenue opportunities. Houghton landfill-Athletic fields were developed on the former Houghton landfill area. Hobart landfill-Model airplane enthusiasts and an astronomy club use the open spaces of the Hobart landfill. Duvall landfill-The county installed an 800-MHz radio tower outside of the refuse boundary of the Duvall landfill as part of its Emergency Communications Project. Cedar Falls,Duvall,and Puyallup/Kit Corner landfills-Walking and cycling trails in the property buffers are used by area communities. Other beneficial uses The open spaces at closed landfills, often grassy areas surrounded by m � woods,provide habitat for diverse a : ; species of plants and animals.Closed k r landfills that currently provide homes C "� to healthy populations of wildlife are Cedar Falls, Duvall, Hobart, Houghton, Puyallup/Kit Corner,and Vashon. Grass covers have been placed over all the landfills,engineered to suit the naturally occurring features and areas of potential enhancement at the properties.Vegetative covers at the Duvall and Puyallup/Kit Corner properties include planted trees and Vegetative cover at the Duvall landfill 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 6-17 Att A Page 173 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 other vegetation to improve ground cover and water quality,as well as perches and nesting boxes for hawks and owls. The Cedar Falls and Duvall landfills are near the headwaters of large streams and provide cover and a source of food for birds,deer,coyote,and other woodland animals.Managing these properties as green space helps support the county's goals and policies for habitat preservation and increases carbon sequestration (i.e.,reduces the total carbon emissions)at the properties. Finding reuse opportunities for the closed landfill properties provides continued benefit to the surrounding communities,but the uses need to be compatible with the ongoing environmental monitoring at the sites.The division continues to explore beneficial reuse options for closed landfills,such as alternative energy farms(solar and wind)and sustainable forestry. 6-18 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 174 ._...... ,tea" i r �� .. � Y^rye+•��ne m .. la Iu r + NY B r � r u n 01 aste Y stem lna.� �� e �m= m� 1 Y P ` m fl vs"• h. Page 176 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Policies /F-1 Keep tipping fees as low as reasonable,while covering the costs of effectively managing the system,protecting the environment, encouraging recycling and providing service to customers. Att A Page 177 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Summary of Recommended Actions The following table includes a menu of recommended actions that the county and the cities should implement.Under the responsibility column,the entity listed first has primary responsibility for the action,bold indicates that the entity has responsibility for the action,and a star(*) indicates that the action is a priority. If the responsibility is not in bold,the action has lower implementation priority. • Detailed .- . Action Discussion •• • Adopt the following as divisionpractices: • Assess fees for use of the solid waste transfer and disposal system at the point of service. • The fee charged to customer classes will be the same at Page 7-3 all facilities,unless the Metropolitan King County Council determines a change in the rate structure is necessary to maintain service levels,comply with regulations and permits,or to address low income needs. • Utilize the assets of the King County Solid Waste Division Page 7-9 consistent with the conditions established in the Amended and Restated Solid Waste Interlocal Agreement with the cities. • The County General Fund will not charge use fees or receive other Page 7-1 consideration from the Solid Waste Division for use of any transfer facility property in use as of November 6,2013.The division's use of assets acquired by other separate County funds is subject to use fees. If the division ceases to use a property,all proceeds from the sale or other use of such property are due to the owner of record. • Maintain reserve funds and routinely evaluate the funds for long- Page 7-5 term adequacy and set contributions to maintain reasonable rate stability. • Finance capital projects using an appropriate combination of cash Page 7-6 and debt depending upon the life of the asset,financial benefits such as rate stability,and interest rates. • Use solid waste fees to fund mitigation payments to cities for Page 7-5 impacts directly attributable to solid waste facilities per Revised Code of Washington 36.58.080 and the Amended and Restated Solid Waste Interlocal Agreement. • Use solid waste fees to fund required mitigation for solid waste Page 7-5 facilities,including mitigation mandated by federal,state,and local regulations and permits. Att A Page 178 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Summary of Recommended Actions • Continue to evaluate and implement fiscally responsible operational changes to support a sustainable business model and maintain the assets of the solid waste facilities. Page 7-8 • Include a target fund balance in the Solid Waste Division financial plan equal to at least 30 days of operating expenses. Page 7-7 • Establish a minimum balance in the Rate Stabilization Reserve to mitigate the risks associated with a moderate-level economic recession. Page 7-7 • Maintain the Landfill Post-Closure Maintenance Fund at a level to ensure that environmental monitoring and maintenance of the closed landfills will be fully funded through the end of their regulated post-closure maintenance periods,as defined by applicable law. Page 7-6 Maintain a Solid Waste Division financial forecast and cash-flow projection of four years or more. Page 7-3 Subject to approval from the Metropolitan King County Council, define customer classes and establish equitable fees for each customer class based on services provided,benefits received,use of Page 7-9 the system,and the costs,incurred or avoided,of providing those services. Consider alternatives to the current rate methodology,such as llu�lll���l� Page 7-9 incorporating a transaction fee into the rate structure. Study the cost of providing services to self-haul customers,and to other customer classes if needed. Page 7-9 Consider discounts for low-income customers consistent with RCW 81.77.195. Page 7-10 Continue to explore new revenue sources to help finance the solid i�l���l� „ ,� �:::• Page 7-10 waste system. iil1hl The Executive may establish an Environmental Reserve Fund with Page 7-7 revenue from solid waste fees for the benefit of the signatories to the Amended and Restated Interlocal Agreement. Develop the procedures to establish and maintain the Rate Page 7-7 Stabilization Reserve. Att A Page 179 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Summary of Recommended Actions Action Detailed MI 44-f 71�1 Action Discussion Maintain the following solid waste funds: Page 7-6 • Landfill Reserve, • Landfill Post-Closure Maintenance, • Capital Equipment Recovery Program,and • Construction Fund. u When possible,manage solid waste rates through smaller,more Page 7-3 frequent increases,which in combination with the rate stabilization reserve,smooths rate increases over time. Att A Page 180 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 lid Waste System Finance 1-11, Financial policies help guide the solid waste system's operations and investments.This chapter first provides a brief summary of the division's financial structure,including descriptions of funding sources,revenues,and expenditures. The remainder of the chapter describes a range of influences expected to have a financial impact on the division in the future. Funding of Solid Waste Services and Programs King County's solid waste transfer and disposal system is a public-sector operation that is funded almost entirely by fees collected from its customers.The division is an enterprise fund,managing nearly all of its expenses with revenues earned through these fees. The fees charged at county facilities,called tipping fees, i pay for the operation and maintenance of transfer and disposal facilities and equipment,education and promotion related to waste prevention and recycling,grants to cities to support waste prevention and recycling efforts,and administrative operating expenses and overhead. r E� Tipping fees also pay for the construction of transfer facilities. Bonds or loans may be used for large projects,but repayment of this debt is funded by tipping fees. As discussed later in this chapter,through transfers into i reserve funds,the fee paid for each ton of waste entering the system today covers the expenses involved in disposal of that waste,even if some costs are incurred decades in the future.Using this financial structure ensures that the full cost of solid waste handling is paid by the users of the system. A summary of the fund structure is illustrated in Figure 7-1 �. and discussed in the following sections. Customers pay a tipping fee at the scalehouse 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 7-1 Att A Page 181 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 v -0 M � � C c 3 (v i LL O u O H N 4 v _ _ _ C I uIA W tG C C f+ C C 0 M > f0 p No .� N Np O V O u F w O O N 6 N N C O > Co •- 1 1 V .. ° LL J O_ E C w M O al N iF � M N > �^ t0 LL 0. 3 C C > O O p O LL O y O N '^ Q N _ O Y •O i n v C w N _ M W > O .. Y 2 N +�' � r 'O , V N C M O C = CN .v N N 'C C C Q OC v � E m Z �i V V `O V i6 g V .2O U M w o E M N to O 'G O -0 C r 7 C N H d £ ,� V tA LL r N C V N r N c o > � E E a O c O a O ° — >i = to 0) v v t r 0 V R W — u " `6CU 0 N N 41 t6 t6 t6 C i cc� al > d y i 4J -0 7 T IL O 20 3: r6 J U a G L- W Q y, N C l) O W 2 m U 2 0 • Q. C . . . . N i 3 O to D H LL 2 r v I a E tv 2 -0 M �j 01 N cp N T m N C .0 T N u O O M U. tp Cu C N £ V O Im O 0 U. w m C -Q A (u 3 , i N .� tp f+ J V A r r . w th O L V to in D co N O •Q' V C i C ( i V N tV H L O V O H E to 7-2 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 182 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 How Cities Fund Solid Waste Programs Cities fund their solid waste and waste prevention and recycling programs in a variety of ways,and the resources available to the 37 cities in the King County system vary widely.Some cities receive revenue from fees paid for solid waste collection services.These fees may be paid directly to the city or to the collection company depending on who provides the collection service-the city itself or a commercial collection company-and what contractual arrangements have been made. In some cases,the collection companies charge a fee that is passed on to the city to fund their programs.Some cities also charge a utility tax.Another funding source for cities is state and county grants(see Chapter 4,Sustainable Materials Management for more information about grants).For cities that do not receive any revenue from collection,the only revenue sources for funding waste prevention and recycling programs may be grants and the city's general fund. Solid Waste Division Revenues As mentioned earlier,the solid waste system is funded primarily by the tipping fees charged at division facilities. The tipping fee is charged to the commercial collection companies that collect materials curbside and to residential and business self-haulers who bring wastes to the transfer facilities themselves. In accordance with KCC 10.08.040, the County Council establishes the fees charged at county solid waste facilities. There are four main types of tipping fees: Basic Fee-The per-ton fee charged to customers disposing of municipal solid waste at transfer facilities and to curbside collection vehicles at the Cedar Hills landfill.The basic fee accounts for about 97 percent of tipping fee revenues. Regional Direct Fee-A discounted fee charged to commercial collection companies that haul solid waste to Cedar Hills in transfer trailers from their own transfer stations and processing facilities,thus bypassing county transfer stations. Yard Waste and Clean Wood Fee-A fee for separated yard waste and clean wood delivered to facilities that have separate collection areas for these materials. Special Waste Fee- The fee charged for certain materials that require special handling,record keeping,or both,such as asbestos-containing materials and contaminated soil. There are two different special waste fees that reflect the greater or lesser expense involved in handling and tracking different materials. Other fees are charged for recyclables,such as appliances. KCC 10.12.021.G authorizes the division director to set fees for recyclable materials for which no fee has yet been established by ordinance.These fees may be set to encourage recycling and need not recover the full cost of handling and processing. In accordance with state law(RCW 70.93.097), the division also charges a fee to vehicles with unsecured loads arriving at any staffed King County transfer facility or the Cedar Hills landfill. Figure 7-2 shows the breakdown of revenues as projected for 2017 and 2018 in the 2016 Rate Study.As shown,about 90 percent of the division's revenue comes from tipping fees.The remainder of the division's revenue comes from a 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 7-3 Att A Page 183 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 few additional sources.The most significant of those is the Local Hazardous Waste Management Program (LHWMP). Other sources of revenue include revenue from the sale of landfill gas from the Cedar Hills landfill;interest earned on fund balances;recyclables revenue,including revenue from both the sale of scrap metals received at division transfer facilities and from a fee on recyclables collected in unincorporated areas;fees collected from construction and demolition disposal;income from rental properties;fees collected on unincorporated area curbside accounts to support waste prevention and recycling education;and Washington State Department of Ecology grants to help clean up litter and illegal dumping throughout the county,as well as to support waste prevention and recycling. Based on economic and market conditions,revenues from these sources and interest earned can vary considerably. Figure 7-2. Projected sources of revenue 2017 and 2018 1 % 3% 1 % Disposal Fees Local Hazardous Waste Management Program Fees Landfill Gas-To-Energy SWD Other Revenues-grants,interests,and other income Recycling Revenues- including construction and demolition disposal fees Construction and Demolition Debris Surcharge Starting in September 2015,management of the county's construction and demolition waste changed. In the past,the division had contracts with two private companies-Republic Services and Waste Management-to manage the majority of the county's construction and demolition debris.Under the new system,the division designates qualified facilities to accept and process construction and demolition debris. In 2016,the division banned disposal of construction and demolition materials that have stable recycling markets.As future markets develop,more materials may also be banned.Materials that are brought to a designated facility for processing,but cannot be recycled,will incur a$4.25 per ton disposal surcharge that will be payable to the division.This system is designed to encourage recycling of construction and demolition materials.For more information,see Chapter 4, Sustainable Materials Management. 7-4 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 184 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Solid Waste Division Expenditures Division expenditures,can be divided into four broad categories:operating costs,support service costs,debt service, and transfers to other solid waste funds.The division maintains a target fund balance-an average balance in the Operating Fund sufficient to cover 30 days of direct operating expenses.Operating expenses are defined to exclude reserve funds.A rate stabilization reserve allows the accrual of funds to smooth out rate increases over time. Figure 7-3 uses 2017-2018 projections to illustrate the various division expenditures,which are described in the following sections: Figure 7-3. 2017 Budgeted expenditures • I I 4h • I I Operating Costs Other Solid Waste Funds I Debt Services 63% Support Services Operating Costs Operating costs,which constitute the majority of all division spending,include the day-to-day expenses for transfer, transport,and landfill operations,maintenance of equipment and facilities,and management of landfill gas and wastewater.Operating costs also include business and occupation tax,and an emergency contingency to cover some costs related to weather-related events or other small emergencies.In addition,all but one of the closed landfills have met the obligatory number of years of post-closure care,but have on-going needs for monitoring and maintenance. Since the post-closure period has expired and maintenance and monitoring is still required,those projects are now funded by the Operating Fund. Also included in the operating costs category is the rent that the division pays to the county's General Fund for use of the landfill property. Rent is based on a fair market property appraisal.An appraisal by Murray&Associates in 2012 determined a rent payment schedule for 2015 through 2025.Also included in operation costs are mitigation paid to cities for impacts directly attributable to solid waste facilities(RCW 36.58.080)as well as other mitigation related to construction or other activities as required by federal,state,and local regulations and permits.Similar to the cities' authorization to receive mitigation,and due to the longer life of the Landfill,the Road Services Division of the Department of Local Services will study the ability to charge the Solid Waste Division to mitigate impacts directly attributable to the regional facility,including wear and tear on nearby roads. Another expense in this category is recycling costs.This includes grants to the cities and other waste prevention and recycling programs and services provided by the division. 7-5 Att A Page 185 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Support Service Costs This cost category includes functions that support operations,such as engineering,overhead,finance,administration, and planning. Debt Service Debt service is the payment of interest and principal on bonds and loans.Major transfer facility capital projects are generally financed by a combination of general obligation (GO) bonds backed by the full faith and credit of the county's General Fund and rate dollars in the Construction Fund. It is anticipated that with approval of the County Council,GO bonds will be issued for future transfer facility capital projects. Repayment of the debt will not extend beyond,and may be less than,the useful life of the facility.Additional factors that may be considered include but are not limited to:changes in disposal method,length of the ILA,bond market/bond rates,and waste generation. To date,Cedar Hills landfill capital projects are not funded through debt financing,but through the Landfill Reserve Fund discussed later in this section. Transfers to Other Solid Waste Funds Transfers from the Operating Fund to reserve funds make up a portion of the division's costs.These reserve funds were established to ensure that the division can meet future obligations,or expenses,some of which are mandated by law.Contributions to reserve funds are routinely evaluated to ensure they are adequate to meet short-and long- term needs. Paying into reserve funds stabilizes the impact on rates for certain expenses by spreading the costs over a longer time period,and ensures that customers who use the system pay the entire cost of disposal.The three reserve funds-the Capital Equipment Recovery Program Fund,the Landfill Reserve Fund,and the Post-Closure Maintenance Fund-are discussed below. Bond proceeds and contributions from the Operating Fund to the Construction Fund are used to finance new construction and major maintenance of division transfer facilities and some closed landfill mitigation projects. Contributions from the Operating Fund to the Construction Fund result in less borrowing,and consequently,a lower level of debt service. The Capital Equipment Recovery Program Fund (CERP) is codified in KCC 4A.200.680.The purpose of the CERP is to provide adequate resources for replacement and major maintenance of solid waste rolling stock(primarily long-haul trucks and trailers)and stationary compactors. New equipment is purchased from the Operating Fund, but after the initial purchase,replacements are funded from the CERP. By accumulating funds in the CERP,the division is able to cover the expense of replacing needed equipment without impacting rates,even while revenue fluctuates.Annual contributions to the CERP are calculated by projecting future replacement costs,salvage values,and equipment -.. life.Contributions are adjusted to reflect changes in facilities and operations that affect equipment needs.The contributions are held in an account, earning interest,until needed. The CERP Fund provides resources for replacement and major The Landfill Reserve Fund(LRF),codified in maintenance of equipment KCC 4A.200.390,covers the costs of four major accounts maintained for the Cedar Hills landfill,which are described on the following page: 7-6 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 186 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 • New area development account-Covers the costs for planning,designing,permitting,and building new disposal areas. • Facility improvements account-Covers a wide range of capital investments required to sustain the infrastructure and operations at the landfill,such as enhancements to the landfill gas and wastewater systems. • Closure account-Covers the cost of closing operating areas within the landfill that have reached capacity. Mandated by federal and state law,these contributions help the division prepare incrementally for the cost of final closure of the entire landfill. • Post-closure maintenance account-Accumulates funds to pay for post-closure maintenance of the Cedar Hills landfill for 30 years.This account is also mandated by federal and state law. The sum of all four accounts,based on projected cost obligations,makes up the LRF contribution from the Operating Fund.Projected cost obligations are based on the current plan for the landfill.When Cedar Hills closes,the division will discontinue its contributions to the LRF.After final closure,the balance of the LRF will be transferred to the Post- Closure Maintenance Fund to pay for Cedar Hills'post-closure maintenance and monitoring. The Post-Closure Maintenance Fund,codified in KCC 4A.200.710,is a separate fund that pays for the maintenance and environmental monitoring of the Vashon landfill-the only closed landfill that is still within the regulatory period set in 40 CFR 258.61 and Washington Administrative Code 173-351-600(see Chapter 6,Landfill Management and Solid Waste Disposal). In addition to the funds mentioned above,the division is investigating the establishment of an Environmental Reserve,as discussed in the Amended and Restated ILA.The purpose of such a fund would be to help to pay for any environmental liabilities not already covered by system rates or insurance.The fund would be retained for a minimum of 30 years following the closure of the Cedar Hills Landfill. Target Fund Balance ' The division's current practice is to retain an average balance in the operating fund sufficient to cover at least 30 days of direct operating costs. A stormwater pond at the Cedar Hills Landfi II is part of the Minimum Rate Stabilization Reserve infrastructure paid for by the Facility Improvements Account FCS Group conducted a rate structure analysis (KCSWD 2017d),and reported that the division suffered an 11 percent reduction in Basic Fee revenue over a two-year period during the Great Recession. For comparison,during the more moderate 2001 Dot-Com Bust, Basic Fee revenue decreased by four percent in that two-year period. To mitigate the risks associated with a moderate-level economic recession,holding five percent of annual revenues as a minimum Rate Stabilization Reserve balance would provide for a moderate-level recession slightly more severe than the Dot-Com Bust,but not for an outlier like the Great Recession. Preparing for two years of reduced revenues fits with the County's two-year budgeting cycle.Presumably,the Council would be able to pass any needed recession response measures within two years,and the division would not need to carry excessive reserves.The division is developing specific procedures for maintaining recession reserve monies to include access to and replenishment of funds. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 187 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Influences on Future Costs and Revenue In addition to the unanticipated increases or reductions in tonnage due to the economy,there are other factors that can be expected to influence costs and revenues.These factors,which can be projected and budgeted for with varying degrees of certainty,are summarized below. Interest Earnings The division's reserve funds are invested to earn interest during the years,or even decades,before the funds are needed.This is particularly significant for the long-term Landfill Reserve Fund,which will finance landfill closure and 30 years of post-closure care,a period expected to run from about 2028(the currently approved capacity)through 2058,or if expanded capacity is approved,for about 30 years after Cedar Hills reaches its maximum disposal capacity, making interest earnings a considerable factor in the amount that needs to be put aside. In 2013,the value of interest earned was less than inflation.Starting in 2018,a small increase in interest above inflation is expected through 2026. The county is looking at how the funds might be invested differently consistent with County guidelines to earn a higher rate of return. Waste Prevention and Recycling As discussed earlier,revenues from garbage tipping fees cover the costs of waste prevention and recycling services and programs.This financing structure requires the division to estimate the effects of waste prevention and recycling on garbage disposal to reasonably project future revenues. While the revenue stream relies primarily on garbage tipping fees,the current priorities in solid waste management are waste prevention and recycling,which lead to reductions in the amount of solid waste disposed and therefore in revenues received.The reduction in the amount of waste received due to waste prevention,recycling and product stewardship has been gradual,and the system has adjusted to lower revenues. Further reductions through increasingly rigorous waste prevention and recycling efforts will continue to affect the revenues of King County and other jurisdictions across the state.The state's Moving Washington Beyond Waste and Toxics,2015 Update recognizes that,"Local governments in particular are concerned about how to sustain funding for programs when the goal is to reduce waste disposal,the source of most funding"(Ecology 2015). The county completed a Sustainable Solid Waste Management Study(KCSWD 2014a)that looked at multiple strategies,technologies and services that the division could employ to increase recycling and manage solid waste.One of the strategies suggested by the study is to develop a sustainable financing model that is aligned with waste prevention and recycling (KCSWD 2014a). Increased waste prevention and recycling efforts have had positive influences on the financial aspects of the system as well.As discussed in Chapters 4 and 6,waste prevention and recycling have contributed to extending the life of the Cedar Hills landfill,which will save money for ratepayers.Another aspect of waste prevention and recycling that has had a positive financial effect is product stewardship.Product stewardship shifts the management of materials at the end of their life to the product manufacturer.This shift reduces the costs to cities and counties of managing products such as televisions,computers,and fluorescent bulbs and tubes,to name a few.The savings are most substantial for products that contain hazardous materials and are more difficult and expensive to manage within the public collection,transfer,and disposal system. 7-8 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 188 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Operational Efficiencies The division continually seeks to eliminate waste and variability in its operations.This commitment ensures the division's ability to provide value to its customers,while improving the quality of service,controlling costs,and upholding the county's environmental goals. Examples of operational efficiencies that are producing significant and long-term results are discussed briefly below. 3W"' Landfill Tippers The division uses tippers to empty garbage from transfer trailers at the landfill.The tippers Landfi replaced the use of older walking floor trailers (see Chapter 5,Landfill Management and Solid Waste Disposal,for more details).Tippers save staff time and other resources,as well as reduce equipment and tire damage. Solid Waste and Cardboard Compactors As discussed in Chapter 4,the transfer system in King County is undergoing major renovations to update station technology,improve efficiencies,and enhance environmental sustainability.The installation of solid waste compactors is one important component of that plan.The Bow Lake, Enumclaw,Shoreline, Factoria,and Vashon stations currently have waste compactors.All newly constructed recycling and transfer stations will incorporate compactors as well. Compacting solid waste at the stations reduces the number of trips necessary to transport the waste by up to 30 percent.Fewer trips translate directly into lower costs for fuel,equipment,and staff. For instance,in the first six months of operation at the Bow Lake Recycling and Transfer Station,the use of a compactor saved almost 900 trips and over 8,400 gallons of diesel fuel. In addition to solid waste compactors,the division is installing cardboard compactors at many of the stations.These compactors will allow the division to reduce the number of trips needed to pick up the bales. Potential Changes in the Fee Structure The division may propose changes to the current fee structure in future rate studies. Possible changes include establishing different customer classes,discounts for low income customers,and moving some costs from the fee charged at transfer facilities and the landfill to a fee on the curbside collection bill.In the 2014 Sustainable Solid Waste Management Study(KCSWD 2014),one of the recommendations was to look at revising the fee structure.The division completed a rate restructure study in 2017 and will be discussing with stakeholders what a rate restructure might entail (KCSWD 2017d). To equitably allocate the benefits and costs of transfer system improvements,the division may consider different customer classes.The customer classes would take into consideration the services provided,benefits received,use of the system,and the costs(incurred or avoided),of providing those services.An example of a customer class would be self-haul customers or commercial customers at the transfer stations. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2018 7-9 Att A Page 189 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 In 2010,legislation was passed authorizing the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission to approve discounts for low-income customers under certain circumstances.For the first time,the division is proposing a low- income discount in its 2019-2020 Rate Proposal (KCSWD 2018b). Before changes to the fee structure are proposed,the division is studying a number of factors,including the impact on revenue and cost,equity issues,and system-wide financing implications.These factors will be considered in future rate studies. Closure of the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill When Cedar Hills reaches capacity and closes,the division's solid waste tipping fee is expected to increase to cover the cost of using an alternate means of disposal.Whether it is export to an out-of-county landfill,disposal at a waste- to-energy facility,or other conversion technology,past studies,as well as a recent preliminary study,indicate that the cost for disposal after Cedar Hills closes will be higher(KCSWD 2017c) (see Chapter 6,Landfill Management and Solid Waste Disposal for further discussion). New Revenue Sources The division is continually exploring new sources of revenue to help offset reductions in tonnage.Cities may also want to consider additional funding sources to support their solid waste and waste prevention and recycling programs. Sales from the Landfill Gas-to- Energy Facility An example of the successful development of a revenue source is the sale of landfill gas.In 2009, a landfill gas-to-energy facility began operations at Cedar Hills,and the division began to receive revenues from the sale of landfill gas.The facility, which is privately owned and operated by Bio , Energy Washington,converts methane collected from the landfill into pipeline quality natural gas, which it sells to Puget Sound Energy. In addition,the environmental attributes from the pipeline quality gas produced by the landfill The Bio Energy Washington plant at Cedar Hills landfill converts gas-to-energy facility at Cedar Hills have value landfill gas to pipeline quality gas in the market and offer another ongoing source of revenue.The division,rather than the owner of the landfill gas facility,Bio Energy Washington,has contractually retained the environmental attributes associated with the project. In January of 2011,the County Council unanimously approved an ordinance authorizing the division to enter into a contract to sell the environmental attributes associated with the landfill gas-to-energy project to Puget Sound Energy.This contract is structured so 7-10 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 190 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 that the county shares in profits that Puget Sound Energy gets when selling the environmental attributes associated with the gas.The division receives revenue for both the gas and the environmental attributes associated with the gas. The revenue received by the division is highly volatile,and has ranged from $1 to$7 million per year,depending on production rates and the market price. Resource Recovery at Transfer Stations Significant amounts of recyclable materials—notably wood,metal and cardboard-are disposed at the transfer stations.The division is implementing new approaches,such as sorting the recyclable materials on the tipping floor and banning certain materials from disposal,to recover more of these materials at the transfer stations. Revenues from the sale of these materials help offset the costs of sorting and equipment.(see Chapter 5,Solid Waste Transfer and Processing System for further discussion). Fees from Materials Collected at the Transfer Stations King County Code(KCC 1 0.12.021.G)does not require that fees for recyclables recover the full costs of handling and processing recyclable materials.Therefore the fees can be set lower to encourage recycling over disposal. In fact, for materials such as the standard curbside recyclables collected at the transfer stations,there is currently no fee at all,even though the division pays the cost of transport and processing.As collection services for more recyclable materials are added at transfer facilities and more tons of materials are recycled,fees will be evaluated on a regular basis and adjusted as necessary to optimize the financial and environmental benefits. The division will continue to explore innovative opportunities,such as partnering with the private sector or other public agencies,to earn additional revenues and achieve savings through operational efficiencies. Although,these efforts may involve relatively small amounts of money,cumulatively they contribute to stabilizing rates for solid waste customers. 2019 ComprebenszveSolzd Waste 2wanagementPlan-ju1y2028 7-11 Att A Page 191 ated April 17,20 + w R a ' " 1% polo—Aggo AILn r "iN -15 fig_ �r 0.9 61 1 a ' �p Oe . 411 0 �. � ,e� std •rr� +� c� v q " or {,� ` Ordinance 18893 b -ILL Referep. r ---------- ............. .......... .. ...... 01 � yh u A A w" �f x 0 w skM� r b y, s. �. r;.-•,.�, Att A Page 193 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Rekrencces Cascadia.2006.2006 Material Recovery Facility(MRF)Assessment. Prepared for the King County Solid Waste Division by Cascadia Consulting Group, Inc.,Seattle,WA. Cascadia.2009a.2007/2008 Construction and Demolition Materials Characterization Study. Prepared for the King County Solid Waste Division by Cascadia Consulting Group,Seattle,WA. http://www.kingcounty.gov/depts/dnrp/solid-waste/about/waste-monitoring/waste-documents.aspx Cascadia.2012a. King County Waste Monitoring Program:2011 Waste Characterization Study. Prepared for the King County Solid Waste Division by Cascadia Consulting Group,Seattle,WA. http://www.kingcounty.gov/—/media/depts/dnrp/solid-waste/about/documents/waste-characterization-study-2011. ashx?la=en Cascadia.2012b.Organics Characterization Report. Prepared for the King County Solid Waste Division by Cascadia Consulting Group,Seattle,WA.(http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/garbage-recycling/documents/Organics- Characterization-report-2012.pdf) Cascadia.2015a.Waste Monitoring Program:Market Assessment for Recyclable Materials in King County. Prepared for the King County Solid Waste Division by Cascadia Consulting Group, Inc.,Seattle,WA. http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/about/documents/waste-monitoring-market-assessment-2015.pdf Cascadia.2015b. King County Waste Monitoring Program:2015 Waste Characterization and Customer Survey Report. Prepared for the King County Solid Waste Division by Cascadia Consulting Group,Seattle,WA. http://kingcounty.gov/—/media/depts/dnrp/solid-waste/about/documents/waste-characterization-study-2015. ashx?la=en Cascadia.2016.Transfer Station Customer Survey. Prepared for the King County Solid Waste Division by Cascadia Consulting Group,Seattle,WA. http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/about/documents/customer-survey-2016.pdf Cascadia.2017a. King County LinkUp Program 2017 Market Assessment. Prepared for the King County Solid Waste Division by Cascadia Consulting Group,Seattle,WA. http://kingcounty.gov/depts/dnrp/solid-waste/programs/linkup/documents.aspx Cascadia.2017b. King County 2017 Targeted Business Characterization Report. Prepared for the King County Solid Waste Division by Cascadia Consulting Group,Seattle,WA. http://www.kingcounty.gov/—/media/depts/dnrp/solid-waste/about/documents/business-characterization-2017. ashx?la=en 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july2018 $'1 Att A Page 194 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 City of Seattle. 1998/2004.On the Path to Sustainability and 2004 Plan Amendment.City of Seattle,Seattle Public Utilities,WA.(A draft update to this plan is posted here: http://www.seattle.gov/util/MyServices/Garbage/AboutGarbage/SolidWastePlans/Solid WasteManagementPlan/ index.htm) Ecology.2004. Background Paper for Beyond Waste Summary Document Financing Solid Waste for the Future. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/pubs/0407032.pdf Ecology.2009b. Focus on Secured Loads.Washington State Department of Ecology.Olympia,WA. https://fortress.wa.gov/ecy/publications/publications/0907020.pdf Ecology.2015.The State Solid and Hazardous Waste Plan.Moving Beyond Waste and Toxics,2015 Update.Washington State Department of Ecology,Olympia,WA. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/wasteplan GBB.2007. Independent,Third Party Review of the Solid Waste Transfer and Waste Export System Plan. Prepared for the King County Council by Gershman, Brickner&Bratton, Inc., Fairfax,VA. http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/about/planning/documents/solid-waste-transfer-export-review.pdf KCSWD.Updated monthly.Solid Waste Advisory Committee Web Page. King County Solid Waste Division,Seattle,WA. http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/about/swac.asp KCSWD.Updated monthly.Metropolitan Solid Waste Management Advisory Committee Web Page. King County Solid Waste Division,Seattle,WA. http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/about/mswmac.asp KCSWD.2002.2001 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan. King County Solid Waste Division,Seattle,WA. http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/about/planning/comp-plan.asp KCSWD and ITSG.2004.Transfer System Level of Service Evaluation Criteria and Standards. Prepared by the King County Solid Waste Division and Interjurisdictional Technical Staff Group,Seattle,WA. http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/about/planning/documents-planning.asp KCSWD.2005a.Analysis of System Needs and Capacity:Using the Transfer System Level of Service Evaluation Criteria and Standards. King County Solid Waste Division,Seattle,WA. http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/about/planning/documents-planning.asp KCSWD.2005b.Options for Public and Private Ownership of Transfer and Intermodal Facilities:Using the Transfer System Level of Service Evaluation Criteria and Standards. King County Solid Waste Division,Seattle,WA. http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/about/planning/documents-planning.asp 8-2 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 195 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 KCSWD.2006a. Preliminary Transfer&Waste Export Facility Recommendations and Estimated System Costs, Rate Impacts&Financial Policy Assumptions. King County Solid Waste Division,Seattle,WA. http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/about/planning/documents-planning.asp KCSWD.2006b.Solid Waste Transfer and Waste Management Plan and associated Environmental Impact Statement. King County Solid Waste Division,Seattle,WA. http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/about/planning/documents-planning.asp KCSWD et al.2008a.Commercial Customer Evaluation of Waste Densities&Food Waste Recycling Impacts. King County Solid Waste Division,City of Kirkland,Waste Management, Inc.,and Sound Resources Management Group, Inc.,WA. KCSWD et al.2008b.Sustainable Curbside Collection Pilot. Prepared by the King County Solid Waste Division,City of Renton, Public Health-Seattle&King County,and Waste Management, Inc. https://kingcounty.gov/—/media/depts/dnrp/solid-waste/garbage-recycling/documents/Renton_Residential_Pilot_ Report.ashx?la=en KCSWD.2009a. Draft King County Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan. King County Solid Waste Division, Seattle,WA. KCSWD.2009b. King County Operational Disaster Debris Management Plan. King County Solid Waste Division, Seattle,WA. KCSWD.2010a. Final Environmental Impact Statement:Cedar Hills Regional Landfill,2010 Site Development Plan. Prepared for the King County Solid Waste Division by HDR Engineering, Inc., Bellevue,WA. http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/facilities/cedar-hills-development.asp KCSWD.2010b. Project Program Plan:Cedar Hills Regional Landfill 2010 Site Development Plan.King County Solid Waste Division,Seattle,WA. http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/facilities/cedar-hills-development.asp KCSWD.2010c.Vashon Recycling Survey. King County Solid Waste Division,Seattle,WA. http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/about/documents/2010-Vashon-recycling-survey.pdf KCSWD.2013a.Solid Waste Transfer and Waste Management Plan Review. http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/about/plan-review.asp KCSWD.2013b.Optimized Transfer Station Recycling Feasibility Study. Prepared for the King County Solid Waste Division by Herrerra,O'Brien and Company,and HDR Engineering, Inc. http://kingcounty.gov/—/media/depts/dnrp/solid-waste/about/Planning/documents/optimized-TS-feasibility-study. ashx?la=en 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-judy2018 $'3 Att A Page 196 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 KCSWD.2013c. DRAFT Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan. http://www.kingcounty.gov/—/media/depts/dnrp/solid-waste/about/planning/documents/2013-swd-comp-plan. ashx?la=en KCSWD.2014a.Sustainable Solid Waste Management Plan. Prepared for the King County Solid Waste Division. http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/about/planning/documents-planning.asp#sustain-study KCSWD.2014b. King County UTC Area Multifamily Pilots. Prepared for King County Solid Waste Division by Cascadia Consulting Group. http://kingcounty.gov/—/media/depts/dnrp/solid-waste/about/Planning/documents/KC-UTC-multifamily-recycling- project-2013-fi na I-report.ashx?la=en KCSWD.2015.Solid Waste Transfer and Waste Management Plan Review Part 2. http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/about/plan-review.asp KCSWD.2016a.Waste Export Evaluation,October 2016.Moorehead, Hobson,et al.,page 27. KCSWD.2016b.Multi-Family Recycling Best Practices Report. KCSWD.2016c. Executive Proposed Solid Waste Disposal Fees 2017-2018.June 2016. KCSWD.2017a.Cedar Hills Site Development Alternatives Final Report,Volumes 1 and 2. Prepared for the King County Solid Waste Division by Herrera Environmental Consultants. KCSWD.2017b.Anaerobic Digestion Feasibility Study. Prepared for the King County Solid Waste Division by HDR Engineering, Inc. http://www.kingcounty.gov/—/media/depts/dnrp/solid-waste/about/planning/documents/anaerobic-digestion- feasibility-study.ashx?la=en KCSWD.2017c.Working Draft Copy of Evaluation of Disposal Technologies.March 28,2017. KCSWD.2017d.Alternative Solid Waste Revenue Structure. Prepared for the King County Solid Waste Division by FCS Group. November 2017. KCSWD.2018a. Peak Democracy/King County Connects Evaluation for the Draft King County Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan.May 2018. KCSWD.2018b. Executive Proposed Solid Waste Disposal Fees 2019-2020.June 2018. King County.2011.Annual Report of King County's Climate Change, Energy,Green Building,and Environmental Purchasing Programs. King County,Seattle,WA. http://your.kingcounty.gov/dnrp/climate/documents/2011-King-County-Sustainability-Report.pdf 8-4 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 197 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 King County.2012.Greenhouse Gas Emissions in King County:An Updated Geographic-Plus Inventory,a Consumption-based Inventory,and an Ongoing Tracking Framework.Prepared for King County by the Stockholm Institute. http://your.kingcounty.gov/dnrp/library/dnrp-d irectors-office/climate/2008-emissions-inventory/ghg-inventory- summary.pdf King County.2015a. King County Strategic Plan,2015 Update:Working Together for One King County. King County, Seattle,WA. http://www.ki ngcou nty.gov/depts/executive/performa nce-strategy-budget/performa nce-strategy/Strategic- Planning/2015%20Strategic%20PIan%20Update.aspx King County.2015b.Strategic Climate Action Plan. King County,Seattle,WA. http://www.kingcounty.gov/services/environment/climate/strategies/strategic-climate-action-plan.aspx King County.2016a. King County Comprehensive Plan with 2016 Update. King County,Seattle,WA. http://www.kingcounty.gov/depts/executive/performance-strategy-budget/regional-planning/king-county- comprehensive-plan.aspx King County.2016b. King County Equity and Social Justice Strategic Plan 2016-2022. King County,Seattle,WA. http://www.kingcounty.gov/elected/executive/equity-social-justice/strategic-plan.aspx Michaels,T.,Shiang, I.,2016 Directory of Waste to Energy Facilities, ERC,page 5. Morris,J.2008.Curbside Recycling in King County:Valuation of Environmental Benefits-Revised Draft.Dr.Jeffrey Morris,Sound Resource Management Group,Olympia,WA. Normandeau.2017. King County Waste-to-Energy Study. Prepared for the King County Department of Resources and Parks,Solid Waste Division by Normandeau Associates Inc,CDM Smith,and Neomer. http://www.kingcounty.gov/—/media/depts/dnrp/solid-waste/about/planning/documents/waste-to-energy-options- considerations.ashx?la=en R.W. Beck.2007.Comparative Evaluation of Waste Export and Conversion Technologies Disposal Options. Prepared for the King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks,Solid Waste Division by R.W. Beck, Inc.,Seattle,WA. http://www.kingcounty.gov/—/media/depts/dnrp/solid-waste/about/planning/documents/Conversion_ Technologies_Report.ashx?la=en Sound Resource Management.2006. Estimated Market Value for Recyclables Remaining in King County's Disposal Stream.Memorandum from Sound Resource Management Group to the King County Solid Waste Division,January 2006(values updated by Sound Resource Management August 2008). SWANA.2008.The Long-Term Environmental Risks of Subtitle D Landfills.Solid Waste Association of North America Applied Research Foundation, Dallas,TX. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july2018 $'5 Att A Page 198 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 SWANA.2011.Waste Conversion Technologies,Jeremy K.O'Brien, P.E.,Solid Waste Association of North America MSW Management Magazine. Watson,Jay L., Liz Tennant,and Dave Galvin.2010.2010 Local Hazardous Waste Management Plan Update. Local Hazardous Waste Management Program in King County,Seattle,WA. http://www.hazwasteheIp.org/AboutUs/pdf/Chapter4_LegalAuthority_Cover.pdf 8-6 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 199 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 i jw Ip 3 y I is P Y i` t yJJ Y� i a' p _ "� Att A Page 200 " Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 • Appendix Utilities and Transportation Commission Cost Assessment Att A Page 201 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission Cost Assessment This plan is prepared for King County and its incorporated cities, excluding Seattle and Milton. Prepared by: King County Solid Waste Division Contact: Meg Moorehead, Strategy, Communications& Performance Manager Date: May 17, 2018 DEFINITIONS Throughout this document: Year 1 refers to 2018 Year 3 refers to 2020 Year 6 refers to 2023 Year refers to calendar year January 1— December 31 1. DEMOGRAPHICS The King County solid waste system comprises 37 of the 39 cities in the county (including all but the cities of Seattle and Milton) and the unincorporated areas of King County. In all,the county's service area covers approximately 2,050 square miles. There are about 1.45 million residents and 840,000 people employed in the service area. 1.1. Population 1.1.1. Population for the entire King County Year 1: 2,166,600 Year 3: 2,257,800 Year 6: 2,297,000 1.1.2. Population for the King County solid waste system Year 1: 1,472,384 Year 3: 1,503,363 Year 6: 1,533,750 1.2. References and Assumptions Projections for population are based on data developed by the Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC; 2017). Data provided by PSRC are based on U.S. Census and other data sources and developed in close cooperation with the county and the cities. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 A-1 Att A Page 202 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 2. WASTE STREAM GENERATION 2.1. Tonnage Recycled Year 1: 1,032,873 (52% recycling) Year 3: 1,090,977 (52% recycling) Year 6: 1,179,649 (52% recycling) 2.2. Tonnage Disposed Year 1: 953,421 Year 3: 1,007,056 Year 6: 1,088,907 2.3. References and Assumptions The division uses a planning forecast model to predict future waste generation,which is defined as waste disposed+materials recycled. The forecast is used to guide system planning, budgeting, rate setting,and operations. The primary objectives of the model are to: 1)estimate future waste disposal and 2) provide estimates of the amount of materials expected to be diverted from the waste stream through division and city waste prevention and recycling programs. The tonnage forecast is described in more detail in Chapter 3 of the Plan. 3. SYSTEM COMPONENT COSTS This section addresses costs associated with current programs and those recommended in the draft plan. 3.1. Waste Reduction and Recycling Programs Many programs address waste reduction and prevention as well as recycling;therefore,they are presented here together. 3.1.1.Programs • Education and promotion campaigns • EcoConsumer program • Grants to cities to support waste prevention and recycling • Product stewardship support and promotion—"Take it Back Network" • Construction and demolition debris waste prevention and recycling education and promotion • Sustainable building education and promotion • LinkUp program • Organics management program • Master Recycler composter program • School programs • Special recycling collection events • Green Holidays program • Transfer facility recycling A-Z 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 203 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Detail on current programs and proposed waste prevention and recycling programs, primarily building on current efforts, are presented in the recommendations in Chapter 4 of the Plan. 3.1.2. The costs of waste reduction and recycling programs (including transfer station recycling) implemented and proposed are estimated to be: Year 1: $12,150,041 Year 3: $10,447,707 Year 6: $12,730,951 3.1.3. Funding mechanisms: Year 1: Disposal fees $11,871,402 G ra nts 118,639 Unincorporated area recycling fee 160,000 Year 3: Disposal fees $10,167,069 G ra nts 120,639 Unincorporated area recycling fee 160,000 Year 6: Disposal fees $12,468,313 G ra nts 102,639 Unincorporated area recycling fee 160,000 3.2. Recycling Programs—see 3.1, combined with Waste Reduction Programs 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 A-3 Att A Page 204 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 3.3 Solid Waste Collection Programs 3.3.1 UTC Regulated Solid Waste Collection Programs Data for 2017 and estimates for 2018, 2020 and 2023 are shown below: UTC Regulated Hauler Name: Waste Management of Washington,Inc. G-permit#:G-237 720 4th Ave,Ste 400 Kirkland WA 98033 Yr 1 Yr 3 Yr 6 2017 2018 2020 2023 Residential #of Customers 37,974 38,378 39,187 39,979 Tonnage (garbage,YW&recycling) 61,060 62,519 66,036 71,403 Commercial #of Customers 1,346 1,360 1,389 1,417 Tonnage Collected (garbage only) 26,487 27,119 28,645 30,973 UTC Regulated Hauler Name: American Disposal Company, Inc. G-permit#:G-87 4662 70th Ave E, Puyallup WA 98371 Yr 1 Yr 3 Yr 6 2017 2018 2020 2023 Residential #of Customers 2,074 2,096 2,140 2,183 Tonnage (garbage,YW&recycling) 1,486 1,522 1,608 1,738 Commercial #of Customers 215 217 222 226 Tonnage Collected (garbage only) 1,411 1,444 1,526 1,650 A-4 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 205 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 UTC Regulated Hauler Name: Fiorito Enterprises, Inc.&Rabanco Companies G-permit#:G-60 22010 76th Ave 5, Kent WA 98032 Yr 1 Yr 3 Yr 6 2017 2018 2020 2023 Residential #of Customers 25,343 25,613 26,152 26,681 Tonnage (garbage,YW&recycling) 36,564 37,438 39,544 42,758 Commercial #of Customers 520 526 537 547 Tonnage Collected (garbage only) 13,440 13,761 14,536 15,717 UTC Regulated Hauler Name: Rabanco LTD,1600127th Ave NE Bellevue WA 98005 G-permit#:G-12 1600127th Ave NE,Bellevue WA 98005 Yr 1 Yr 3 Yr 6 2017 2018 2020 2023 Residential #of Customers 7,848 7,932 8,099 8,262 Tonnage (garbage,YW&recycling) 13,300 13,618 14,384 15,553 Commercial #of Customers 203 205 209 214 Tonnage Collected (garbage only) 9,434 9,660 10,203 11,032 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 A-5 Att A Page 206 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 3.3.2 Other(non-regulated)Solid Waste Collection Programs Data for 2017 and estimates for 2018, 2020,and 2023 are shown below. Hauler Name: Republic Services Yr 1 Yr 3 Yr 6 2017 2018 2020 2023 Residential #of Customers 123,174 124,485 127,108 129,677 Tonnage (garbage,YW&recycling) 232,390 237,941 251,327 271,754 Commercial #of Customers 5,400 5,457 5,572 5,685 Tonnage Collected (garbage only) 196,424 201,116 212,430 229,696 Hauler Name: Recology Yr 1 Yr 3 Yr 6 2017 2018 2020 2023 Residential #of Customers 63,872 64,552 65,912 67,244 Tonnage (garbage,YW&recycling) 118,391 121,219 128,039 138,445 Commercial #of Customers 2,324 2,349 2,398 2,447 Tonnage Collected (garbage only) 86,337 88,399 93,372 100,961 Hauler Name: Waste Management of Washington, Inc. Yr 1 Yr 3 Yr 6 2017 2018 2020 2023 Residential #of Customers 84,442 85,341 87,139 88,900 Tonnage (garbage,YW&recycling) 168,584 172,611 182,321 197,140 Commercial #of Customers 5,479 5,610 5,925 6,407 Tonnage Collected (garbage only) 136,633 139,896 147,766 159,776 A-6 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 Att A Page 207 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Hauler Name: City of Enumclaw Yr 1 Yr 3 Yr 6 2017 2018 2020 2023 Residential #of Customers 3,621 3,660 3,737 3,812 Tonnage (garbage,YW&recycling) 4,494 4,602 4,861 5,256 Commercial #of Customers 3,621 3,660 3,737 3,812 Tonnage Collected (garbage only) 2,835 2,903 3,067 3,316 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 A'7 Att A Page 208 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 3.4 Energy Recovery&Incineration (ER&I) Programs Not applicable—the Solid Waste Division has no such program. 3.5 Land Disposal Program 3.5.1 Landfill Name: Cedar Hills Regional Landfill Owner: King County Operator: King County Solid Waste Division 3.5.2 The approximate tonnage disposed at the landfill by UTC regulated haulers is expected to be: Year 1: 94,716 Year 3: 100,044 Year 6: 108,176 3.5.3 The approximate tonnage disposed at the landfill by other contributors is expected to be: Year 1: 858,705 Year 3: 907,012 Year 6: 980,731 3.5.4 Landfill operating and capital costs are estimated to be: Year 1: $46,973,382 Year 3: $55,365,039 Year 6: $51,868,163 3.5.5 Landfill funding: Tipping fees 3.6 Administration Program 3.6.1 Budgeted cost and funding sources: Budgeted Cost Funding Source Year 1: $40,785,701 Tipping fees Year 3: $40,827,859 Tipping Fees Year 6: $52,185,563 Tipping fees 3.6.2 Cost components included in these estimates are: All Operating Expenditures except for direct cost components of Transfer Operations, Disposal Operations, and ancillary operating units. 3.6.3 Funding mechanisms Around 90 percent of the division's revenue comes from tipping fees charged at transfer facilities and the Cedar Hills landfill.The remainder comes from a few additional sources, including interest earned on fund balances, a surcharge on construction and demolition (C&D), revenue from the sale of recyclable materials received at division transfer facilities, a fee on recyclables collected in A-8 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 209 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 unincorporated areas, and grants to help clean up litter and illegal dumping throughout the county and to support WPR. Other than grant funds,all revenue sources support all programs. 3.7 Other Programs 3.7.1 The Transfer Services System Program is described in Chapter 5 of the Plan. It includes the division's recycling and transfer stations, private facilities that handle construction and demolition debris (C&D),and household hazardous waste (HHW) service,which is covered in detail by the Local Hazardous Waste Management Plan. 3.7.2 The division owns and operates eight transfer stations and two drop boxes. Allied Waste and Waste Management own and operate facilities that handle C&D. The division operates HHW service at its Factoria transfer station and provides Wastemobile service via a contractor. 3.7.3 The UTC regulates the C&D facilities. 3.7.4 Solid Waste Division Costs 3.7.4.1 Transfer facility operating and capital costs are estimated to be: Year 1: $61,022,952 Year2: $68,229,939 Year 3: $80,090,023 3.7.4.2 HHW service costs are estimated to be: NA 3.7.5 The major funding source for division transfer operations is tipping fees. Capital costs are paid from the construction fund; bond proceeds and contributions from the operating fund (tipping fees) are deposited into the construction fund. The cost of providing HHW service is funded by the LHWMP. 3.8 References and Assumptions The estimate for year 1 costs is from actual 2018 costs to-date plus projected costs for the remainder of the year;years 3 and 6 were increased to account for inflation,tonnage projections,and expected program additions.The collection program estimates were derived using hauler reports and a projected rate of population increase in King County. Numbers have been rounded in most instances. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2018 A-9 Att A Page 210 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 4 FUNDING MECHANISMS Table 4.1.1 Facility Inventory Facility Name Type of Facility Tip Fee Estimated Transfer Final Disposal Total Tons Total Revenue per Ton Transfer and Station Location Disposed Generated Transportation Location (Tip Fee x Cost" Tons) King County Transfer Station $134.59 $61,022,952 King County Cedar Hills 922,121 $124,108,265 Transfer Stations Landfill Regional Direct Landfill $114.00 Cedar Hills 9,000 $1,026,000 Cedar Hills Landfill Special Waste Landfill $162.00 Cedar Hills 2,300 $372,600 Cedar Hills Landfill Commercial Haul Landfill $134.59 Cedar Hills 20,000 $2,691,800 Cedar Hills Landfill Yard WasteNVood Transfer Stations $75.00 Cedar Grove 21,000 $1,575,000 King County Composting Total 974,421 $129,773,665 Table 4.1.2 Disposal(Tip) Fee Components Fee per ton Moderate risk waste State tax surcharge Basic Fee 134.59 4.73 5.02 Regional Direct 114.00 Special Waste 162.00 5.83 Yard Waste 75.00 Table 4.1.3 Funding Mechanism(see next tables) Table 4.1.4 Tip Fee Forecast Year One Year Three Tip fee per ton by facility[1) (2018) (2020) Year Six(2023) All Facilities $134.59 $140.82 $154.16 [1] Basic fee A-10 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2c,-z8 Att A Page 211 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 4.2 Funding Mechanisms Table 4.2.1 Funding Mechanism By Percentage—Year 1 Component Tip Fee% Grant% Bond % Collection Tax Other% Total Rates% Waste Reduction & 99% 1% 100% Recycling Transfer 100% 100% Capital Projects 100% 100% Land Disposal 100% 100% Administration 100% 100% Capital Debt Service 100% 100% Other 100% 100% Table 4.2.2 Funding Mechanism By Percentage—Year 3 Component Tip Fee% Grant% Bond % Collection Tax Other% Total Rates% Waste Reduction & 99% 1/o 100/ 0 Recycling Transfer 100% 100% Capital Projects 100% 100% Land Disposal 100% 100% Administration 100% 100% Capital Debt Service 100% 100% Other 100% 100% 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 A-1 1 Att A Page 212 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Table 4.2.3 Funding Mechanism By Percentage—Year 6 Component Tip Fee% Grant% Bond% Collection Tax Other% Total Rates% Waste Reduction& 99% 1/°° 100% ° Recycling Transfer 100% 100% Capital Projects 100% 100% Land Disposal 100% 100% Administration 100% 100% Capital Debts Service 100% 100% Other 100% 100% 4.2 References and Assumptions Revenue and operating cost projections for years 1,3,and 6 are shown in Attachment 1. 4.3 Surplus Funds The division develops its solid waste rate to maintain a 30-day emergency reserve in the operating fund. Beginning in 2019,the division will also maintain a minimum reserve balance for economic recessions equivalent to 5%of projected disposal revenue. A-12 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 213 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Attachment 1 2018 2020 2023 Basic Fee 135 141 154 Revenues Disposal Fees 130,251,197 143,923,834 170,697,073 Interest Earnings 849,809 1,030,297 879,336 Grants 118,639 120,639 102,639 Landfill Gas 3,000,000 3,000,000 2,500,000 Rental Incomes 612,208 621,338 675,097 C&D 849,543 642,669 648,192 Other Revenue 8,643,986 537,707 584,231 Moderate Risk Waste Reimb Expense 2,141,140 3,612,578 3,925,147 Low-Income Discount - (300,000) (328,411) Total Revenue 146,466,521 153,189,061 179,683,303 Operating Expenditures Moderate Risk Waste 2,141,140 3,612,578 3,925,147 Public Health Transfer 1,058,216 1,097,691 1,253,623 Landfill Reserve Fund 18,739,437 29,688,762 23,130,987 Capital Equipment Recovery Program 6,900,000 6,900,000 6,100,000 Construction Fund 6,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 Capital program debt service 13,350,000 23,267,327 27,786,035 Cedar Hills Rent 3,039,274 3,108,000 3,250,000 City mitigation - 39,872 43,322 CHRLF Environmental Liability Policy 572,806 500,000 543,261 Fund Management 10,227,554 12,784,723 17,534,519 SW Directors Office 1,659,920 1,798,199 2,188,021 Human Resources 1,828,997 1,828,382 2,353,656 Legal Support 25,782 38,082 44,817 Customer Transactions 3,691,021 4,056,591 4,774,049 Strategy,Communications&Performance 3,263,234 3,273,757 3,884,536 Enterprise Services 3,769,015 3,720,642 4,410,987 Contract Management 1,034,931 755,109 888,660 Project Management (29,429) 160,346 188,706 Recycling&Environmental Services 12,150,041 10,447,707 12,730,951 Facility Engineering&Science 6,374,588 5,914,155 7,829,226 Envir Monitor&Compliance 481,068 686,847 808,325 Operations Management 922,213 942,807 1,109,554 Transfer Operations 11,978,151 13,224,667 16,425,961 Transportation 10,840,311 9,914,616 11,668,137 Disposal Operations 9,079,756 7,460,202 8,913,334 LF Gas Water Control 5,456,152 4,359,666 5,130,726 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 A-13 Att A Page 214 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Shop Operations 6,669,010 6,482,565 7,705,582 Stores 5,967,386 5,940,957 6,991,688 B&O Tax 1,591,460 2,158,858 2,560,456 Total SWD Costs 148,782,035 166,163,110 186,174,267 under expenditure of 2%in low orgs - 1,740,274 2,030,518 SWD cost minus under expenditure 148,782,035 164,422,836 184,143,749 A-14 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 215 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 • Appendix Six Year P Capital Im rovement Program Att A Page 216 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 a m a N O N c0 m N N m O n N � N c0 oo c0 I� m M N O m m m n N �p n O n O m n ti tiW cl cl cl cl m m N .--i c0 .--I c0 - N m m m m .--I m CGQa� N N N N al Lll V Q N W o oo m Lai N lfi Oi lfl r-I Oi N m c0 c0 N m O O N N N N N p Z sW O .--I m W W � O o m n N m Q O oo N n W .m-I .N-I a, lN0 �y O N N N N CO m l0 LCia N Ol G o J Lr N O N Om N O N c0 lfl m N m m rl Ol W l0 Q O N N N N V m .--I c0 U N a o, Win o in in o in o in in O N O N O O Llt XW m n m n O m W N lfl lfl l0 lfl lfl l0 I� W c0 N Z Q m m O r-I lfl lfl rl N l0 l0 l0 V lfl rl V, 2 O Co Co .--I Ol Ol Ol m O m N = n N N LrV m m .--I I� V m m N cl O H "'� V V V 01 l0 l0 O 01 V N .--I O V Q O - - .--I .--I .--I - l0 Ol V .--I I� lft N c0 c0 N N c0 cl rl V V l0 W a � a � a o V Q Y o o o o o o o o o o o v °' o v °' o v °' o v °' o v °' o v °' o v °' o v °' o v °' o o fl- o fl- o fl- o fl- o fl- o fl- o fl- o fl- o fl- o fl- W O O O O O LL O O O O O LL a o o LL a 3 c LL a 3 c LL a 3 o LL a 3 c a 3 c LL o 3 c LL a 3 c LL a 3 c LL a 3 c ¢ ° o ¢ ° o ¢ ° o ¢ 2 0 ¢ 2 0 ¢ 2 0 ¢ 2 0 ¢ 2 0 ¢ ° o ¢ ° o '- O m > > O to > > O to > > O to > > O to > > O to > > O to > > O to > > O to > > O to U N U U N U U N U U N U U N U U N U U N U U N U U N U U N U N N C C C C J JE E O O ¢ ¢ U 5 U U 75 0 2 H .o .o v v U tL tL d d U U U U N t0 N O L L l0 l0 0 o > p u u E E io io > > c" o c "o v v a toy v 0 o U U cn cn cc cc = = = E = E w w m mo L — O — O 'Z- �p �p O O a s = n- O a -o u u'L a 'L a a - m m m v m v m 12 m 12 m m LL LL LL cn LL cn cn cn v coy LL LL u u u u u o u o u Diu Z) u u V V Ln Ln o o co c0 Ln Ln Ln Ln l0 l0 o o Z O O O O lfl lfl lfl lfl lfl lfl lfl lfl Ol Ol Ol Ol lfl lfl lfl lfl lfl lfl lfl lfl m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m 'p m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 B-1 Att A Page 217 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 N al O V l0 m a � O N O co N 111 a o 0 N N 0 O O . 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a - a c a c > > UJUJ UNUM U U U U UmUm UU UU w � w � > > � c0 .--I .ti N N m m V V V V m m c0 c0 O O Z V N N N N N N N N O O m m m m V V c0 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 V V c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 c0 Ol m m m m m m m m N N l0 l0 l0 l0 l0 l0 'p N m m m m m m m m .--i .ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 B-3 Att A Page 219 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 � � o o 00 ti m a � N O N Ln O O m a a0 N � W 0 Lo Ln m M N a--I 4.f1 N c N n O O W �--i N o u W Q, N N rWo N I- C O m Ln m Ol00 l00 l00 Qt Qt Qi IL N m m m N 0 n O l0 l0 l0 N N � Z � m � W ` 7 m O O O O Q, N Q, W IR l00 O N O N O W O O lo0 o a�-I o a� –I o a�–I L-f, Lmf, QO, W O l0 m l0 Ql l0 Ql l0 N a--I l0 CL N W T co .ti m m J Q O m O N O O N n m O O N O Q, O O O LO N OIli Ln O m N Ln N Ln .ti Ln � Lo O m I� N a N o a N to .ti O co O ti O I� T m N N co m co m Q, m .–I Ln I" .--I U N a--I N Ql to a--I WLn O I" O n O n Q, m Ln l^O O Xoo ri o ti m ti m ti m ri a, N a, O a, co a, co a, o I, N O a--I N o N N Z 0 N a, m 7 T O N a, o / rl Lr l0 0o I, 7 m to ai m 0o m Q N N a--I l0 Ll, a-I m l0 o m O Ll, a, l0 a-I Q, LO o l0 Lr, - 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- - n m m m a, a, .--i ti co co in in in in v v v v c0 N N lfl lfl V V al al m m m m m m m m o 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 B-5 Att A Page 221 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 • Appendix Amended and Restated Solid Waste Interlocal Agreement Att A Page 222 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 AMENDED AND RESTATED SOLID WASTE INTERLOCAL AGREEMENT This Amended and Restated Solid Waste Interlocal Agreement ("Agreement") is entered into between King County, a political subdivision of the State of Washington and the City of , a municipal corporation of the State of Washington, hereinafter referred to as "County" and "City" respectively. Collectively, the County and the City are referred to as the "Parties." This Agreement has been authorized by the legislative body of each jurisdiction pursuant to formal action as designated below: King County: Ordinance No. City: PREAMBLE A. This Agreement is entered into pursuant to chapter 39.34 RCW for the purpose of extending, restating and amending the Solid Waste Interlocal Agreement between the Parties originally entered into in (the "Original Agreement"). The Original Agreement provided for the cooperative management of Solid Waste in King County for a term of forty (40)years, through June 30, 2028. The Original Agreement is superseded by this Amended and Restated Agreement, as of the effective date of this Agreement. This Amended and Restated Agreement is effective for an additional twelve (12)years through December 31, 2040. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 C-1 Att A Page 223 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 B. The Parties intend to continue to cooperatively manage Solid Waste and to work collaboratively to maintain and periodically update the existing King County Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan (Comprehensive Plan) adopted pursuant to chapter 70.95 RCW. C. The Parties continue to support the established goals of Waste Prevention and Recycling as incorporated in the Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan, and to meet or surpass applicable environmental standards with regard to the Solid Waste System. D. The County and the Cities agree that System-related costs, including environmental liabilities, should be funded by System revenues which include but are not limited to insurance proceeds, grants and rates; E. The County, as the service provider, is in the best position to steward funds System revenues that the County and the Cities intend to be available to pay for environmental liabilities; and F. The County and the Cities recognize that at the time this Agreement goes into effect, it is impossible to know what the ultimate environmental liabilities could be; nevertheless, the County and the Cities wish to designate in this Agreement a protocol for the designation and distribution of funding for potential future environmental liabilities in order to protect the general funds of the County and the Cities. G. The County began renting the Cedar Hills Landfill from the State of Washington in 1960 and began using it for Disposal of Solid Waste in 1964. The County acquired ownership of the Cedar Hills Landfill from the State in 1992. The Cedar Hills Landfill remains an asset owned by the County. C-2 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 224 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 H. The Parties expect that the Cedar Hills Landfill will be at capacity and closed at some date during the term of this Agreement, after which time all Solid Waste under this Agreement will need to be disposed of through alternate means, as determined by the Cities and the County through amendments to the Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan. The County currently estimates the useful life of the Cedar Hills Landfill will extend through 2025. It is possible that this useful life could be extended, or shortened, by System management decisions or factors beyond the control of the Parties. L The County intends to charge rent for the use of the Cedar Hills Landfill for so long as the System uses this general fund asset and the Parties seek to clarify terms relative to the calculation of the associated rent. J. The County and Cities participating in the System have worked collaboratively for several years to develop a plan for the replacement or upgrading of a series of transfer stations. The Parties acknowledge that these transfer station improvements, as they may be modified from time-to-time, will benefit Cities that are part of the System and the County. The Parties have determined that the extension of the term of the Original Agreement by twelve (12)years as accomplished by this Agreement is appropriate in order to facilitate the long-term financing of transfer station improvements and to mitigate rate impacts of such financing. K. The Parties have further determined that in order to equitably allocate the benefit to all System Users from the transfer station improvements, different customer classes may be established by the County to ensure System Users do not pay a disproportionate share of the cost of these improvements as a result of a decision by a city not to extend the term of the Original Agreement. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 C-3 Att A Page 225 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 L. The Parties have further determined it is appropriate to strengthen and formalize the advisory role of the Cities regarding System operations. The Parties agree as follows: L DEFINITIONS For purposes of this Agreement the following definitions shall apply: "Cedar Hills Landfill" means the landfill owned and operated by the County located in southeast King County. "Cities"refers to all Cities that have signed an Amended and Restated Solid Waste Interlocal Agreement in substantially identical form to this Agreement. "Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan" or"Comprehensive Plan" means the Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan, as approved and amended from time to time, for the System, as required by chapter 70.95.080 RCW. "County" means King County, a Charter County and political subdivision of the State of Washington. 'Disposal' means the final treatment, utilization,processing, deposition, or incineration of Solid Waste but shall not include Waste Prevention or Recycling as defined herein. C-4 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 226 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 "Disposal Rates" means the fee charged by the County to System Users to cover all costs of the System consistent with this Agreement, all state, federal and local laws governing solid waste and the Solid Waste Comprehensive Plan. "Divert" means to direct or permit the directing of Solid Waste to Disposal sites other than the Disposal site(s) designated by King County. "Energy/Resource Recovery" means the recovery of energy in a usable form from mass burning or refuse-derived fuel incineration, pyrolysis or any other means of using the heat of combustion of Solid Waste that involves high temperature (above 1,200 degrees F)processing. (chapter 173.350.100 WAC). "Landfill" means a Disposal facility or part of a facility at which Solid Waste is placed in or on land and which is not a land treatment facility. "Metropolitan Solid Waste Advisory Committee" or"MSWAC" means the advisory committee composed of city representatives, established pursuant to Section IX of this Agreement. "Moderate Risk Waste" means waste that is limited to conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste and household hazardous waste as those terms are defined in chapter 173-350 WAC, as amended. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 C-5 Att A Page 227 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 "Original Agreement" means the Solid Waste Interlocal Agreement first entered into by and between the Parties, which is amended and restated by this Agreement. "Original Agreements"means collectively all such agreements between Cities and the County in substantially the same form as the Original Agreement. "Parties" means collectively the County and the City or Cities. "Recycling" as defined in chapter 70.95.030 RCW, as amended, means transforming or remanufacturing waste materials into usable or marketable materials for use other than landfill Disposal or incineration. "Regional Policy Committee" means the Regional Policy Committee created pursuant to approval of the County voters in 1993, the composition and responsibilities of which are prescribed in King County Charter Section 270 and chapter 1.24 King County Code, as they now exist or hereafter may be amended. "Solid Waste" means all putrescible and nonputrescible solid and semisolid wastes including but not limited to garbage, rubbish, ashes, industrial wastes, swill, commercial waste, sewage sludge, demolition and construction wastes, abandoned vehicles or parts thereof, contaminated soils and contaminated dredged materials, discarded commodities and recyclable materials, but shall not include dangerous, hazardous, or extremely hazardous waste as those terms are defined in chapter 173-303 WAC, as amended; and shall further not include those C-6 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 228 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 wastes excluded from the regulations established in chapter 173-350 WAC, more specifically identified in Section 173-350-020 WAC. "Solid Waste Advisory Committee" or "SWAC" means the inter-disciplinary advisory forum or its successor created by the King County Code pursuant to chapter 70.95.165 RCW. "System" includes King County's Solid Waste facilities used to manage Solid Wastes which includes but is not limited to transfer stations, drop boxes, landfills, recycling systems and facilities, energy and resource recovery facilities and processing facilities as authorized by chapter 36.58.040 RCW and as established pursuant to the approved King County Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan. "System User" or"System Users" means Cities and any person utilizing the County's System for Solid Waste handling, Recycling or Disposal. "Waste Prevention" means reducing the amount or type of waste generated. Waste Prevention shall not include reduction of already-generated waste through energy recovery, incineration, or otherwise. IL PURPOSE The purpose of this Agreement is to foster transparency and cooperation between the Parties and to establish the respective responsibilities of the Parties in a Solid Waste management System, including but not limited to, planning, Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Disposal. . 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 C-7 Att A Page 229 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 III. DURATION This Agreement shall become effective as of and shall remain in effect through December 31, 2040. IV. APPROVAL This Agreement will be approved and filed in accordance with chapter 39.34 RCW. V. RENEGOTIATION TO FURTHER EXTEND TERM OF AGREEMENT 5.1 The Parties recognize that System Users benefit from long-term Disposal arrangements, both in terms of predictability of System costs and operations, and the likelihood that more cost competitive rates can be achieved with longer-term Disposal contracts as compared to shorter-term contracts. To that end, at least seven(7)years before the date that the County projects that the Cedar Hills Landfill will close, or prior to the end of this Agreement, whichever is sooner, the County will engage with MSWAC and the Solid Waste Advisory Committee, among others, to seek their advice and input on the Disposal alternatives to be used after closure of the Cedar Hills Landfill, associated changes to the System, estimated costs associated with the recommended Disposal alternatives, and amendments to the Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan necessary to support these changes. Concurrently, the Parties will meet to negotiate an extension of the term of the Agreement for the purpose of facilitating the long-term Disposal of Solid Waste after closure of the Cedar Hills Landfill. Nothing in this Agreement shall require the Parties to reach agreement on an extension of the term of this Agreement. If the Parties fail to reach agreement on an extension, the Dispute Resolution provisions of Section XIII do not apply, and this Agreement shall remain unchanged. C-8 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 230 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 5.2 Notwithstanding any other provision in this Agreement to the contrary, the Parties may, pursuant to mutual written agreement, modify or amend any provision of this Agreement at any time during the term of said Agreement. VI. GENERAL OBLIGATIONS OF PARTIES 6.1 King County 6.1.a Management. The County agrees to provide Solid Waste management services, as specified in this Section, for Solid Waste generated and collected within the City, except waste eliminated through Waste Prevention or waste recycling activities. The County agrees to dispose of or designate Disposal sites for all Solid Waste and Moderate Risk Waste generated and/or collected within the corporate limits of the City which is delivered to the System in accordance with all applicable Federal, State and local environmental health laws, rules, or regulations, as those laws are described in Subsection 8.5.a. The County shall maintain records as necessary to fulfill obligations under this Agreement. 6.Lb Planning. The County shall serve as the planning authority for Solid Waste and Moderate Risk Waste under this Agreement but shall not be responsible for planning for any other waste or have any other planning responsibility under this Agreement. 6.Lc Operation. King County shall be or shall designate or authorize the operating authority for transfer, processing and Disposal facilities, including public landfills and other facilities, consistent with the adopted Comprehensive Plan as well as closure and post- closure responsibilities for landfills which are or were operated by the County. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 C-9 Att A Page 231 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 6.1.d Collection Service. The County shall not provide Solid Waste collection services within the corporate limits of the City, unless permitted by law and agreed to by both Parties. 6.Le Support and Assistance. The County shall provide support and technical assistance to the City consistent with the Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan for a Waste Prevention and Recycling program. Such support may include the award of grants to support programs with System benefits. The County shall develop educational materials related to Waste Prevention and Recycling and strategies for maximizing the usefulness of the educational materials and will make these available to the City for its use. Although the County will not be required to provide a particular level of support or fund any City activities related to Waste Prevention and Recycling, the County intends to move forward aggressively to promote Waste Prevention and Recycling. 6.1.f Forecast. The County shall develop Solid Waste stream forecasts in connection with System operations as part of the comprehensive planning process in accordance with Article XI. 6.1.g Facilities and Services. The County shall provide facilities and services pursuant to the Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan and the Solid Waste Transfer and Waste Management plan as adopted and County Solid Waste stream forecasts. 6.1.h Financial Policies. The County will maintain financial policies to guide the System's operations and investments. The policies shall be consistent with this Agreement and shall address debt issuance, rate stabilization, cost containment, reserves, asset ownership and use, and other financial issues. The County shall primarily use long term bonds to finance transfer System improvements. The policies shall be developed and/or revised through C-1 U 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 232 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 discussion with MSWAC, the Regional Policy Committee, the County Executive and the County Council. Such policies shall be codified at the same time as the Comprehensive Plan updates, but may be adopted from time to time as appropriate outside the Comprehensive Plan process. 6.2 City 6.2.a Collection. The City, an entity designated by the City or such other entity as is authorized by state law shall serve as operating authority for Solid Waste collection services provided within the City's corporate limits. 6.2.b Disposal. The City shall cause to be delivered to the County's System for Disposal all such Solid Waste and Moderate Risk Waste which is authorized to be delivered to the System in accordance with all applicable Federal, State and local environmental health laws, rules or regulations and is generated and/or collected within the corporate limits of the City and shall authorize the County to designate Disposal sites for the Disposal of all such Solid Waste and Moderate Risk Waste generated or collected within the corporate limits of the City, except for Solid Waste which is eliminated through Waste Prevention or waste Recycling activities consistent with the Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan. No Solid Waste generated or collected within the City may be Diverted from the designated Disposal sites without County approval. 6.3 JOINT RESPONSIBILITIES. 6.3.a Consistent with the Parties' overall commitment to ongoing communication and coordination, the Parties will endeavor to notify and coordinate with each other on the development of any City or County plan, facility, contract, dispute, or other Solid Waste issue that could have potential significant impacts on the County, the System, or the City or Cities. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2o-z8 C.- Att A Page 233 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 6.3.b The Parties, together with other Cities, will coordinate on the development of emergency plans related to Solid Waste, including but not limited to debris management. VII. COUNTY SHALL SET DISPOSAL RATES AND OPERATING RULES FOR DISPOSAL; USE OF SYSTEM REVENUES 7.1 In establishing Disposal Rates for System Users, the County shall consult with MSWAC consistent with Section IX. The County may adopt and amend by ordinance rates necessary to recover all costs of the System including but not limited to operations and maintenance, costs for handling, processing and Disposal of Solid Waste, siting, design and construction of facility upgrades or new facilities, Recycling, education and mitigation, planning, Waste Prevention, reserve funds, financing, defense and payment of claims, insurance, System liabilities including environmental releases, monitoring and closure of landfills which are or were operated by the County, property acquisition, grants to cities, and administrative functions necessary to support the System and Solid Waste handling services during emergencies as established by local, state and federal agencies or for any other lawful solid waste purpose, and in accordance with chapter 43.09.2 10 RCW. Revenues from Disposal rates shall be used only for such purposes. The County shall establish classes of customers for Solid Waste management services and by ordinance shall establish rates for classes of customers. 7.2. It is understood and agreed that System costs include payments to the County general fund for Disposal of Solid Waste at the Cedar Hills Landfill calculated in accordance with this Section 7.2, and that such rental payments shall be established based on use valuations provided to the County by an independent-third party Member, Appraisal Institute (MAI) certified appraiser selected by the County in consultation with MSWAC. C-1 2 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 Att A Page 234 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 7.2.a A use valuation shall be prepared consistent with MAI accepted principles for the purpose of quantifying the value to the System of the use of Cedar Hills Landfill for Disposal of Solid Waste over a specified period of time (the valuation period). The County shall establish a schedule of annual use charges for the System's use of the Cedar Hills Landfill which shall not exceed the most recent use valuation. Prior to establishing the schedule of annual use charges, the County shall seek review and comment as to both the use valuation and the proposed payment schedule from MSWAC. Upon request, the County will share with and explain to MSWAC the information the appraiser requests for purposes of developing the appraiser's recommendation. 7.2.b Use valuations and the underlying schedule of use charges shall be updated if there are significant changes in Cedar Hills Landfill capacity as a result of opening new Disposal areas and as determined by revisions to the existing Cedar Hills Regional Landfill Site Development Plan; in that event, an updated appraisal will be performed in compliance with MAI accepted principles. Otherwise, a reappraisal will not occur. Assuming a revision in the schedule of use charges occurs based on a revised appraisal, the resulting use charges shall be applied beginning in the subsequent rate period. 7.2.c The County general fund shall not charge use fees or receive other consideration from the System for the System's use of any transfer station property in use as of the effective date of this Agreement. The County further agrees that the County general fund may not receive payments from the System for use of assets to the extent those assets are acquired with System revenues. As required by chapter 43.09.2 10 RCW, the System's use of assets acquired with the use of other separate County funds (e.g., the Roads Fund, or other funds) 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 C-13 Att A Page 235 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 will be subject to use charges; similarly, the System will charge other County funds for use of System property. VIII. LIABILITY 8.1 Non-Environmental Liability Arising Out-of-County Operations. Except as provided in this Section, Sections 8.5 and 8.6, the County shall indemnify and hold harmless the City and shall have the right and duty to defend the City through the County's attorneys against any and all claims arising out of the County's operations during the term of this Agreement and settle such claims, provided that all fees, costs, and expenses incurred by the County thereby are System costs which may be satisfied from Disposal Rates as provided in Section VII herein. In providing such defense of the City, the County shall exercise good faith in such defense or settlement so as to protect the City's interest. For purposes of this Section "claims arising out of the County's operations" shall mean claims arising out of the ownership, control, or maintenance of the System, but shall not include claims arising out of the City's operation of motor vehicles in connection with the System or other activities under the control of the City which may be incidental to the County's operation. The provisions of this Section shall not apply to claims arising out of the sole negligence or intentional acts of the City. The provisions of this Section shall survive for claims brought within three(3) years past the term of this Agreement established under Section III. 8.2 Cooperation. In the event the County acts to defend the City against a claim under Section 8.1, the City shall cooperate with the County. 8.3 Officers, Agents, and Employees. For purposes of this Section VIII, references to City or County shall be deemed to include the officers, employees and agents of either Party, C-14 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 236 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 acting within the scope of their authority. Transporters or generators of waste who are not officers or employees of the City or County are not included as agents of the City or County for purposes of this Section. 8.4 Each Party by mutual negotiation hereby waives, with respect to the other Party only, any immunity that would otherwise be available against such claims under the Industrial Insurance provisions of Title 51 RCW. 8.5 Unacceptable Waste 8.5.a All waste generated or collected from within the corporate limits of the City which is delivered to the System for Disposal shall be in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. § 6901 et seq.) (RCRA), chapters 70.95 and 70.105 RCW, King County Code Title 10, King County Board of Health Rules and Regulations, the Solid Waste Division operating rules, and all other Federal, State and local environmental health laws, rules or regulations that impose restrictions or requirements on the type of waste that may be delivered to the System, as they now exist or are hereafter adopted or amended. 8.5.b For purposes of this Agreement, the City shall be deemed to have complied with the requirements of Subsection 8.5.a if it has adopted an ordinance requiring waste delivered to the System for Disposal to meet the laws, rules, or regulations specified in Subsection 8.5.a. However, nothing in this Agreement is intended to relieve the City from any obligation or liability it may have under the laws mentioned in Subsection 8.5.a arising out of the City's actions other than adopting, enforcing, or requiring compliance with said ordinance, such as liability, if any exists, of the City as a transporter or generator for improper transport or Disposal of regulated dangerous waste. Any environmental liability the City may have for 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 C-15 Att A Page 237 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 releases of pollutants or hazardous or dangerous substances or wastes to the environment is dealt with under Sections 8.6 and 8.7. 8.5.c The City shall hold harmless, indemnify and defend the County for any property damages or personal injury caused solely by the City's failure to adopt an ordinance under Subsection 8.5.b. In the event the City acts to defend the County under this Subsection, the County shall cooperate with the City. 8.5.d The City shall make best efforts to include language in its contracts, franchise agreements, or licenses for the collection of Solid Waste within the City that allow for enforcement by the City against the collection contractor, franchisee or licensee for violations of the laws, rules, or regulations in Subsection 8.5.a. The requirements of this Subsection 8.5.d shall apply to the City's first collection contract, franchise, or license that becomes effective or is amended after the effective date of this Agreement. 8.5.d.i If waste is delivered to the System in violation of the laws, rules, or regulations in Subsection 8.5.a, before requiring the City to take any action under Subsection 8.5.d.ii, the County will make reasonable efforts to determine the parties' responsible for the violation and will work with those parties to correct the violation, consistent with applicable waste clearance and acceptance rules,permit obligations, and any other legal requirements. 8.5.d.ii If the violation is not corrected under Subsection 8.5.d.i and waste is determined by the County to have been generated or collected from within the corporate limits of the City, the County shall provide the City with written notice of the violation. Upon such notice, the City shall take immediate steps to remedy the violation and prevent similar future violations to the reasonable satisfaction of the County which may include but not be C-16 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 238 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 limited to removing the waste and disposing of it in an approved facility; provided that nothing in this Subsection 8.5.d.ii shall obligate the City to handle regulated dangerous waste, as defined in WAC 173-351-200(1)(b)(i), and nothing in this Subsection shall relieve the City of any obligation it may have apart from this Agreement to handle regulated dangerous waste. If, in good faith, the City disagrees with the County regarding the violation, such dispute shall be resolved between the Parties using the Dispute Resolution process in Section XII or, if immediate action is required to avoid an imminent threat to public health, safety or the environment, in King County Superior Court. Each Party shall be responsible for its own attorneys' fees and costs. Failure of the City to take the steps requested by the County pending Superior Court resolution shall not be deemed a violation of this Agreement; provided, however, that this shall not release the City for damages or loss to the County arising out of the failure to take such steps if the Court finds a City violation of the requirements to comply with applicable laws set forth in Subsection 8.5.a. 8.6 Environmental Liability. 8.6.a Neither the County nor the City holds harmless or indemnifies the other with regard to any liability arising under 42 U.S.C. § 9601-9675 (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) or as hereafter amended or pursuant to chapter 70.105D RCW(MTCA) or as hereafter amended and any state legislation imposing liability for System-related cleanup of contaminated property from the release of pollutants or hazardous or dangerous substances and/or damages resulting from property contaminated from the release of pollutants or hazardous or dangerous substances ("Environmental Liabilities"). 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 C-1 7 Att A Page 239 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 8.6.b Nothing in this Agreement is intended to create new Environmental Liability nor release any third-party from Environmental Liability. Rather, the intent is to protect the general funds of the Parties to this Agreement by ensuring that, consistent with best business practices, an adequate portion of Disposal Rates being collected from the System Users are set aside and accessible in a fair and equitable manner to pay the respective County and City's Environmental Liabilities. 8.6.c The purpose of this Subsection is to establish a protocol for the setting aside, and subsequent distribution of, Disposal Rates intended to pay for Environmental Liabilities of the Parties, if and when such liabilities should arise, in order to safeguard the Parties' general funds. To do so, the County shall: 8.6.c.i Use Disposal Rates to obtain and maintain, to the extent commercially available under reasonable terms, insurance coverage for System-related Environmental Liability that names the City as an Additional Insured. The County shall establish the adequacy, amount and availability of such insurance in consultation with MSWAC. Any insurance policy in effect on the termination date of this Agreement with a term that extends past the termination date shall be maintained until the end of the policy term. 8.6.c.ii Use Disposal Rates to establish and maintain a reserve fund to help pay the Parties' Environmental Liabilities not already covered by System rates or insurance maintained under Subsection 8.6.c.i above ("Environmental Reserve Fund"). The County shall establish the adequacy of the Environmental Reserve Fund in consultation with MSWAC and consistent with the financial policies described in Article VI. The County shall retain the Environmental Reserve Fund for a minimum of 30 years following the closure of the Cedar Hills Landfill (the "Retention Period"). During the Retention Period, the Environmental Reserve Fund C-1 8 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 Att A Page 240 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 shall be used solely for the purposes for which it was established under this Agreement. Unless otherwise required by law, at the end of the Retention Period, the County and Cities shall agree as to the disbursement of any amounts remaining in the Environmental Reserve Fund. If unable to agree, the County and City agree to submit disbursement to mediation and if unsuccessful to binding arbitration in a manner similar to Section 39.34.180 RCW to the extent permitted by law. 8.6.c.iii Pursue state or federal grant funds, such as grants from the Local Model Toxics Control Account under chapter 70.105D.070(3) RCW and chapter 173-322 WAC, or other state or federal funds as may be available and appropriate to pay for or remediate such Environmental Liabilities. 8.6.d If the funds available under Subsections 8.6.c.i-iii are not adequate to completely satisfy the Environmental Liabilities of the Parties to this Agreement then to the extent feasible and permitted by law, the County will establish a financial plan including a rate schedule to help pay for the County and City's remaining Environmental Liabilities in consultation with MSWAC. 8.6.e The County and the City shall act reasonably and quickly to utilize funds collected or set aside through the means specified in Subsections 8.6.c.i-iii and 8.6.d to conduct or finance response or clean-up activities in order to limit the County and City's exposure, or in order to comply with a consent decree, administrative or other legal order. The County shall notify the City within 30 days of any use of the reserve fund established in 8.6.c.iii. 8.6.f In any federal or state regulatory proceeding, and in any action for contribution, money expended by the County from the funds established in Subsections 8.6.c.i-iii and 8.6.d. to pay the costs of remedial investigation, cleanup, response or other action required 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 C-19 Att A Page 241 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 pursuant to a state or federal laws or regulations shall be considered by the Parties to have been expended on behalf and for the benefit of the County and the Cities. 8.6.g In the event that the funds established as specified in Subsections 8.6.c.i-iii and 8.6.d are insufficient to cover the entirety of the County and Cities' collective Environmental Liabilities, the funds described therein shall be equitably allocated between the County and Cities to satisfy their Environmental Liabilities. Factors to be considered in determining "equitably allocated" may include the size of each Party's System User base and the amount of rates paid by that System User base into the funds, and the amount of the Solid Waste generated by the Parties' respective System Users. Neither the County nor the Cities shall receive a benefit exceeding their Environmental Liabilities. 8.7 The County shall not charge or seek to recover from the City any costs or expenses for which the County indemnified the State of Washington in Exhibit A to the Quitclaim Deed from the State to the County for the Cedar Hills Landfill, dated February 24, 1993, to the extent such costs are not included in System costs. IX. CITY ADVISORY COMMITTEE 9.1 There is hereby created an advisory committee comprised of representatives from cities, which shall be known as the Metropolitan Solid Waste Advisory Committee ("MSWAC"). The City may designate a representative and alternate(s) to serve on MSWAC. MSWAC shall elect a chair and vice-chair and shall adopt bylaws to guide its deliberations. The members of MSWAC shall serve at the pleasure of their appointing bodies and shall receive no compensation from the County. - 21 - C-20 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 242 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 9.2 MSWAC is the forum through which the Parties together with other cities participating in the System intend to discuss and seek to resolve System issues and concerns. MSWAC shall assume the following advisory responsibilities: 9.2.a Advise the King County Council, the King County Executive, Solid Waste Advisory Committee, and other jurisdictions as appropriate, on all policy aspects of Solid Waste management and planning; 9.2.b Consult with and advise the County on technical issues related to Solid Waste management and planning; 9.2.c Assist in the development of alternatives and recommendations for the Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan and other plans governing the future of the System, and facilitate a review and/or approval of the Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan by each jurisdiction; 9.2.d Assist in the development of proposed interlocal Agreements between King County and cities for planning, Waste Prevention and Recycling, and waste stream control; 9.2.e Review and comment on Disposal Rate proposals and County financial policies; 9.2.f Review and comment on status reports on Waste Prevention, Recycling, energy/resources recovery, and System operations with inter jurisdictional impact; 9.2.g Promote information exchange and interaction between waste generators, cities, recyclers, and the County with respect to its planned and operated Disposal Systems; 9.2.h Provide coordination opportunities among the Solid Waste Advisory Committee, the Regional Policy Committee, the County, cities, private waste haulers, and recyclers; 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 C-21 Att A Page 243 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 9.2.i Assist cities in recognizing municipal Solid Waste responsibilities, including collection and Recycling, and effectively carrying out those responsibilities; and 9.2.j Provide input on such disputes as MSWAC deems appropriate. 9.3 The County shall assume the following responsibilities with respect to MSWAC; 9.3.a The County shall provide staff support to MSWAC; 9.3.b In consultation with the chair of MSWAC, the County shall notify all cities and their designated MSWAC representatives and alternates of the MSWAC meeting times, locations and meeting agendas. Notification by electronic mail or regular mail shall meet the requirements of this Subsection; 9.3.c The County will consider and respond on a timely basis to questions and issues posed by MSWAC regarding the System, and will seek to resolve those issues in collaboration with the Cities. Such issues shall include but are not limited to development of efficient and accountable billing practices; and 9.3.d. The County shall provide all information and supporting documentation and analyses as reasonably requested by MSWAC for MSWAC to perform the duties and functions described in Section 9.2. X. FORUM INTERLOCAL AGREEMENT 10.1 As of the effective date of this Agreement, the Forum Interlocal Agreement and Addendum to Solid Waste Interlocal Agreement and Forum Interlocal Agreement by and between the City and County continue through June 30, 2028. After 2028 responsibilities assigned to the Forum shall be assigned to the Regional Policy Committee. The Parties agree that Solid Waste System policies and plans shall continue to be deemed regional countywide policies C-22 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 244 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 and plans that shall be referred to the Regional Policy Committee for review consistent with King County Charter Section 270.30 and chapter 1.24 King County Code. XL COMPREHENSIVE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN 11.1 King County is designated to prepare the Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan (Comprehensive Plan) and this plan shall include the City's Solid Waste Management Comprehensive Plan pursuant to chapter 70.95.080(3) RCW. 11.2 The Comprehensive Plan shall be reviewed and any necessary revisions proposed. The County shall consult with MSWAC to determine when revisions are necessary. King County shall provide services and build facilities in accordance with the adopted Comprehensive Plan. 11.3 The Comprehensive Plans will promote Waste Prevention and Recycling in accordance with Washington State Solid Waste management priorities pursuant to chapter 70.95 RCW, at a minimum. 11.4 The Comprehensive Plans will be prepared in accordance with chapter 70.95 RCW and Solid Waste planning guidelines developed by the Department of Ecology. The plan shall include, but not be limited to: 11.4.a Descriptions of and policies regarding management practices and facilities required for handling all waste types; I l Ab Schedules and responsibilities for implementing policies; 11.4.c Policies concerning waste reduction, Recycling, Energy and Resource Recovery, collection, transfer, long-haul transport, Disposal, enforcement and administration; and 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 C-23 Att A Page 245 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 11.4.d Operational plan for the elements discussed in Item c above. 11.5 The cost of preparation by King County of the Comprehensive Plan will be considered a cost of the System and financed out of the rate base. 11.6 The Comprehensive Plans will be "adopted"within the meaning of this Agreement when the following has occurred: 11.6.a The Comprehensive Plan is approved by the King County Council; and 11.6.b The Comprehensive Plan is approved by cities representing three-quarters of the population of the incorporated population of jurisdictions that are parties to the Forum Interlocal Agreement. In calculating the three-quarters, the calculations shall consider only those incorporated jurisdictions taking formal action to approve or disapprove the Comprehensive Plan within 120 days of receipt of the Plan. The 120-day time period shall begin to run from receipt by an incorporated jurisdiction of the Forum's recommendation on the Comprehensive Plan, or, if the Forum is unable to make a recommendation, upon receipt of the Comprehensive Plan from the Forum without recommendation. 11.7 Should the Comprehensive Plan be approved by the King County Council, but not receive approval of three-quarters of the cities acting on the Comprehensive Plan, and should King County and the cities be unable to resolve their disagreement, then the Comprehensive Plan shall be referred to the State Department of Ecology and the State Department of Ecology will resolve any disputes regarding Comprehensive Plan adoption and adequacy by approving or disapproving the Comprehensive Plan or any part thereof. 11.8 King County shall determine which cities are affected by any proposed amendment to the Comprehensive Plan. If any City disagrees with such determination, then the City can request that the Forum determine whether or not the City is affected. Such C-24 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 Att A Page 246 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 determination shall be made by a two-thirds majority vote of all representative members of the Forum. 11.9 Should King County and the affected jurisdictions be unable to agree on amendments to the Comprehensive Plan, then the proposed amendments shall be referred to the Department of Ecology to resolve any disputes regarding such amendments. 11.10 Should there be any impasse between the Parties regarding Comprehensive Plan adoption, adequacy, or consistency or inconsistency or whether any permits or programs adopted or proposed are consistent with the Comprehensive Plan, then the Department of Ecology shall resolve said disputes. XII. MITIGATION 12.1 The County will design, construct and operate Solid Waste facilities in a manner to mitigate their impact on host Cities and neighboring communities pursuant to applicable law and regulations. 12.2 The Parties recognize that Solid Waste facilities are regional facilities. The County further recognizes that host Cities and neighboring communities may sustain impacts which can include but are not limited to local infrastructure, odor, traffic into and out of Solid Waste facilities, noise and litter. 12.3 Collaboration in Environmental Review. In the event the County is the sole or co- Lead Agency, then prior to making a threshold determination under the State Environmental Policy Act(SEPA), the County will provide a copy of the SEPA environmental checklist, if any, and proposed SEPA threshold determination to any identifiable Host City(as defined below) and adjacent or neighboring city that is signatory to the Agreement and that may be affected by the 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 C-25 Att A Page 247 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 project("Neighboring City") and seek their input. For any facility for which the County prepares an Environmental Impact Statement(EIS), the County will meet with any identified potential Host City (as defined below) and any Neighboring City to seek input on the scope of the EIS and appropriate methodologies and assumptions in preparing the analyses supporting the EIS. However, nothing in this Section shall limit or impair the County's ability to timely complete the environmental review process. 12.4 Collaboration in Project Permitting. If a new or reconstructed Solid Waste facility is proposed to be built within the boundaries of the City("Host City") and the project requires one or more "project permits" as defined in chapter 36.70B.020(4) RCW from the Host City, before submitting its first application for any of the project permits, the County will meet with the Host City and any Neighboring City, to seek input. However, nothing in this Section shall limit or impair the County's ability to timely submit applications for or receive permits, nor waive any permit processing or appeal timelines. 12.5 Separately, the County and the City recognize that in accordance with 36.58.080 RCW, a city is authorized to charge the County to mitigate impacts directly attributable to a County-owned Solid Waste facility. The County acknowledges that such direct costs include wear and tear on infrastructure including roads. To the extent that the City establishes that such charges are reasonably necessary to mitigate such impacts, payments to cover such impacts may only be expended only to mitigate such impacts and are System costs. If the City believes that it is entitled to mitigation under this Agreement, the City may request that the County undertake a technical analysis regarding the extent of impacts authorized for mitigation. Upon receiving_such a request, the County, in coordination with the City and any necessary technical consultants, will develop any analysis that is reasonable and appropriate to identify impacts. The cost for such C-26 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 248 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 analysis is a System cost. The City and County will work cooperatively to determine the appropriate mitigation payments and will document any agreement in a Memorandum of Agreement. If the City and the County cannot agree on mitigation payments, the dispute resolution process under chapter 36.58.080 RCW will apply rather than the dispute resolution process under Section XII of the Agreement. XIII. DISPUTE RESOLUTION 13.1 Unless otherwise expressly stated, the terms of this Section XIII shall apply to disputes arising under this Agreement. 13.2 Initial Meeting. 13.2.a Either Parry shall give notice to the other in writing of a dispute involving this Agreement. 13.2.b Within ten (10)business days of receiving or issuing such notice, the County shall send an email notice to all Cities. 13.2.c Within ten (10)business days of receiving the County's notice under Subsection 13.2.b, a City shall notify the County in writing or email if it wishes to participate in the Dispute Resolution process. 13.2.d Within not less than twenty-one (21) days nor more than thirty(30) days of the date of the initial notice of dispute issued under Subsection 13.2.a, the County shall schedule a time for staff from the County and any City requesting to participate in the dispute resolution process ("Participating City")to meet(the "initial meeting"). The County shall endeavor to set such initial meeting a time and place convenient to all Participating Cities and to the County. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 C-27 Att A Page 249 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 13.3 Executives' Meeting. 13.3.a If the dispute is not resolved within sixty (60) days of the initial meeting, then within seven(7) days of expiration of the sixty(60)-day period, the County shall send an email notice to all Participating Cities that the dispute was not resolved and that a meeting of the County Executive, or his/her designee and the chief executive officer(s) of each Participating City, or the designees of each Participating City (an"executives' meeting") shall be scheduled to attempt to resolve the dispute. It is provided, however, that the County and the Participating Cities may mutually agree to extend the sixty(60)-day period for an additional fifteen(15) days if they believe further progress may be made in resolving the dispute, in which case, the County's obligation to send its email notice to the Participating Cities under this Subsection that the dispute was not resolved shall be within seven(7) days of the end of the extension. Likewise, the County and the Participating Cities may mutually conclude prior to the expiration of the sixty (60)-day period that further progress is not likely in resolving the dispute at this level, in which case, the County shall send its email notice that the dispute was not resolved within seven (7) days of the date that the County and the Participating Cities mutually concluded that further progress is not likely in resolving the dispute. 13.3.b Within seven (7) days of receiving the County's notice under Subsection 13.3.a each Participating City shall notify the County in writing or email if it wishes to participate in the executives' meeting. 13.3.c Within not less than twenty-one (21) days nor more than thirty(30) days of the date of the notice of the executives' meeting issued under Subsection 13.3.a, the County shall schedule a time for the executives' meeting. The County shall endeavor to set such C-28 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 Att A Page 250 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 executives' meeting a time and place convenient to all Participating Cities that provided notice under Subsection 13.3.b and to the County. 13.4. Non-Binding Mediation. 13.4.a If the dispute is not resolved within thirty (30) days of the executives' meeting, then any Participating City that was Party to the executives' meeting or the County may refer the matter to non-binding meditation by sending written notice within thirty-five (35) days of the initial executives' meeting to all Parties to such meeting. 13.4.b Within seven (7) days of receiving or issuing notice that a matter will be referred to non-binding mediation, the County shall send an email notice to all Participating Cities that provided notice under Subsection 13.3.b informing them of the referral. 13.4.c Within seven (7) days of receiving the County's notice under Subsection 13.4.b, each Participating City shall notify the County in writing if it wishes to participate in the non-binding mediation. 13.4.d The mediator will be selected in the following manner: The City(ies) electing to participate in the mediation shall propose a mediator and the County shall propose a mediator; in the event the mediators are not the same person, the two mediators shall select a third mediator who shall mediate the dispute. Alternately, the City(ies)participating in the mediation and the County may agree to select a mediator through a mediation service mutually acceptable to the Parties. The Parties to the mediation shall share equally in the costs charged by the mediator or mediation service. For purposes of allocating costs of the mediator or mediation service, all Cities participating in the mediation will be considered one Party. 13.5 Superior Court. Any Party, after participating in the non-binding mediation, may commence an action in King County Superior Court after one hundred eighty (180) days from 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 C-29 Att A Page 251 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 the commencement of the mediation, in order to resolve an issue that has not by then been resolved through non-binding mediation, unless all Parties to the mediation agree to an earlier date for ending the mediation. 13.6 Unless this Section XIII does not apply to a dispute, then the Parties agree that they may not seek relief under this Agreement in a court of law or equity unless and until each of the procedural steps set forth in this Section XIII have been exhausted, provided, that if any applicable statute of limitations will or may run during the time that may be required to exhaust the procedural steps in this Section XIII, a Parry may file suit to preserve a cause of action while the Dispute Resolution process continues. The Parties agree that, if necessary and if allowed by the court, they will seek a stay of any such suit while the Dispute Resolution process is completed. If the dispute is resolved through the Dispute Resolution process, the Parties agree to dismiss the lawsuit, including all claims, counterclaims, and cross-claims, with prejudice and without costs to any Party. XIV. FORCE MAJEURE The Parties are not liable for failure to perform pursuant to the terms of this Agreement when failure to perform was due to an unforeseeable event beyond the control of either Party ("force majeure"). The term"force majeure" shall include, without limitation by the following enumeration: acts of nature, acts of civil or military authorities, terrorism, fire, accidents, shutdowns for purpose of emergency repairs, industrial, civil or public disturbances, or labor disputes, causing the inability to perform the requirements of this Agreement, if either Party is rendered unable, wholly or in part, by a force majeure event to perform or comply with any obligation or condition of this Agreement, upon giving notice and reasonably full particulars to C-30 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 Att A Page 252 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 the other Parry, such obligation or condition shall be suspended only for the time and to the extent practicable to restore normal operations. XV. MERGER This Agreement merges and supersedes all prior negotiations, representation and/or agreements between the Parties relating to the subject matter of this Agreement and constitutes the entire contract between the Parties [except with regard to the provisions of the Forum Interlocal Agreement]; provided that nothing in Section XV supersedes or amends any indemnification obligation that may be in effect pursuant to a contract between the Parties other than the Original Agreement; and further provided that nothing in this Agreement supersedes, amends or modifies in any way any permit or approval applicable to the System or the County's operation of the System within the jurisdiction of the City. XVI. WAIVER No waiver by either Party of any term or condition of this Agreement shall be deemed or construed to constitute a waiver of any other term or condition or of any subsequent breach whether of the same or a different provision of this Agreement. XVII. THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARY This Agreement is not entered into with the intent that it shall benefit any other entity or person except those expressly described herein, and no other such person or entity shall be entitled to be treated as a third-party beneficiary of this Agreement. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2oz8 C-31 Att A Page 253 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 XVIII. SURVIVABILITY Except as provided in Section 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, Section 8.6.c, except 8.6.ciii and Section 8.6d, no obligations in this Agreement survive past the expiration date as established in Section III. C-32 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 254 ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 XIX. NOTICE Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, a notice required to be provided under the terms of this Agreement shall be delivered by certified mail, return receipt requested or by personal service to the following person: For the City: For the County: Director King County Solid Waste Division 201 South Jackson Street, Suite 701 Seattle, Washington 98104 IN WITNESS WHEREOF, this Agreement has been executed by each Party on the date set forth below: CITY of KING COUNTY (Mayor/City Manager) King County Executive Date Date Clerk-Attest Clerk-Attest Approved as to form and legality Approved as to form and legality City Attorney King County Deputy Prosecuting Attorney Date Date 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july 2oz8 C-33 Att A Page 255 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 • Appendix Waste Reduction Model (WARM) Inputs Used in Analysis Att A Page 256 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Table 1: Waste Reduction Model (WARM) inputs used in Chapter 6,Table 6-1 WARM Model Input Cedar Waste Mass Notes Hills Export Burn' - 134,000 -78,000 + 12,000— MTCO2e 12,000— MTCO2e MTCO2e 80,000 MTCO2e Materials 2015 WC 2015 WC 2015 WC 2015 Waste Characterization was adjusted to match a (2015 Waste 52%recycling rate before waste was assigned to Characterization WARM categories.The WARM model assumes [2015 WCj) negative emissions(an offset)due to sequestration of organic materials.About 29%3 of landfilled materials are organics with negative emissions. Region Pacific Pacific Pacific Compared to elsewhere in the U.S.,the energy (regional/state or (WA) (WA) (WA) displaced in the Pacific NW is largely hydropower national average) instead of fossil fuels. Source Reduction/ none none metals This field calculates offsets from recycling. No added Recycling (current (current (current recycling was assumed from landfill options.Added (displace current mix mix) mix) mix) metal recycling(equal to 2%on regional recycling rate) or 100%virgin) was assumed for Mass Burn. Landfill gas recovery recovery recovery recovery For mass burn,gas recovery was assumed for (no, recovery, landfilled bypass waste. national average) Gas Recovery(flare, recover recover recover For mass burn,gas recovery for energy was assumed recover for energy) for energy for energy for energy for the bypass waste that is landfilled. Collection efficiency CA aggressive typical Cedar Hills most closely matches the efficiency (typical,worst, assumptions in the California regulatory collection aggressive,CA) scenario. Moisture wet arid national Decay rates and fugitive emissions are higher in wet (national average, average climates than in other categories. dry, moderate,wet) Anaerobic digestion wet wet wet A choice must be made in the model, but because AD (AD) (wet or dry) is not part of the proposal, it doesn't affect outcome. AD digestate cured cured cured See above.Cured is the default. (cured, not cured) Transport emissions default 320 mi default A landfill choice has not been made but waste export (default<20 mi, shows the closest out of county landfill. actual>20 mi) lA 2017 Normandeau Waste to Energy study was the source of these WARM estimates, but the study did not show model inputs.While Normandeau's WARM inputs are not available, results ranged from 12,000 to 80,000 MTCO2e per year.Their range is likely explained by a different waste composition assumption,exclusion of bypass waste disposal,and much longer time periods(and thus larger plants burning more materials)than in this division comparison,which used 2029 as the base year.The model inputs in the Mass Burn column are the division's assumptions of Normandeau's model inputs. z Paper 16.7%, Plastic 12.2%, Food 20.5%,Wood 16.8%, Other Organics 15.3%, Metal 4.7%,Glass 2.6%, Electronics 0.4%, Household Hazardous Waste 0.9%. 3 2015 Waste Categorization material categories that create WARM offsets when landfilled include corrugated containers 3%, Dimensional Lumber 11%,Yard Trimmings 6%, Mixed paper 7%,and Drywall 2%. 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-july2018 D-1 Att A Page 257 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 • Appendix Responsiveness Summary Att A Page 258 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Q) T Q ao L a0 N N M Q) Q) Q) +U+ C L f6 L C Q) "° N N E O Q) + U V f6 �n f6 C Q) Q) '� Q) f6 Ln L a� "O QJ -0 Q) L O L V1 V1 C u C C � QJ QJ QJ ++ U H � QJ "° C U Q) 00 C O f6 f6 > fl O M 0 0 M LL E O vui O ° QJ 00 a� Q O � -0 N Q) v E °� ;+� C mv +� ° c� > N ° O U "O N O L QJ '+ C Caco Q 0 m U-0 n r° O ~ U O L O vi Q) C N f6 �, C Q f6 O C 7 •+-+ �n C 00 C.w O n t QJ fl QJ ° Q N Q) U — LL ° v a f6 E 0 v Q) o Q) c O a Q) a0-O 'O -O L N .E L O Q > '+ •L f6 -a C U U Q) C 7 �_ C C N f6 QJ — 00 U �n QJ m �, L +.+ C E -0 v c m E o Q O *' v ,� c � M U �, a, ao ,� o m 0 O — .O •� Q C U C c Q) > C C `� -° .0 m 0 LL N E o m ) Q) v -0 Q) O v o •Q N N a, U E o E a E E - E Q) a, .N O o Ln -a Q) 00 0 �' u Q Q -° O o E v c a, Q) m � u v 0 .0 w m H Q u m H -0 U vO -0 -00 U H v_ t Ou m H m 7 M 00 O V O N C O Q) N 7 a0 3: u vi ;O L -r- .2 E 00 Q C QJ = r6 *' 00Q) + a O +' QJ Q) L C L E >' C fC6 C > CO "O "O ° vOi 'U f6 f6 C E I O C Q- Q) L ?j M *' .Lu -a m \ •E CO -0 E C •C f�6 V C 00 C QJ -° m LU N ) 00 U '^� 0 OC: C VI Q > O •O •L •++ t ° ? 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E C N N + Op (1 7 Q Q Q a CL Z v V d N N N N N �'`� N L L Q) Q) N L C-4 U L +O+ N aO+ N aO+ +O+ .O — N L aO+ m d L IL Q v Q m f6 Cy f6 f6 f6 (p f6 E U Q U Q- U N U 0- U LL C7 U 7 of y L L L y ice.. f6 f6 f6 � C C v v E E E w d � � � = = m m � Y � Y � Y .r E O O U C C U C C U C C U C Q V N N m Q 0 0 .E Q 0 N ar N > N > Emv) Emv) Emv) EmQ E-Z 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 260 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Q) 0 v oO > c L -a E v Q U O > aC: Q m fl- U O m v - -CE c 'E N u O) Q +J O u 3 O m p � M v H � - aco v N o N '+, v �' v E u c E m Q) v c ° E ° U E > c o Q) L VN C U C.w a O L U N U m UQ) 'N fC6 a0 N N N N v E ;� v c > *' ,E E E L oo E c v 2 E -0 E (n u O = OOU NJ> U U O Q i �, N L 'O N "O Q N U C C L L •QJ E O O N `� O dj Q Q M C m — u O L O C O CL E c o > °�' v v -a > v > *' O �n U ' m > U* L "ON UL NC NO O +C O -0 O : M UUU N E n CN L N L -O O L C �n C 7 fNa 7 N L O N "O ate+ >� Q N aC0 0 C N O L O "O O v L -0 v N c O O - v a 00 u L - N C N 'O C C N v' U C C C `-' v m = v -0 n Q,.E C u f6 N ao v v H U L H H L U c M L m H CL 00 ao E v v Ln N N N a✓ 7 C N O 00 U a E N fa fNaI Ln> N U O +' L o °' E v v 3 v v v E c H v v QOL _r_ a-+ _ LN U N Q) Y as C: m Y Q) N N N OL ++ fa .� N � O O U w L � N >Ln M N m Q .0 L O C N N L N C +-+ O h0 �n > 3 c 0 v 3 v v v - > .E v C N O O L O U N ++ N O E N ++ L fa N m U L m C .V1 >� C ' O 3 m O .V1 ate-+ N C fa ++ U -0 U — >, a-+ d v v o a; U M -0 L E o � UO m v L E O L �n Y L C L _� O C C p C N N O C N N L L E Q) tm +� V) m oo V '> ovoOv � v c .v° � vC: >o >E ° U ao � = +ac�° nv v U M o c vMycv ao E v +t.+ Y N N L C U �n •}U—, +' CO m +�.+ O U fa L E (a O (J v Q v Q 3 N CC0 .0 .N O' N a0-+ Q c O 3 c N v a - � o a o aco v - o N ar _ Q a c o v Q) O O v c '�' Fu - v v c v +� ao E c� o E E o u � v c '0 a v '� N °c° UO a N .° u o ) O c E `" a o '+� U v -a ° v v m 3 aco o 0 - v u a O UO Q) • • o v c o E a a° E z 2 a Y a 3 3 H a - u- m e 3 v a L O a0+ � L ,s •� � v N a0 u �n N Ln d v v v v N r d u N i c 4 io a.. u O d C. Q� 4 Z5 O Qj I S N CL R i a a 0 •�, QC N O 0- O v' S Z � vi � , ro Q v V d N 'S N c N � N N O N L E L L Q) iT 3 lG lG +O- CL u O v C v >, v E N a '- a r +, ro U u ro +-� ro a ro E U o Cr U z N U U Ln U cn U w 7 N Vf L H C �+ � C N N Q) N N d — c E o o a o o v O O � O O � o � CL O L N L N L N L N V N > N > U N > N > U 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-3 Att A Page 261 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 0 N -a C v Q) 0 a, c > ) c� a )Qo v °� a, �n 0J Q O 0 > C i 0) u 3 o o E 0 v H C a v v N v - ;_ n In 0) w E UO �n 0J a) � o 'E .o U o 0 i 0 Q •Z- m C C C E �n Q. 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C N N N N N w d C EE o o o o o O O � O � O � O � O � a C i i i i i O V N N N N N 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 E-5 Att A Page 263 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 -a °p o.0 Q) — � - C — •— '> 0) +U-+ CC: O U M 0) U .— 0) f0 03 Q 7 V1 -0 v U C N U p aU+ — U aU+ C L n f0 O) •2 O i U 000 •� 0 r0 >= i O M Q M U N E L 0 0 N O N vOi C p O O Q j N CC0 L d t0 = CC: >- >_ N O O N v •— O •C ns 0 i L "a U >� C "a C 0) CLw C �Q' 4 v UU 0) N U L N 0) O0 v E O0 >` E LCL L n3 n3 Q -0 O C C O O L O Q) N 000 n Lu O a E *' v N , CL -0 > a -0 > a i+ C O V1 U L f0 N L f0 N 0) E j M 0) n C C O 7 C O M L 0 0J Q 0 0J !2 0) N 0) 00 a-+ L L O0 u c v C v v C v a u ns U nC: 0= )ns > — Qns > 73 -0 O U-Lo O v H L u H L O 3 CL 00 _ C N N O t t0 0) 110 > L10 'T m U C O i C ++ f0 — C C L +J N ON rzr w t •N r_ 0) 0) u 0) r0 r0 N O0 C O 0) UO t C +' iE "O aL-+ L •C +O +' 0) O) '�, *' O "t3 .0 U7 O h0 L v E O N N 0 ) ?) -O �n m O N O) O t o n CD + `/1 v O L 7 0) +C O ro u) -0 u U LL � Q Q O) f�0 of >• +' O o 0) 0) N c O 0) N O O Q m U 0) +� n n L \ O C i Q r0 U n 00 N i h0 0) t o � +-+ = 0) >� O }' - O = i� CO � 0) >T > f0 8, 0 �' �0) O C +� O .to f0 "a U 0) X t0 0) 0) �n r0 U � 0) i U O ++ v "O 0m Q) 0) 0) _ "O i L �, 0 a>--+ 0) O O Q d 0) N +O-+ O C f+ -C U O 'n Q f0 L ON 0) "a f0 O O) C +L+ N fN0 0) y d f0 >. +' O) O) O O) +� M 0) O0 >_ > N � 0) —w f0 f0 OU 0 L 0) hC0 L E 0) U �_ C h0 U 7 h0 — Lr) +-+ O0 L N 0) m N m L �n i C L m a+ of O) O C L •� Ln f6 N 0) vi "O O N .� U 0J Q" 0) O '— O U r 0 0) of O) C +� -O U Y O) �n +' — +-+ 0) -O ,f0 -i N O f0 U 0) 0) +-+ `u E ° w x o v m v v m y o °��' `�° Q) f�0 f�0 M .� Q 0) O U t]0 i L OU 'E m N 'o LL "C -a OU -o d 0) •O0 EA aov t v o Q) °Jt aoov + 4 > v _o +) U o y > -0 Q o L C U ro U E > C ns O > C m n 0) = r0 Q v Ln a v o H v H o o f ago o \ Q v o M a ? > o N w u ro o a a o �° a U u °) .� Q) 0 +� M o v u 0 a +, E ro v a, v Ln > U C e4 w v a, L -0 v X LO o o O Q) o > a, u > o t - � o Lu Q e0 = U m U N ._^ M n D: v +� U o n a n O U- m — +� C m +� L O O a, 3 d m c > v u CL a � R3LLa-° U- m C L C ♦1 L E U U Ln U 3 N Vf L H r iC+ C f0 f0 w v r > O v v v M 'o♦ -a O) U LL LL 00 E-6 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 264 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 a0 N a n3 0 f6 L Q) U a) O U N N Q) v O O O O U N LL Q,E a Q) ++ L L ° Q) N 0 ~ u U u ++ �+ Q) v 0 L C "a O C C Q CL w Q' o Q) Q) Q) dv E +, E E 6 L O Q) OO O - o ) N Q) Q) C E O C u >`> ` ° Y Q LQJ O L L U C L QJ O � N �O � Q �O �O > U E d ° cm ° ° C O p n u n3 u Q n3 n3 O H vQ) u 7 CL o0 O .— O Q) aJ > n C v 000 to u QJ QS aO N Q Q E >� C U U ++ f6 Q) 7 a a.., a-+ a L7 h0 -C I- O Q 110 +Q+ O 7 C O Q) - •— U QJ ° QJ m C: ° u U a "° f6 ++ f6 "C v L QJ — M O "° L Q) �' Q) I v U C O t U v °) Q m N m _ fC6 --+ n ° x 0 `� 3 � 'i i 3 3 8 tw w a aco a ° a r o t o C: Ma0o °' -0 _ v C ao ° o o v �' .� u m O u = 0 a, Q) 3 a c t. E u .N Q, ns, a E Q) �' E U LL `° C C o >= E > 0 m C 110 U •� M X) +-, L � 00 N U ++ Q) Q) N U Q) U C U O L O O C M QJ QJ L f6 L > `•� "° Q) >' N Q) Q) U U O L QJ '> '�' U S C QJ o •�n -° QJ -0 , L '� -° L u 0 in y u U C Q o E io ,� 00 > n3 m +-� U O N O +' >� Q) "° Qj Q� �, O Q QJ ^ U C C: "° Q C fN6 m > U E (j o 0 a a ° c Q,, ` o a v a �' c 3 Qom' ° Mo 0 c v m o Q) .o o 3 E `�° a, E a, `�° o E z a, a, 'p U -a M t6 0 U ° in O .� i C +� O U +�+ .a *�' C U - O O U Q Qj L C QJ L �n ++ �n C O O C Ou Q v •� 's 'ro c +J +J Q) 2 a C cCi m o •� 3 E m .o a Q) m a o E ai E C •o a v v o 'E a °� a a, m " S - 3 v- Q) m O o o v •°J v o Q ao , O o s E -- a , v v a m o 'o-a v N - C Z- 3 fl Q) L Q) LL U f6 Q u O C Q C v C N Q) Q) 3 O u E O u Q) Q) X E U L ° L m O N •N L N +�.+ 7 "a C O fU6 U E 3 v ._ 3 +� z +� Q U -0 =a +� C7 m O a Q cn v in -0 Q) L o 0 41 3C L dd � Q) � C '> Q. f6 CL m Z a a0 r ^ Qj Z OC V V d ni m tri LCLI of Q m Q) b.0 m a La Q a Qo O Q E p m o m LL m E U U ri Q U 7 N Vf L Q) _ 41 i0+ Q C C U =3 d — Q +' C _ Q) > LL C a 0 v v u > Q) f6 V U C7 > H 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-7 Att A Page 265 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 O c c .� _, ° ° a, O m n f6 O v -w m E 0 U � � 00 � +, v +, v c� ° O °; a ° a, v 00 � °, v O m o0 m O m o C - - E E > u u � U O N •U N W u OU h0 .*�—'' yQ) •� Mm f6 i +L+ t m +6 0 0 ,n aJ -O m Q •j .� aJ C L c L L O C N O H C m ) 00 N .� � N O t C "a N U 0 +� i �, �; j,i N m Q ,_ L O +� +� N O O > C m 0 a� -° r_ E � N v a a o Co 0J a, a C: °, = E °, v0i a E °�° o : .� �° ° o v ° c v � .� E L o v v v v 0 v c .� > u � v n +� v o 3 E E o n °, m - w E O M - �, a, W -0 u c ) O E > M O +� CL > m a c aJ +� +� - c >, u v M 0 *' m u c > -u c E E '� -o '� ao m m v -0 '� .� v E v •u v ca o - �' - ° c v � M •� M a E u V) C c o E d > .� 0 c o �_ m :} m .� m H ,c - °, v •° O c o0 n >- ° 3 u c Q) Q) � � 000 as v v � a v E � w E cm -0 u"O Op u O 7 CL _ i N N > O N Op aL0- + •aL-+ N N M > vN �n O �n �, +' �n 7 L U m L O O N i C C N N vi O C C L �n up N C L m 0 O C' u E i L z N Op = ° N ° > O O C O m vi Q) +Q) > N "O 0 u u �n u .+J 00 �n > 7 C C ) fC6 N fC6 N 00 O O N C a-+ 0 v O m N L > ° -0 °, '+, 00 °, m c ) a-+o c u 5 E a m m c = > E a u v +� °, °, a m o Lv m ° a > oa a ° v -0 E 3 v > > °, o +' E u v W Q) ~ > a .0 0 3 a v o v '� E c c 0 O L m 0 O m u O O o O Q O C - a0 M .— ° Q) +� L V 3 u fl o o = a c °, v a m o O = v v v v v � v o o v c °J NL am+ m O i C L .0 C ++ u — i N N u N •C 4; CO O U u N 0 C `i m °LL' C 0 -O 0 m •C "O O m C m u � > > +� v c +� aO E v v z `—° ° °� C v ° v °0 r m v Y "a U L m O Q 0 N C O N N C +-+ -° �n Op N .— C O ". — u Ql u 0 O •O M1. aJ m O _ C O "C aC0 C' E u C o - +� m � c a; 00 M m >, m o L L n N U N O u O v .0 O N N E Q L "O +, -0 N 7 •O O .� Op N L N +� u "O u 0 _, v v v aJ > m o o 'E ° c ' o �' Sao av S9 v a .- °, U au .0 o v v E a0 v .E -a U ° 0—u O � v �' � Q v o o u � L 0 0 Y 3 w L 'n L d Q. CL S3 Z m d L d a a a a E p m m m m E U U U U Vf L H L y ice.. m r C E w > ti0 Y o G E u C v m M °, O a O E > > a V E u Y oc - E-8 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 266 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 a C 0 c 0 f6 c ° ° ao f0 ry C O O u vi *' > vi u "a > a _ - D- u u N O ++ ++ EL N U L N O "O '� > > +>+ ++ 7 L 0 N N "a C C M N Q O o v a � v c � ao > � � Q L f6 C N 0 +� p +; ro u � E 0 L C Y (v Q Q) WN Y L � L U .L C. ro o f 0 C -0 N o 0 0 0 0 - v 0 0 c 3 o u > 0 �' ,� o ao o v L a E v 0 v 0 0 'r- o o •- 'u E CL M 41Q) L L L L C: 0 `L° o ami E o o ao v o o 'u u E a -0 E s� E v u 0- - u aco v E a ° ° v v E ° �' o >, ° �' Y 0- m E u L fl 00 u vv m � Q) o C: C:m m F > vmo m L -r- -r- > � � m o v - L a u u v H H o.o -a CL 00Q)N 0 N o v c m Q-a o � > 0 u o m E v c v N .0 �; o v c � v c 0 -a 0 �' v L v m 0 3 3 v o 3 `m o v c E m ° 0 ao E o o v o m � -0 v v 0 o v u a c c N m U c v m ° v v c v 3 •0 a '� m C L C m U c 0 ao M L N a f6 f6 N N C E `° v v v -a °' c o c ao c L o v +� c E a ao �, E c 0 c a o v jE v L c > ° v v ao Y °p v v 0 a ,ao ao m ao c I o u E v c +� c ° v c - - 0 3 ao - v oE > .- L > u. _ E Fu o •° v o .Q) Q) `L° 0 v *' o ° o v c 'E ao v L c o E ao � o +� c v v .� v c 7 !a — v C > 0 = N O m .� > v (J ° > 0 'C r6 -° -° a ~ 0-0 *' 0 C c aco Saco v ao o ° m o 0a ° v E °' °�° v ao E o E > .E 0 m v d v c c a *' " L E L c 0 - v C "a v +� ° E +� L ; E °�-° v E E o E ° N .v ° u v ° v 0a 0 o n E c u c 0 v c f6 0 m v 3 v C v c v n u v ° v a L v 3 c o c o •L U ) o m 3 E ao > > v o > v m - 0 v m 0 , 0 -a — v 3 +, ao U c + >, c : m E v - > > +� v v v � o ao v u o L o v ao •E m c c v o E ao v `° o a v v c o •`-' > o °° v Q E :' u o a v .E 0 v o m �' v U a v +� m .- .0 +, +, � v E - 3 o - °� +� a o E .NQ) u v a; > u u c 0 m c Q C7 E o E m f6 �' o a c E m e c m °' 3 °' '� N ao v v ° v ao +, u o Q) mv v _ E '�, 3 a o +° 3 a ° o ° m .c c �' v L a .0 Q C m c v E 3 0 0 c c a N v a 'N o o °c° m °+�' �L�° U m 5 c E c Sao o E C c o m v u -°0 E v �-0 m v o *' - a c c E .E o v E °J o L > *' o .y V v o c u v m E V v v o Q o c v v .L_ v u v v E .� > v u .°; o u v ° .c .E v .E u °; o 'v v a u ° aco 0 > aco o E v .E - o m v a o °� 0 H o v v a .E C7 ao n L 0 0 CoY Co L � L d C. W M Z Qj n V d m ♦1 L ♦1 Q Q Q Q E r0 r0 r0 r0 E u u u u Vf L d C N N > m m � -0 > > c M E c v v a 0 m m a ar V Y ) 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-9 Att A Page 267 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 O O 0JU O > N 00 ns o o v E E O L N i 0J 2 0) E f6 M '° ++ ate+ v E N Ou E Q v) � E - f6 N O N p a v v L Y Q � m V 00 ~ v V) Z O U E O- W O L v J O v +J C.w 0J O O O U O O 0J > 0J >_ F 0J d N - 7 E d E CO E L N N ate., O E fC6 .6 L O Q O M mz �n O C �n f6 fl- U O O C v i o wE O 0J L ° O n 0) 0 m CL �� > �' v 'ao u C 0 +-+ i i O C o C o v f6 m o v *' ar a� E m E v Q) m m v Q) ov u o > Eo E � a u C L C U ° Q) -O C F u t vi ns Q) m O t 00 L 0 0J a N v 00-� U v Q u C +� o . o C _ v v v m C aJ N 0J 0J 0J C O0 V) = Vl n •� V L N •� ate+ O ++ W > _� W U aC+ n u N 0J L O CQj v 2 ++ i E E 00 C '� N x f6 O r_ U ,O O C •N � _° C m 0J ) 00 0J Q) +� v M y 0- v E v E a; o o E v �' v C v o- M E o v m00 u 'm o cn c ° v o a0 - aJ a v v > m U v •� 3 v C O ns W v E c t. a C m cn Q O v .� C v U +� v 3 o C > Y O0 u U L A U 0 C +O-+ U O 0J "O i N i M1. O O O O E 0J -° E N ++ H .— v •O N u 0J *�'' V C O O f6 0O O0 E U a-+ f�6 0J •L U >, 3 O c •o m v O •� m v v E v •n0 a, o _ •o .� M 0 v o +6 `° +° v +� ago '�U- c .� Vn u m v o > ° v ° OJ Q M — Q v u 0J +� 0J 0J M O _ L -O Q "O '� M M +� a-+ 0J �n O0 w vCi C 'C W C vOi O U •C Q O O 0J O0 •� in O Q EA L O 0 m .— a-+ u M � f 6 M >C: 0 -C +� N ate_ v m '�C—o a--+ 0J N Q) 1100 41 y ns °+�' m � v E f6 � v C C v ° ° c N E v o - > m +, N m ns oo ns o v � `-' E n u aJ ago ago a ° v N aJ .� o ° a c� a\ v ns 'N '+ a > a; v _ _ �, o E m �, E a, oo �_ m U v m v o o E u O O O w U U U M ±:! � O0 0J i C 0J N - M O 7 w Q Q L a-+ 0J >` U C i ° f6 v O •+' m u U w 0J -0 — U m w O O u ,-I C �n O U' - - M O > w m O Q u E E E v v m m v -a E m o .E ri O m Q w +° Q a — m H ns f6 L O O _y Y 3 w L 'n L d C. CL S3 Z m a L a Q Q Q E ns ns ns E v v v Vf L H C O L L E C f6 f6 fO a a Oo m m CL p O Gl V U U E-10 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 268 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Q) Q) �. v O c ns v O) E u. 0J vOi O r 0JaL-+ Q) -0 0 n +J C N m v o4 N �° 0 C: U 0 0J d 0J v N O E 00 c c m °' o CL f Q) v a �' N a� E E o E O d E E � > 3 6 L O O �_ 0 3 0 .° Q.; E o O L D_ > 70 CL � >, >, v n3 o n3 C o o L v ar o a o 0 0 + E mo o C v E Ea > > m . *� o v 3 Q) u c c 0 E u ns ns Q v +� C .0 3 3 �° > CL 00 oo v o v c v o 3 o a oo ) f0 C Q L > 0J 00 (0 0J - �, O 0J -° W O (0 3 0J "° 00 = 0J U m L ,� m o a, -0° 3 .o o *' m u - o o m v 'v v - n �a E a o m � v C u 3 m a, a, C o C a 0 3 ° o 0J O U U N -UO_ v E 30 •}U—, U O ° M � 0 `° O` O '� •� � +�+ .0 •� tw 0 ° O W 6 a v � C +� v C: -r- u •— �. �n L L C *' > 0J — f0 "O 0J N O m — U "O O u m > fL0 i 0 0 0 r0 Y v Q > C Q O `� - � � 0J U U 7 O V1 0J C .0 Q 0J U 'C +' C U O M 00 C f+ fl- 3 O L O -° a, .� O O0 C a h0 C �n O O >� >, i Q V C D- m C 0J O o i •+J 0J '+-+ C "O f0 N m "O -O v� vOi L f0 `� O0 U Q -O f0 .0 0J f0 L 7 f0 0J U C O U O �, — 0J C d O U U + 0J 7 *' O0 O f0 O L > U C v 0J C C L E f0 O L -O C �n0 =3 Z N 0J O E C — Q 00 O f0 Oi 0J M oa p 0 3 tw °J ° m 0 ��- 3 Y tw v C - ago a U C ++ f0 L O aU+ — O 0 � a-+ +J U CO f0 �, C .� m Q •, tw •� f0 O L •i U C ++ f6 >� Q L ° C O L f0 O L f0 •00 fl- 7 L O C �n O L > Q 0J -r- 0 f0 +J E O "° O "° L U Q N C f�0 O O C C v O C f_°0 N f�0 a� U O 0J f0 0 Ol Q N N U E .O O n3 C O 0_ 0Q) u Q Q 0- - L ,� , 0 000 7 O0 O0 C E 0J O �0 0J L �n O O U 0J d C M E C '+ L L Y E O Q mU O -0 00 C }' O j L 0J Q 3 Q N w f0 O ° ° v v °' a a 0 3 0 a v w o c C H ° c p N '� Q .� U E O = N 0 00 •E > -O ns C -°a 0 m 0J U v +� .f6 •� O u v u a - - v m � oo fl m °�' v v C o E -'a �° a v v O .L ° -0a m o m v v ° 0 0 o m ° x v v o 0- u �' ° ° E v cn u 0- z ° a +� -0 ._ +� E = W L L U w - a a 0 v E ._ v L 0 0 Y 3 Co L 'n L d O. a R 7 Z of v v m a L IL 0- Q ° E D m m ' E v _r_ Q Vf 16- rr i+ C Ol O N > d E ns v W CO v o0 0E o -r- CL c o V N > 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 E-1 1 Att A Page 269 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 c c� a rn 0 N N t d +' N O C +J O L C.w d � L w E Q 41 C C w E a o -- u u CL 00 0 E +, O p a� Op � O O m Nm U M N a � o v -0 M m O N O n � > L v :u m a - ° v a v m v u a > ro N L U C = O U i N o C N N Op Op U = Op m 0 '++ m m �n ate-+ N > V O tio C U v +O+ C N >' O E ~ N O m U _° L Q N +' _° N m ++ U m O N U � Q E .N 00 - N Q '� c C ° N o +' N M > n a o m 00 N 'n U -O U "O .� OU r- .- N 'n N Q) - 'Q) M ., "O > O U N i Q) a ago N •o o Fu E U E a u U o a a m - da `u0 -0 ~ U C N C -a � c o f 6 c °U' o fl 0 f6 v ago ° v °+,' 00 v 3 o '� m o v ° °+,' ao a U U .--, m C o w > •� m 'u ' o_ � m � O c i v a ao � � v - m 00 a v c v O q U u o v °' m V +, v v O o o > .0 o O c U m E a + ° O ° °; 00 v a, m m c '� 00 '� O v y v 3 o v v +� m 0 0 3 = v o v u m C: ago > 00 v >. o E v '� m m � 3 M 'v ° v ° v �_ a Q) 2 ° > u u `�° > m m ° N v a a0 -0 � o a - cQ) M 3 E o m o � W M a0 +6 > v v iv m y c �° a E v c a �' v ° ao +o ago ° o N .�' E a '� v E a, v a v u O ° -0a a0 � � o o m o `° ° •E m � u o v o v o ° m o �° a v 0 0 E V) U Q ° ° E O m U U (.0 U H U ° v v v E o0 v o ii a s L 0 0 CoY Co L 'n L d C. W w S 3 y v V Z � - d m 3 L d E a E Vf L H C ice+ C � 41 d 7 C CL U ar E-1 2 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 270 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 N v v o a Q) v .0 C O O O C Q '^ O Q .- O *' n N C C N E N U N 7 r •O N V 00 E U O U E ° �, O v E n � "' ia c Q f6 E U U O E o Q) N E O u c E u -0 m N . fE O a) O —m io 0) Q) ro ro u C +O, •� Op L U O L- n - •— L N Q) aU+ +' v Q N N O +�, m a° UE .v v } U E E v 0 CL v U O °' � v v M � v = �_ f6 v d E a O = E m Q) N .� E E ° > E o � u E 0 c o u v o 0 0 0 a E o a • �' ° — v c O c oU m U O O h.0 N O O Q 7 >� N 3 N C >` >' Q) +, >� >` >` C > C O Q) L .0 C O i 0 v i O O D U m C O t� 7 L N C C N > n n N O U n E d N U h0 O •E m O O N f�6 O U U r6 fl ° f6 > �n C C O +-+ >' N u c o ° c a - 5 •°p c c v c O c u m E 0 c v m o t �, v m m Q) U c m Q) o � O v � � o v O � o U E E 3 0 3 > CL O f6 N O fl L p N O L N +, Q) — Q) O O — O .� o f 'v 3 3 c E v c O C U Q; v c N - a ro O Q) o •� m m v Q) ,n "O O c > 4; ro v — .v v M .>- ° f6 c v u .c 'c u v U m 00 E v •� Q ° ro "O N O aJ E I Q) ro �n U U `� N i N O -° o c O — U :+� u E c v C u °+�' c o v Q) M1. 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E � •c 'c CL � ta3 iz c � Z � -_j 3 c 3N0 EA o°1c v V Z c C of v nu, .a o d o 3 lG lG — u - S - 0 � C5 Qj Q, u E a o a � u � � � ° � v "c � � m 0 n, _r_ o o s o n, o� o E U 0r et U N 4 U u v� U u 7 N Vf L H C N N N > w d 0 c o o o O E 0 L 0 L 0 L ns CL O i i i "0 V N N N U 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-1 5 Att A Page 273 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Q) O "0 C } 00 C m N C m (B � U W !2 O •� >� Vl L U 0 v U L Ln v O - v CD o- X00 VV) m m N O > 'u O L C m 0 n C. v E u a N N E N m N L fA EO U -O "O C L O L O L U 'O U Ol E O 0- q-- Q Q -C3 N v -a L C C C L .� C O m n -aa Ol O V1 C N E a ° '� '� E u E c u u O u m 0 0 0 U .0 H Q m 3 CL 00 O — O N O U '� oo N C m N E a_+ -a N N OC: > U a0 N - c N r- N m N O 00 O g v E o .� a o o 'o ao v �, o 00 O N `L° '� .o w O ate-•+ 0 •C N O N O "O -0 � Q Y 'C Q) > � U o a - �_ 00 m C o a- 00 E u m m v v 0 3 a > 3 o u a '� o > v o m 0 C C u v a �o C u u o v v u _a a u m v > v ago . ar a a n - U Q v 0 m - O m a •� L +� L C n O m .� Y E C v E v v C v ° o m .— U .v �„ a, v o .v > w v v v C O m C) ° o v a 'U � E c o � o v > o m 3 0 ° v •i V L Q >- > m a-+ C O O a-+ L N C N a-+ > "O 00 m N o o > .0 v = o ° U a m v v = o a °� '� o m E c v ar a C o o v o o u v �' m a, a °�' °�° o O ao a o N N o a v •� :_ v °J °� v °C0 c °+�' o 0_ °c° 3 E +� m U M= U . � o- L 3 0 a, +� 00v L � C v o Q a Q) a c > > 0 0 0 E o .� v v o 'C "a N m E - aJ O m .�, O "a C iv 0 0 r0 a0 E = m +� n > u E O c m e E O a>o u 0 •0 u 3 > v E E m a o 0 E c `L° v C v M M v u c >, *' E voi E o a C o0 o W C W O O > u .Q o c .� ° �a0 o v o = ago o u = v •`-' m u o 00 C 0- � v c E � O >- . o v a U o v c E 0 o OO mE O Z) L 0 0 y 3 w L U L d Ctw m C. L CL t3 O Z m E a0 E U 3 Vf L H r ice+ C N w d m Eo c E 0 0 -r- CL o L Y V N > E-16 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 274 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 O v .-. u m O "O +' 00 0J L 3: C U O) O *' O p U 0J � u +' Q O v '+, u O 0 m N E E -° N Z ) U U Q N 0 ° °Ja v E d � c v Q .�_ E .E E 0J C O + + + + N C N O.w v 3 -0 v v v o E E o ° m *' O 0J Q n 'O O N t O O O CN O -0 O Q, 'C 7 0) E 7 7 7 v ° f6 "O m w E O > O O O O C E Q > M >� > > 0J -0 ON U L w '++ C O +' E O O O- ° U m io y a� m a ,Ln NE .L C a E O O O 0 w C '� O "O 0J U L 0J 'L m +' �O u C ,0 0J C C C v -0 0J — _° u ++ u m p "O m m m "O �n 0J C — '^ .0 H Q C H H H m L G H V oU N 7 CL i 0J +�.+ ° ° ~ 00 OD O C i L C N a, U C m E v U c > oo v O o E o 00 0J L C 0J "O C Q > L U L �n '+.+ O — Q"O L u L O ° C C O 0J 0J 0 � -a `� C 7 Z C �n OD OD O L m 0- N b.0 OL f�6 +L C U O � U 00 00 . 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C m f�6 Q L a-+ L �' C O 0- M tao OCO�- Y fE6 C U OCO 0- N f6 N o +� +� 0 3 0 m o C U aJ aJ .- E m m 0L10 ° c �' v Q, oE O -o o , o v m o m o o o Y E o o ~ m ~ o m E '�n N +-+ 7 fl- LL '+J +-+ E _ +-+ Y �n > i "O U � LL Q m L �t E -1 0) N -° K1 U -° L 0 +., 3 _y L ado ado Vf W C d d 'o � � C �' 0 U U 5L Q C R 7 L N N � S LL Q Qj 1E Z m Q m Q Q E ap m Q) m m E U v) v v Vf L 0 Qj H _ C i+ Gl > E v) U N N - N C E n .0 CL 0 C a > a V Q cn 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 E-19 Att A Page 277 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 c c� a rn 0 N 0) d t N O p c c c c Q Q) Q) Q) Q) N E E E E d E E E E i O O O O O Gl E O O O O CL 7 aO O O O O E O) 7 7 7 7 O O O O O u c c c c u ns ns ns ns .0 H H H H CL N 00 Mc O v v ° v N 000 L ° O u +L-+ N '� O^ U Q C 0J O t +� j v *' o 3 a, c c > v c v v E o = bb N L p 0 3 O c ° c a; - >, v > o N o o ro ° O N ~ Q O 0 •- -a r6 O o vi 0J U O , i .- �, 0J 0 0 m v o .c n3 ° U 3 — o v — E o v +� v v c -0 r, ao > g o m o o ° c v V) n � o > 0 n o o ° U a U E °' •°' o n3 n3 > o c U v c — c • °° v n3 ro ro 00 *� o U 0�0 U f�6 v� 00 '; 0 0J U n O M + 0 O f6 f6 N v •� 0J = 0- Q) v n3 3 •� N +� E .E 3 •� — v c +� - N O a0o o E o v aJ Q 'U O m u O L Q, -a +.+ 00 7 N N -0 t c v v U +� v n3 0 .— o a, °�Eo .L E -6 m v °J v N o 'v o -°0a v o o �° E m o c `�° 0 E c o o v L EQj c O O N 5 :O 0000 0J N ate-+ U O i c C O a0 +L-+ v c o- O i 0 000 >, +L-' > n M Y H E m v v v 000 O O Q v V C vi C "° o U 0-L fl- 7 U +0-+ u C M U -0 00 0J +o E O o Q U OU o O O n m Q) yU, v Q W r6 �n v 'v 'n o 0 N O yC, N Q 0J H 0J > O �' 7 ° Y Q > +�.+ >' a0+ 0J _° f6 o^ v _ c N .v '� ° 0 E c > o ° v o � >, 0 - - ° 3 0 0 EA N c m H m U v L "0 0J d of L '� v t10 >� ° 0J N a-+ `� U >` f0 i c U - Q v ns +� aJ E ns c c c o c 'ao o -0 c N ; +, O — — v M ar U n3 ao c v a ao > c v a, c o c o 0 � +� v •— c E E c 0 > v 0 a ao v v 0 c 'a U _ aco E -0 v -r- ° v ? v u o v v •E m m 0 U v '� o aco c E v Qu °� 0 v Q) u QU v f�6 n o o f 0 O O °+' ° NO N f�6 :� O N < o O N t N L N f�6 N U N N u t U E U c ++ a0 H U ++ ++ �n fl- Q > U Q "O Q 0J U Q ++ i ++ L E .n v - (6 - c L O +, 3 _y L a�0 a�0 a�0 a�0 Q W dQj 0 .0 uu u u 4' U U U U Q M 3 0J 0J 0J 0J EA m Qj Z +0. +0. m a L a Q Q Q Q E n3 n3 n3 n3 E U U U U Vf L H C ice+ C � w ° b.0 L Vf E c .2 C E c c o n CL O L i a V Q U E vv OC - E-20 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 278 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 °�' u '� °�' o }' o O 00 ++ V)o 1E5 ti0 > V1 > V1 U C n N m >, N L 0) L !2 V1 •V 0)m L .� 0J C w C + 0) E U �' E >, O C m C m r m 0) �' � m NO 0J "O O > *� p > *� p O0J m O >; "a U -a U L U yi 0J C 0J C Vl L O Vl H M H p0 C O O C °U .0 O 4-+ C.w w V) 00 0J 0J > 0J > 0J N E � -° a v > E v >, E E o m c - E - E - E CD u v QJ E O J '^ U O m O m O CL > 3 C E v v > > > > > +J m C O m am-+ O UO a�0-+ ate•+ UO a�0-+ ate•+ f0 O V) O O ^m C O Q) U > O > u C O C ,n d; 00 C Q) 0J C 0J N C M -0 MM MM u m u m .0 o ° E 3 E -ma v H E -ma v H CL L v 0 -0 e4 >, v v ° +, -a m aJ ° eo + �, o a m _ m N E ate.., Y 7 'a 'U 0J V°1 N -a +�-+ 0J 0 +�-+ N 0J -0 0J - >� - L ,� �n 00 i 0J m 0J N d n E a 0 U L -0 m O L O O0 L aJ T m C m O O > >, O v +� E +� m m > 0 0 0 t e0 O v aJ v c 0 v `.t o N m L ° a _ E E a > a v a o Q m e v v u oo °; O a; v m ao v v ° o ° E v v C .E 0 v O �_ - v v ao -a L 0 Q 0 O t L ,N C N C 0J O0 U m +, _ E +� o +� C v oo O -a m m > U m 3 c t. v .N � w o 0 w a — o v .o -0 o aEo E m v a °' m c > V _ C C E a M v v +, L Q a 0 °p _ E Vi m m o a o o m v o u aJ ° 0 0 °' Q C U 0 �, v a aJ > v V m ° a ° m a °� o a V) E o •E c ° 0 0 > U eo .E _ M C - ° C C 3 O v E a C C 0) iJ Q C m t 0J � 7 L m O C O a L • N C ar o ° - +� t m 0 o O v H C C a ° ° ° v Q o m U aJ t C C u C O a O o +� _ >, oo a C U E m m -a *' >� L • 0 •+, U 0J m m m d d E U -a +� ° - v E m v a a U v a u N u oo 0 C m m U v v m v C O 7 > u C C h0 ° M L �, ,n O M O > O i m C '+� -O +�+ O O N N O +' 0J O 0J 0J *' 0 0J N fl- O0 aJ p U0 Q) E Vo t — 3 0 a o ro E � > � o L E t E ._ Y 0r C U +� a +� cn cn m 3 3 Q 0- Q > _ a +� v _ +� m L 0 a1 3 _y L MMOCO OCO W 4' U U U U Q M 3 0J 0J 0J 0J EA m Qj Z m a L a Q Q Q Q E p m m m m E U U U U a Vf L H d C C N N N OCO > d C C Y •7A E Q O O r 0J m O a 0 v v � V H Y Y > 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 E-21 Att A Page 279 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 U O Q) i .. O Q •� Q) Q) fN6 C fN6 O '^ L O -r- M f0 N L CN m f-6 a0 •C Q O Q �O Q m h0 MC Q U O) O C 3: E X110 O +� + N >= u 0 'N v C C 7 C "Q m iJ N > O m m = � u Q Q OU -O Q O a-+ = L Q C fN6 Q O L -0 N Q Q -r- U Q C CL Q - C -Q m Q Q -r ++ Q *' C z Q O N N E m m E •N E - H v' E3: O E d E o v E E S E E 'v o Q v o C v > > C o `�° '0 0 o o ° v E o o w 0 o 0 +� o C m Q C N M m U 7 V) C Q Q 7 L O U C C C h0 E !2 > am > O .� > �Q C O > L O �n E •� +-+ +-+ "O "O O C E O m cm Q v N m Q Q m Q L Om Q L L Q O m L L Q ++ L Q O U U L � � L U -r- m -0 V) Q 00 N C M1 Q M1. 00 of ++ Q 'N Q v VI C Q Q L m N C Q _Q O Q > h0 110 O O C C C _ L M U .� O Q m .n Q O Q m y N Q C tio Q) 00 .E ; � +� L OCO� O Q O O N � N C um Q) o N m O r) ) w 'c C 0 � � Q E O ) C t. v Q }> _r_ Q)v iv E v o Q o Q v 7to f�6 Q C E m fN6 Q vQi O N N UV — m C Q Q m o E u v Q +� oa C oo-0 v Q a •� Q V E o � v 3 ' a�Q QQ) 0 u -0 'ZC-, v E D- Q) o m - Q � •- Q o Q m -0 - C o m m E Q -Q n C Q N a0 `�° O o o � Q Z t 0 o .m 0 u `° E `° - u E ajo - -0 fl � o v o > Q m opo m O - Q m � t o _ a C m Q E - u Q Q Q 41 O L �O O C .V +' Q Q U Y -O O �- m O ?� Q Q L v C E SE Qv o v•`' o ° o ao oo � 'U a > m Q' c u m v Q' 3 x_ Q a m o Q Q E m L O O _y L OCO OCO OCO OCO +, 3 W r dd � 4' 3 U U U U Q N M Q Q Q Q Qj Z y V C 3 lG lG +Q +Q +Q +Q u m a L a Q Q Q Q v E -C o E v v v v v Vf L H r ��.. C > u m 0 o C a u Q r Q 0 E > > CL O � u v o V aQ) z w U H E-22 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 280 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Q) O +� a U N U m U 0 .0 Q a Q) o ° c C v v 0) v > _r_ > l]0 - a.0 U U N O LL 7F O C O u "O N O -a O Q X QJ Qr �O N O -0 v u > H O Q Ou 0 L x n Q C C 0 C C — vQi a v °�' E E a E Q d L -0 � C m E E v N E Q' ° 0 F Q ° u E N �, O O E o CL o °p O ao > > ao " > ° 41 c m N .E C � � � ° � C: E a o v v v ° ° ° o ° u *'2 E LL v C C D u C v O > ° t 73 Q 'ho H ++ E V) U H °U 0- CL 00 O ao — +� n a°o a v -2 N +J +J LO > M u C H Ov -0 O N C -0 '� -��' O� N u x0 "O m N N N i N i O N N 0 Q > O O v n 'X +' C c O Qj 00 CO C a0 N () O L � O 7 7 v 7 N OCO C i O O E N L N U .0 C v E O .� O � E o ,O n o .0 E +� m y C v c n v m C m c o 0 0 v u U o o u E m o Q a ° E u v o o _ ao v O o v v � v a v ao " a v � m E U v m O v v _ _ E ai x b.0 Q) iQj i �' u tio ' v o o o E a v 3 -0 -a c -a � E c v E �' aU a-+ "O Q v ° ate-+ N m o C � � C C O U O EA t�o E Ln ar ° a 'a 'c m o `�° m v n o v > -v° vi m C u > a0 f6 LL > LL > O ° m o -aa Q v o (n o O Q ° v m N �° �„ c cin '�' °' " v =3LL } u v v v 3 E Q Ou .L E > v v +� m n n +� (D n U O t CL 'u = U U C L 0 0 U0 0 W C a-+ r C. C > m N S S a 01 3 = v Crcal vl c uo Z m m 4 cn v v 0�C V V dLL n v z :EE f+ u 0: O m U i 3 01 01 *' i u al Q) •C Mm d L d Q v b.0 ° o Q Q ao Q +° c E u v CU vLL- vj UV)i � 3 �n Q H 5 r ice+ C N N N N a pE _ o ?: o ?: o -°a o N o N o N o _� Ol V u N > N > N > N 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-23 Att A Page 281 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 > v L v N � � O Q) _ �n 00 m E U O C "O O a, m o O Q) 0- C d N m Q) a C O E N 00-a O0 O +� Q u +J a N M � � o a o- CN m E 0) +-� m t O L v O n O a m d ate"' O U C O v O O "O u C Q) a0 u O + 0 i C C m U O '� U C C.w 0J 0J > n C M ° U 0J d E C E ° ° > 0 0 u m* )N E N - m 6 O o N '� ° N o 0 3 M O ar E O � O O > -0 U v O CL > *' > O U 'E O > o o C 0- .0 v cn m -° O 0Qj 0 E °) n v n o = C u u o E o m a O -a E -a E 5 u C C C U U a •E m Q) C:u m Q) m v v v O W Q) E m 7 H L H H Q U H U w u > M 00 ) N + C 3: � L = o C > 7 N S 7 7 0O L ^ O 0J n O 0J > O •� 00 0J 0J N ate-+ >, 7 L Qj a) .0 0J O -Q v "° 0J 000 L C N � +U-' ° ° U0 _ m S a s o 0 Q a� 0 o m ° � m E 3 a, o O O C m o 00 C 7 Q U l- m m u i U — O 0J 7 0J N C C v � 0 d O N -t3 C O }' O o a� o o N o a, > 0J 0 a E E �, m E a, a°o E C t. n a .- .E m m m oo U > m v E L c o oQj u E a 3 " °�' *' E �' v O C -Q U O O H O •v, � CO M > m m aC0 O C u L m O V - = 3 v n ° � a°0 o o�S a °o u o °�' ° o C o Qj a Q u m c N o ° E U N C +, O ° m 0 •� -O m o0 'O U a a C j .° m L O •m Q C E J o v a v v o V) 0 -r- °� v `C v .N v 3 ,n O `n O �, � w C O O m v' C m m W — C � +, �n L M In - �' O "t3 0J Q E > W M L +' L U O U v c a o m Q) u `j ° u m ° o 0 0 0 0 o o C E C ° Qj N m C u i a� O0 ° *' ° i N O L E o v `n U 3 .a = C aJ m +� It C N aJ 3 m u •u S ..a, O .� u U i -° C O u > C m m m 'O Q C m N C v o Q o C o 0 o v 3 o m � m v w _r_ o m E o 0 E O �� a0 E 3 m > 0 E _ 3 ao0 a a 3 `0 o d d m 0 > Q. E o 0 0 4 Q m m m wz ED Ln L Z w w v Q) n o°1c UE E x) E o t. m y m y i O Qj .o .� of v C �U •C: M �U .S aU+ M aU+ Q) U E c c Z5a, E U V) G U V) G U cn U a U 0- a° U c )Q1 C aJ aJ aJ aJ aJ m > d m m m m m ro o CL 0 0 0 00 00 00 °a v Gl V N N N > N > N > U V E-24 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 282 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Q) C M M v C� 0 r 0 N N _° O Q U C N > — O L N U O 0 H E C O }, E v O Q O L C C V) >'-° CL N n n N d CD E v m v m E a E E -0 V) o O a )ns ns ns L Ltao QJ E O - ° O CL > aJ a o > Q) v C E o o C o E a > > O v C .v U O u C u t 0 0 0 t CL Q) C U — O N O f6 N v V N uu '+ t O f�6 i N v 3: O "O ° O "O L C L C N E "O *' '++ f6 +-+ tiof6 N >, L L N L C N +-+ 00 > C f6 N N f�6 L N - M N -0 +' Op +' E 7 c O N LU > C Q0, L N Op N C pp O L O = O U N m i N Q c Op N O O vi Q fN6 7 O +� +-O EfC6 Op Q) C E C ago N C c v ° m o 00 o o v u E o V v n3 E .o a, E c E .� c v vi C t. 00 0; m — �' m C 0 v °' m 0- 0' a o �° m v 3 a, :o L N O f�6 O L f6 C 7 C O Op N L ate-+ C O O -0 f6 C C CO +, E � -0 m .� N E a, u o E v E o a a, .o _ U C O " c v m ao > -0 > 00� m ° v v m > °; E v .� °�° v — Y O O L O v O _ EO v u +6 L aJ ° o v o o u C E o v a, 0i U a, a, a, 3 um Q) C na ° - �i ai N \ u a, O 00 > H o E v E o o o '> v v v o v c n3 o '� E o O O u aJ 0- N C aJ o0= ns > *' > o — ns aJ > U �' 0 c U a+ O C N r6 N >' "O ?j — �' - +� i >,"O +.+ U •*' L +-+ N r6 i E ami v o fl E a °o v �' f6 v ° a, •� 0 •u 3 = a, �, aJ ns O aJ ns U — — � v � O o ro O O t o0 � O u u U • • • • C O 0 .� = N °) '+� C ns r6 v ns aJ E c -0 > 0 0 v Q o v C .� n3 N v v E v a, v E C E `_° 3 v 3 v -a ° E a° 0 ° v ° ° m E O O L O 0 _y Y 3 w L L d r ice+ E f6 f6 W � CL mz Qj V d Q- .� i .- m Q 7 Q 7 E a D m m E u u Vf L H r �' L QJ d u > U L H E =3 U- r C E N O C O O E O Qj V o 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-25 Att A Page 283 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Q) u _ I C � C (0 u O !2 v '+ f6 � 0) u i ro O O bD Q N c c Q N O L Q � N C. a N N M d L u L Y (O Y VI 0 N Y w E 0 Y Q C O O a EN f0 � O 'n E d A *' c o = v u u v m CL 00 n = O N hD O — ° 00) v v o *' > o o a c O Eu — ° Q u LO O O v L L v L E N v N N N m C f6 f6 ° f6 L L O -° a0-+ Q t6 N C *' ate+ +' O u .v E 0 _ _ +' fN6 0- +Q) N L h�0 h�0 - '� m O 00 M N Q - 3 — � o +, °� - .E fl M v a u m ago u 'n u 00 + V O N O N O0 M N O +J Q) Q n +J N O N f�6 O N C ° m ° f6 M u M v 0- -0 > v v 0 m � � � O a v � E o r° r° Q) 0 m a0 ° °' ) m v E .o o ° .v o o a o.o c C t. v c c ) E — c m L E > 7 Q) x N — L O �O pp C .� f6 O L- f6 "° 'n 0 O v fN6 N �' U h00 ° L .� ° M N M a E � r f6 > u o Q) f6 u O m v °° v '� 3 E ° .° 0- Q) 3 v u - 3 v 3 cf 6 E o m > m 3 c to v o o m f6 v uQ C: v v v v a o m a ° N c m E - m m o }' v N c v o > v m v E c o Y o •� 0 0 3 v 3 v *' N c E m 3 o v N v N .Q a o m o v °� o o 0 3 o 0 � u v v v m °° ov° amNvQ) m v Eo —oE : o v vi v a v .E jE 3 c v W = v v a • c _ o c m m E E a00 H o Z) n 0- `+° u a°0 0- 3 0 Q) c .E E a E m v v 3 v — a E ° v L 0 0 a+ H H d H > C. s 0a � s3 � a o L E a v -r3° Vf L H C iC+ C N � d � 7 m Eo C E 0 0 -r- CL o V N > E-26 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 284 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 U �n •++ 0J N .� 0J O C — f6 L (p V1 > C Q V Q -° 00 N 0J ++ C 0J — f0 C m — — n !2 C 0J > O '+J >= 00 U O) ns Oi .' u 0J N p0 ° Q U v ai a� C C vi Q) "O O N 0 N .� ns 01 >_ C ++ E ' = C 0J "Q +-+ 0J 0 L 'F � � f6 u 0J C 0J C.w L� O 7 O +J Q 0J -0 N N -O E 0 0 0 0J � L L C L N E N d o E ' +� M n E 'm L Q -Q O u v E ^ ,� O t O i +' u ° ate-+ -0 f6 �n y� `� 0Jn 16 •Ly E CL � L 111oo 0J u "O ft0 O L O d N t2 0 O N Q > CO Q ++ Ln 0J tm U7 -0 E Q 7 0J O O O m 0J 0J ho M U 7 4-+ 0J 0J +-' O 7 E d L C ° a u v v u ;° c C c u a m w v m v >, -r Q H u v H .� H H CL 00 It v ° u ° vH ° O N N OC: C — -0 0J N r6 u N -°O ° >O •E _° vi 000 .u— 11C—o E -°O v 0J U �I � .E °' O O �, C ns o +� E C f+ "O r6 O ) Q 0J OD O "n O N 7 O ry '� Ov Q "O fo c u 7 Q o •C �n �o •_a u O V Q N -Q o �o Q •� �o N c v o Fu 0 o o ns o ° vi aJ v a °� '> v C V v O u N — > v v C -oa � +� a, v a > ao > +� ) v ° v C ns E o '� fl -r � ° v v �' oo `° v ° +� C Q •� E C — � C C ° C ° H o v o aQ O 0- Q O C aCC r 0J -00 .� Q aQ O f6 7 f6 '� O +� Qj v c ° o 'v aJ o nsiE `° W > c v - v -z- C: ago E oZS C a, ns `�° E a ns a v 3 b.0 v ago v v .� oo u > > E O o ami Q) tao a u m ai N c o a o v -C v u o c E a, v .o a .o °J v O 'N N ° N m m u X vQ O 0 m -0 o u O +o O C v 0J u 0�0 Q 0 — aJ vao : u v v c o v na u > f6 � -r .— �' ° � E Q 0J � Y Q m 0J Q LL v O N f6 Q Q Q 0J E C D Co L O O a v Y 3: O O C � Q. t 'N a-� O CL � tZ c (D a pOC O V 0 't E u' m v E a 0 a Z5 N E v uv v H C C 0J ct6 > d G Q EC + Z) — r O U C _ 0J O O -r- m C ns v t Q 0L �n Q Q 0) Q = a-+ a EA V N > E m < C7 > Co 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-27 Att A Page 285 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 U c a 0 o ' N L U _ Q O L M O O C O U v +) o N U ro , m N v N OQ U p L c c c E c ago -0 v CL U U U n U _ N a� E E E m E U U d L E E E E EU 'E o0 i O O O � v uO = C: N ro E U 3 C U CL Y C L L L E L f6 U a O O O O O O N Q E O 4 C 0 00"O Ed O o -- E v u C C C U O L U u ro ro ro *„ 0- v > 7 H H H N H O Q 3 CL O — U U U U E N i U N b.0 m N _ N N 7 N f6 O �, M N L O C t .� U -O f6 Q) U N Y - O +j +�-+ .'n U U C O O h0 +� C •� o L -O O _ U M C U C U m m mu > *' h0 U U •+� Lo 0 0 `n v u ° o fl °JUO +, v v a v v o ma _ .� v Q ^ ro N ,Q) U .pp "O O .O `� f6 U O `T- r--+ j Q C U C W U T L U O v +� -O i — 2 O O Z t a, U ',n = +� > — C 00 -O O �n U f6 110 U h0 U L 0 4 L U `� O In U N .0 '+� fC6 +�.+ -O ) C Q C C U O U0 0-L O u N L _ a-+ •vf U C j O f0 U f0 U +� O U m u °� a ao U +� .E ao C U � E `��° '� o E `Q) U E U c v v +� U C t. o o , o �' v .- E �, ° E O a C N o E o o O L L L o ao E v ° m a N O -0 -0 N w a U o Etm � a; 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L Vn i N �— a `° i C O U r6 M U m O O Ln NU C) 0 N hC0 `L° 'O Z "O C f6 O 0 Op .o C �, U `�,° C *' "O C C O L Q C t f0 L Gl O 7 C O N ate+ N fl- O ++ N U C C C '^ f0 C of — of +� L L U O .6 N r6 +-+ o Q •� C -O E E E N N +� Qj i 7 r6 O U h0 O f6 n O L O mO > N '^ L U C N MC N O O C U *' .0 t -r o O t U "O E �n p O h0 Q i > .� O O -a 'pp W +-+ O in O U +J N >',� > O t0 !?- N O E — 7 `� O N C a-+ vi > .- E f6 .0 C C i Q U U U h0 C U U Q U7 '� L C +�+ C N ate+ •- +' C '++ U O .V U ++ U f6 Y of U .0 O U U m '� E N 0 U OU C w O C U O 'C: o0 h0 O f6 '� C L E *' +>+ U .� L Q f0 O C i U o O O C f6 O O H O U -0 U U U L O U E -O .0 Z v Y OU vOi O U .0 E E H Q) -iU E = U a m m C Q U a 3 U 6- - _ L O O __yy Vf 3W L N N L d v1 EA d d J3 >• m O Cr 4'L U I Q S3 0 N Z a o v V d o in in in m3 R R aO+ U N aO+ aO+ aO+ E U m m U U U 3 Vf L U U Gl ��.. � Q Q � i In E Z i � i Y -a O mU ro U M O v F v Q O 'E EA V C7 > C7 >E oc — E-28 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 286 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Q) v -0 C L U N m (0 U .O "O UO !2 C U U n C O N i Q C >, r a m U O N E v N N O O = In N ` U t w -0 �, v z N O U- _r_ +J U +� v 0 c O In C c c E L >_ E E 0 U E i O 'n U OO L O i 0 Q) � i O •Gl E O In -8 .+J C m C L m U C C O L ° 0 O M Qj In E a ° E > :� ° E u c mm ° c E u •= a) E o .0 H N "° 7 Q ,n N N iJ In In O N 4(+ ° U =� O ate+ U +N.+ u - � v a; v v m m a 3 v 00 o v 'Z a v .� Q c� L tio In O >` aJ L m C N C O a }' >m In "a m N W O v 0 5, 0 O C .+� O fl- N C U C +L-' -° U 0- f 6 N C •� "C N O •> In In 0 U '+J Co n In Q O O +.+ "0 O -t- Q- Q"O C +J m ?j "O v a-+ 0 m ao v a°-o E ° m o o In a v * v > � 3 aco � v c C In Ln o N 7 C iJ °' `° `�° L a' .0 N "O "O U "O O a' *' °' N •0 .22 i O c t. a c > I- v c 0 E L c � u c +� In C ° � � O m C U N i _ N N N L O Q ° O m U N Q m N m y .0 �, +.+ - N C L �O y d u v p E m c o a o E v °- v .0 - ao c .v u c c o v m aco 3 m +' E i •E o °au 0 LU In v 3a 0 3 o O .> a U In c v o — U U c 2 v bD U tco vc a z co °a v v co >, N v +� - .v u In 3 � c In o o a o 3 v o o n v m c u o In In ° > cw m 'V Q) U > vi C 3 'in .V >, -O N :� +m.+ +.+ j, L vvi �n m N L O N .- L m •- E _ - vf i i v m u •v C N h0 7 In Y +L-+ i .*' "O L i C O U U h0 > O U u C c *' ao �' *' a ° 3 v m a +�0 In In In m v O v v C ' '� v aco D o v .0 °� Ec c v v v m ° ° °J° v °� vu Q)m -0 E cn v Y o o E ° ro c O °J v v a o m E c c c v .�' o ° ° In ° >� ,0, v o v v E °a °>' .t �°' H U ao 3 ° °+�' n ° ° v m o c o_ E o c ca }' v ' ' `�°Q) U o ' ' °c° :t o °J v m m v C .� � o v m O v m +� nn z m o U In u c ° 3 m U In 71 m -0 E L 0 0 Y w L L d C. M M y z v V d Ln Ln m E d 0 m m E U U In L H d r N a7A E m C E C N m a 0 a V Y 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-29 Att A Page 287 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 3 Q) O v U N � C U U 0J ++ L 0 L C O �_ C 0- c - m *' u n3 _ V) N - — m l= O 0L Q 0 0 > C Q a0+ •0 v NC .0 > N O .� Q Q t N ro -Fu a L +° O O z N N 0J- C N N v0i U U O "O O 0 0 3 i C i O o m o — i C i 0J 0J O m L E ._ 0J C C.w 00 C n •a, Q 0 C > C O 0 n 0J f6 0J f6 L 0J C f6 0 a-+ 0 O > N L N o L �6 L o L = L n L 0J U U C O N O fN6 m L 0J O 0 Q)C L N f6 ++ > ++ L Uw E0 C Q Q C "O C n w C L C +' i "0 •++ O U U C C O O ° = C C C f6 f6 O CO f6 f6 E U 1 "O 0 u N t m 0J C LU +' � > U 0 �, C C +' + L V !2 ° o u U -0° O a � U u •O 0 Mo- 0 C 3 Q aJ ns a C L H Z �0 Z u H 7 °U CL 00 v .1 ° v C O 0 �O .0 w W u -° N E U o v v m m ° >_ °' = v v o c 0o v °° c 3 v v " o v °�° n3 C O o U E - n3 M Sao v 'ns L 2 0 U 0 Q ,0J f6 Ln f6 f6 *' L C 0 0J -0 0J > C 00— 0 > 3 O u Z - o v m O m ° m O � m m — O O "O 0 ;6 0J U u — *' cn 0 0 U t N +� O U Q •- 0 C Q � "O V N 3 •V 0J \ C u O N '0 L 0 N O f6 ++ L VI C — 0J C f6 L _0 uo Z N O �O 0 v U O 0 0 - vl 3 •++ v v U U v ns Ln m o c v v O w n > m = —°° +� Q N - ro 1130 u m " m v0 M m C L f 6 ° O Q) v O v O C — Z, - 3 m a v m LL u o m v c FU 0 > '+6 .0 ° > 0 t v ns 3 Q O Z °� '+� U M .� aJ E ar v °� o ° o Z o N N LL v ° C 3 O O o *ui-0 a, L 'n — V) "0 vl 0J L O 3 L N _ y, > +J O 00 Q) L C C +0.+ L 0 C u C +�.+ f�6 U U C 0 N N 0 Q p F L 0 U +' _0 a-+ O C 0 O •, ns ns ° n L ii O t ns v .v C U �' C EF L C M \ N o U a +' 3 ° ;+' ° U C v u n3 v f 6 N OJ ns O ro = ) Z -0 •� C �, 0 U u ns - EO .E v C *' m >_ E 0 ,�, •O r- �' OU n3 vl L U "O cil 0 >= 3 •0J >, aL-� E 7 O O U O C Q '� ° cn 0 0 *' o o o ns Z C u u m n � > ° v N `LL° .� o E +� v +� o v ai a ii a oDo o ° `�° v '� � E o -0 v C E ago _ v v C —_ H — v O 0 f6 0 �' 0J •: OCO"O C 0 C v L f6 .T 0 °U -° C Y 0 � L f6 00 L7 ate-+ O U fU6 U •0J `—° C ° f6 E N O U o U L N N C v ° N 0 O o v o v m v v � v o o m v o o v o m v o c u E C CH +� LLLZ m � � H � +� ._ v CLLZ O U - -0 ULL L O O _y � L d C. M M y Z v V d Ln Ln m E d D ns ns E v v Vf L QjH C iC+ C OJ d 0J 0J 7 E a + Eu u O U U Q V 0J 0J a Z Z E-30 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 288 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 0 C: M 'a M 'a Q) mm O O0 .� v0i -0 00 C 0J u 0J C: ns — O c ns ±+ 0 Q) N ns v Q) -C ° ns = v v ° Q a w > U a w > U O L L C Y = Y VI C Y = ++ VI N N C: Q) N N M N +�+ N >_ N 0J 0O c% Q >_ N 0J 0O c% Q d 0J E •� U i o E •� U i 0 O + > L n 7 C .� L n 7 C .� .2 7 ++ 7 Q a E o 0 O v c O v c CL c >, .o C: -° O H N >, .o C: -° O H N c m o o U o o U C E O c m O c 0 3 0 c O 3 Qj S9 w E ) V) � ._ 0 v ns N M y 0 °J m y M y E a > E Q o O C > E � o O u ° = oc v v v = v c o c v 2 0 u v U m U > v U m U M � > v U t 0 u +� v _r_ c � v — v _r_ c .0 H +J H i H 0 O H O H i H O O H O CL 00 a �, p 0 v ° v v v a o v �, v v E c a; N i N 0 f6 C �n - i f0 f6 i 0J U 0J Vi 0J 0J 1 = _ + u 0 0 3 f6 cin +9 o E U o f6 a E a) -° +o v o M °) :a m f6 'f6 O f6 M Q 'U E ao •�_ N o E a, U O E O -_ L O +J 0 U U U - O i m 0J f0 ° L 0J E > C '� ?j U m v u N C 0J C "O E >, v0i - m 2 M C +-+ -a —O O 0 � +.+ N a L n 00 0J 0o O � — m m w E *' c > m 0 v o > v E m N ° N i U 0J O U 0J f�6 f6 E -a N O `° 0 N 0 N a O f6 > C °'C Q) o O ° E z 0 v 0 v N -_ U a, oo O - 'm +' U N N c 0 v °�° °� a 3 c +� 3 n3 0 v °� v .o ° 3 E o L E —O L 'n 0J "O �' i i 7 L 'j -0 +0-+ .0 O *' 0J u 0J E i O0 = blo 00 E O 0 ° fl- 0 Q) 2 +�-+ "O +��+ 0 'O �' C *' O0-0 O O m "O N C V _ v U a�0 O O aJ ;o _ c �n aJ — E =a O u .� — n "O c u m 3 o v � o v a v ° E a°o > n °�' ° `��° 0 0 0 ° _ ° ° o _ m U x c a, -a a, o ° o a, o f m a ° m m M =' 0 0 a, v v °' 3 � v - v � .E °�° 0 0 I m m o c a, 3 N •�, oo o v m 3 N o = 'c n3 ° 0 c _ — v '� ° � ° m �' ° a a ° a, c - 'm c a a, E ooU m 0 0 °' •E a, 0 ° a Y °a .� ° " E o -° w — - m n uuE E .E � 0 ate+ 0 m m •� E v O o O E — ago + '� a m o 0 L > m E v 3 0 v 2 .O E ° v a c � n3 0 •U o N c U E C N > c � oo E O a, �, +� O c v c v U oo m c — > °' �, m c u v 3 n3 n3 ° o .� c E O 0 0 0 m E C ° v a > 0 .v C ' 0 °J 3 _ U z z a°'o fl °o v m E o `2 u 0 3 °o � �_ � `—° = m O m E v a, v O o E o o m a; o m m v E L d ._ Z 3 O _ O ._ ._ Q U O0 n Q U 3 0-0 m -0 L 0 0 Y 3 w L H L d H Qj d 0 4+ Q. M M 3 y Z v V N N N m a L a Q Q Q E n3 n3 n3 E v v v Vf L H r 0J N c E u E a 0 3 o a V z 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-31 Att A Page 289 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 o v 0 Q v .� v -' -- .N E m m U U Q Q "O ±- (B V1 -O Q > C U 0 7 C Q Q O Q O —U + i O) 0 w _C C Q f6 M Q i N vU > C m v Q Q m o m C + Q Q . 0 �O 0J 0 w u C 0 C > a 0J CL w -0 0 0- .-0 O O _r Q > a-+ Q •> v — O m Q "O Q O 0 > .— O O H O 0J 41 E 0 U '> "O C Q C C U —� -Dm 0 7 L CQj O E 0J Q U N ., E f0 �n OQ E d Q .S O Q — a0 um +N U — O U u C u Q Q 3: 0 Q •Q _ m 0 .0 Q 3 m E m a CL 00 Q) > °) v v .� Q ao a0 m N U O C C C W 'F n C C C •U Q 0 •+_+ Y Q �n M n a � Q a Q a — +� Q Q 00 :}' o >, c >, o m " O v v o c o v *' a ns *' °+�' •°J v °Co v 0 aio v v o > v .c Qv ) N cn � -aa o N c o a .v ns Q v C M 0 oa Q C w E C o 0- Q Q > T C �O Q v p CO "O v o U '� m +� z Q +� OU v .O OU zS 0 � :� � Q E .� � z ° aQo Q a 'E +° v `�° 0 .E > v E v .� C > = O Q Q Q ao cn -a E +� o o o Q ns C c o � ° c N E Q U o Q o Q .E v i m m 4; a C o :`° y N Q O Q f6 UQ .� Q Q m 0- E .� f6 - +Q-+ U ,� M +Q 0 L Fu > >, o a Q c > U E 0 m 0 E ns Q •� z a+ *' ns ns +' ns •o U `° c Q Q E — Q 20: U Q .E "' ,U, Fu U Q 0 •O L U d _ 0O E C N 0 v C N f�6 Q ate-+ C •a—�+ aN-+ > L U aa; E C •� v > o °� Qa •� ns c ar a0 -Q Q v UO 3 - +' E u +� 0 U M b. f) 0 o ano E v a U Q a m vQi f6 U -O C .� Q C L L O Q U- +' f6 �n +' L +�.+ 0 Q +Q.+ Q C: m E vCUA= m O U C O C � +� N N U O �O N CO L ?� O 0 O U r m +� r0 +-� � •r0 .— � 'Q i' ns z v +� -0 U E °c° v v -Q `u0 : v u '0 v o o _C _C a0 b.0�' +� > a -0 v m V) c a v E E c • °�Fu M Q) S9 Q m > m .0 0 •� a E °� v f6 v > o u u N •E v v �, o Q Q Q Q U 0- C ao cn — C '+� U -0 +� Q Q U C Q O t aJ ns a' L _C N m m Q _C Q O E N �J 0 t 0 7 0 :+' t t m E U +, E +, .E +, -0 a3 o +, o Ua mz a H U U aU cnH n Q) 00 L o 0 � L d C. CL S 3 v V d Ln m E a 0 E U Vf L H r Q E C rE Q C 0 a, U E-32 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 290 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 c c� a rn o N � � a d v N O C 0 +' E c L N E N O O O L CL C Q w E d N O y u aJ C u � � � H H CL N 00 ) C N Q) ° N C > ,� C f6 N *' C7 ,F O N N N .'� N "O O LOCO - f6 .12) + 00 O N H a u .0- O +�-+ U _° 'V fl- .'^ •O z N d L 00 •��-, "O 'X v CO r`o o .� °u' c ° � v o C a, O > a o v .� �' v m v v o a �' a u c .- = � , +� v E - E v v O v oo-O Y V O Q Q Op 5 - O +' > '� n Op O > m C a L C C N I C N � E = oo o .0 o C N m y > E v ro ° v m m c N -° ,n cii o m a, .� -° m - O 0- 00 tioE C m E v " ° 0 o N .E v o b.0 -- �' m a° Q) 'x Q a, o L O ,n r6 +� O .,n u O C O C t. +� E v +� 3 C O o - L a� L `r,° a, a O a, f6 C Y O Q •� C L O ++ N ~ f6 fL6 C "a U C O ,� N m ,n L O N }, "O Op,� H ._ O .L ,n N C '� -O O N (J V N O L E N O N Q) "° . r fL6 000 •C ° C — 7 Y N v N >, O Ln E N z +�tm > m v O 0- m a 00 +- � � �, : E m +� m in v m f6 > a, E a, v° c ago m m a o m 'v H v c L C L u m O O O O O Q = L ,� �, C O a.-, "O o v° o ° o m a a, C v '� E a o o °�° u z v 3 ° v o0 o °�' ° v° = E a°o o +' M a °�' E N Q Y L ° C + n v C +� 0 tw n C fC6 Y N O Q .+C— Q O +, a, - a ° o � a a p aJ o o C o c a°o ° o o n° v L v E O a v u - v L a •o o N - v o 00 N o m ° v= °�' - o a, ° o ° o o a.0 v Q m o v v o -a v u •°�_° v 3 E a, v v Ln o E o C -0 � v •" u o - -0 O = � = o u f6 U -° N > O E O i N C 7 0 u 0 0 i •� u L .'^ '+� C O O . 0 u 7 aJ c C "O O C ro O O i L v C O u 0 - m L N O E _ � O 3 � 3 m u EQu �n � � � � � 0- 7NQZ 0 -r- mv L O O _y � L d Q. CL S 3 y Z v V Ln Ln m E d D ro ro E u u Vf L H C N N w E C C Q C O O EA U 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-33 Att A Page 291 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 o.0 x •� Q) c V) 'x c� w v a o 0) C C O a � N v u N O ro N p L C C Q Q) v! N E E — d E E c o L u u O O a E o o v CL > a o o v E c� o o v E a > > v u C C v u > .0 H H CL a v 00m E .�' o v o o °C° LU > NLn v0-0v m m O E o ro v v v f0 mvw o u oo �o O Otz0 •O Vl O = i h.0 O n � O Q n v O v O O E '^ v 00 N +O-+ M + N U W = •C f6 O U O N O + N V) u C f0 u +' h0 n Q u m Q C - n N N +' C O C -a �, O .f6 — U L UJ � UJ — L o •� E °' o v °- •� N m L �, O e4 v ao e4 = _ = 3 ° ° .v c c o v v �_ `�° Q ?'� o o �V +� v `L° '� M v c C C °c° �' 0 0 v n a o o a v a ao ao 0 0 u a v °' c ao v °� v o O u r, °' 0- 0-0 N D- Q) v ro v L VI r6 Q ++ >�L 7 .^� ++ "O 'O c-I O E 7 O ~ UJ O Q) v m c a N '� 'v o m '� o v o Q Y v o � m Y Q on C v_, ° C E C v *' C v > C ro ^ U W > +� v > o E a 3 C 0 +� v J ro L o v m > -a v o Gl O i -O N ._ >, O O > U +M.+ `•� +' +' V) —O h0 N 7 E Co i v O — .Lu OQ LO N ate+ f6 +�-+ U f�6 +O-+ > N i a-+ +�-+ '� -a +��+ W L C L Q '— t]p 7 7 Q Q- OU �n +.+ �n > O C N h0 '� +�.+ — O O 00 '*' �' C .'� .� O O v C W (6 110 L j, O u f�6 z N CO O C U �' N O > h0 N i v i v > O O C N L >M fl- O C -O E C O = Q .0 .++ UJ N f0 OU fN0 > O O O Q Qj V) O N Q +� E ro u O u O 000 u x — j, .Q- -p Z Q +' C E O W C n N ++ C O O "� "� O ate+ C ++ f6 C tI0"O C C UJ 7 L u'rZC f0 UJ N U O .� O '^ +' M y •� O 'ro ro v O j, t O tYo v u N •'' v i .� •++ C om., O U C ate+ U m Vf L �Vf t f0 J +� O N v v f6 }' v u o o ' ° 'x o v E 'o °p f6 ° o o w ° v o o m x E Y a +� m m o v +� z > v C � E u 3 Q ._ U t cn eo E m u _ v L O O _y C > +�+ Oa CL s 3 O y Z � U Ln Ln m E a D E v v E — O a O 0c w d •o ao E r O EO H CL c v Q Gl V V) Q cn cn E-34 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 292 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Q) 0 0 00 o aJ N ° U E ° !2 2!- 0 C C — O) N Op C C Q L 0 o ns 00 n ns v0i N •C +-+ �n vCi ° > u C N a(6+ U Q) f6 N N a+ •a-+ d ate-+ 0 0 N O U O vl C: •� O Q) N C +' uo +.+ �, 4-; O N U +.+ O N •Q •C: N N N - M >� O f6 N C o E E E > Q) i E E O O O CO O a) E 0 oo v o C O N � 00 •— E ns U f6 + 41 Q C — •- NL L L U u _ E o0 C u O O O O a-+` � tm f6 •� N E d E v ° ° ° u o o C u E c c c 0 U v o f m m m W Q) CL 00 > a c v ago N a, Q) v N C C: � o o +�-+ f6 �n E 'O N fC6 N O C n N C N . L N N Q L o C f6 00 t ro () +' O ?) o � N Q — v U O O C L N N � 2 � N � � � ) C � O C � m E � aQ) O O � Q u .O O -� y +� N N ,� O OU o O M �M - � O � U m o O N N 000 •� v o u C v a, � a, o m 00 o C 0 C a, .v Q o o 0_ = U o m E o °° "C° n — a = � aE -0 o — m ° o U o a v v a, °� m o m E E v E a, a, d m ° v E *6 E c v ° o o v o � °C-° m C N L E n o N ±J m = N > 0°0 o E C > N N U O _ E M O E vi Q 2 N O _� •LU � N O v +J �J �n > _ (� 0 Q)C -O N "O N QJ O t ro ro +>• •� O N Q N O O •� O O O E ON C: ) .Q) 0- C i U a-+ U C- U O N C v �° m m '� m o v �' ° o .v 00 f6 °J E m -0 v v v o � v o v v 0 v v c v v -0 0 0 L E L Q O 7 U i O V •a.., +-+ U L N — N C Q u 3 = o E -0 U o v -0 , M o v `—° o >' m m E u m m O = m .S o .L O 0- 0 o cn Q a +, 0 3 3 .� Q > > L O 0 ° N U atS L aJ a E EA 3 d u o ; v Q) -j CL E > m M M 3 Q ° Q u, EA m Z a, a o0 Qj vV d L N C N ' Q) •f6 v m •° v o 0 Q a D a m b.0 -C E u m v o u u 3 Vf L H r ��.. w d N C O E o o O O O CL O i n i n > O V N > N > Y 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 E-35 Att A Page 293 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 — 00 x .� Q) +� C V) 'x c� w v a o C C00 C 0 C ° ,C O CD U a Q) v 0 0 N O H u O C - +j n p i C 0 v CL 2) � Y n N N N E C O 6 O E E O N u. +' EOU •QJ O 0J OU 0J QLnC L > V U 0J a� QJ ` U f6 0 C 0 E > N E 0J O � L . E u m -oa E 7 H L 0 OU CL > +, N ° u 0J m "a ° C f6 m O fl- C 00 ° = ate-+ .+' L 0o c m ° 0 0 3 a v Q oo m •° = n 5 - n °�°> c v o ° E c aQ) E .� o a v o N oa v c v Y v E v O a, E °J +° N m ao' o C m *' n - ° O m v m 3 N ° v -0 - a v v U E C o o 0 n U v U - °' O ° a0o 0 E o > f6 o _ .- .- .� N o c o o s u o � � u o > c o o ° " `� N Vi 0- 'x o .° °� o o E a E a°o m o m o V? v .E m w OW a u v v - o Q a; m > +, C C f+ Q C > O m U i f6 iE +' o N E Q V vi >, 7 O C i v O •E m c O v w oo +, oo O v v +, c� U v o o +, 4� +, a U n u L C 7 N •E +�., +�,, a-+ U z C O U U L O ,� -��, N QJ >, f6 'N 0J f6 L U U ++ -° in 0J U N f6 O U C n +�,, U = E - L E ++ �i 7 i +�,, V ° -° .E C C = - - _ "° t °l10 O c-I C iJ > ° fU6 -0 M C V v W C N E;o °� w � 3 Q) 0 .v m o fl .� °�° o ° o v °° v a o v o 'm v v > > a, Q °U' v v ° fl v .° u o o •E v L u O r_ v d Op .> .f6 f6 E L L Lh0 0J N f�6 v o O .a-�+ O f�6 o a w fl- o � u c a a 3 0 > •� c m v > o > u E v) E O >_ v C v m y m C E o C v O °c° u Q a c +, > E E +, v o E > °�° v m N N N N v o E 0 O 2 oo '� � v � a, � C ,0, Y E C .� v a, c > •+' U '� C .� M O a a a o o a v v fC6 f�6 +' a 0J ' 0J U +�.+ 0J o 00 m 0 Q) "� 0J 0- 'N +� "° +' E E "° Q Q E f6 t6 o > °0 m o °J O � E E o x C +' o o C fl fl O a, v E ++ V) m m Q ._ O > n O U U 0J C 0J f6 Q Y U U m m m U >- L L O O CoY w L � L d � � ice+ � L Q. a S 3 0�0 Qj Z v V d Ln Q') o L E aha m o E v v a 3 Vf L H C ice+ O C C > d O ME V) Q > C E +., C U Q O 00 N 0J a V CL v Q E-36 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-_July 2018 Att A Page 294 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Q) .0 (0 n N0 "O D- -0C C d 0 O 0 m "O .C: Q) .0 N C v v u N NaN+ Q u u � u E C L C 0 C O Q Ou 0 v M O ++ C N L 0 C. N L m N O u + U 0 N y L o ) •� �i N X w •� O O a+ C W N v o N E E tm C b.0 U f6 N m C o d _ 0 - C E n O ° u u a u + 0 m N u N o 0_0 H a u M n CL w C w v 5= -a v o Z oo o - 00� 00 v v Q) -aC - N v +� v v v x o o +� o-0 v v v `�' u o a E v e 00 0 � o E OL fl o a v v - u o o v o C u E o o ° C E v N E v o Q) cw N o a � �, •�_ a N o v v u E o cm 0 — O O f6 O +-+ = L U0 u O U N +J C N N u L u N C C u C +-+ m W vOi — as V � '7n -O O — �n , V C ate"'' ate"' 'C O 00 L U I L C •0 L n C U — -a Q "a O -0 v - 0 h0 -a +� m 'N C +' 000 *' 0 *' "a C L N u v) v f6 N v "a -O "a Ln ap •+� O� C •V 0 7 *' N -r- L .� >T �' ++ `� ++ ++ 0 N N C 2 Q^ C Q N � >.� Q -0 ++ C m v - C ° v C 3 n3 00° +� -a - 0 m v v •0 C t. v > a a C .- ovai a, o v -6 -0 n •x v - � E v aao - C m E •� C 0- W +>+ u O +Q) u 0 -0 M +� 0 +N.+ i Op v •� v 0 +�.+ N tib N 0 vi E 41 d C O u m u � N N Ln .0 O O f6 0 s N _ -0 .O "� - "a O N a+ C fC6 Ou N 00 N a� O N O O 'a +Q) C N —O tib v "a N C N O a� C c V n 'N v c 0 E •x N v o - C n3 H o v ao R u x 0 .� o u o o m o '� o .v u E v 0 0 •N > "a C L, N �- Q fl- N m m N L M i +' - h00 L i O C U0 Q) o -0 v v m u v 'U m E C o ,n a, E a, U 0 v - -0 C o ,�m Q) - o E a, .E v o v m '� a -a u o 00 'x 00 o m �' v o 0 o E �' v o v +� v c �' a v `u' °C0 **0' 00 a, a0o 'v .v °' a' E Et:xa, > +� o °�' E o C N o > O o .� E •ao v v +� .X " o u a o E C o C �' v =a � -0 o v a 3 a H E ii Z a E a, v v E v 0 '0 v 0 v m a o 0 'm .T v ° v u a v v a E ao • • • a, a, v v E 0_0 > E ° o ° m 3 E a o m m m o C cn E u +� v > u .� n3 m y L O 0 CoY Co L L d C. a S 3 0�0 Qj Z vV d N ' Q) o L E aha mo E v v a- a Vf L H C iC+ � C C > d o oE V1 Q > C E — C u Q O U0 N N a 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-37 Att A Page 295 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 V O Q) v � � Q) Q) = v C U v0i �n CO 00 0J 0J 0) O VN .� U E O N O C N ^ u Q E r0 > O Q) ° o ago ++ E U tw C +' aJ I � '+J O CL w 0J o n E E 0) O O O 0 'O X C w u C O 0J O E 2 O E E Yf6 Q 7 n O — + a+ C C ° a0 -0 u - Ca p) _° •E O v Q C ° 0J O av c '� UbD Q- - ti0 . .0 H a, 3 0- 0 E 3 Q L L "° "° C C >� L = -0 00 i "° 0J C w w w w O '0 '0 0J 00 O O f6 •— •— +' O (6 0J 0J 0J C O C n •— +' L > L — 0J 0J L O O 000 aJ n 0 r0 +� "O !n O aJ u m �, — C m � 0J 00 +' > •+' U 0J O 0J f�6 C "O N +J �' E h0 L f6 0J 0J >? r, f6 L C N +J rl O �o 0J �n 0J fl- "O L c I m 0J N ON 00 f�6 C C O 0J v > u f6 V C E 0J > U _ L N 0J C .E L U .� O ° m .N -° f6 +-+ �n f6 N f6 fN6 L m O C 0J V) c-I _° O "° �, "° C .a-+ L a-+ C � 0 Cn 0J E 0J 0J 0 = u. 00 v ,� w n3 a 0 � C n3 O v C N n3 *' N > E �' .� v t ns p C aJ O U >, . +� > Ln c t. 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N o ' L a Q Q Q Q a Q fl- N E d n3 n3 n3 n3 on M M - E um U U U0 U o u u Vf L � � � � C C �+ E N 0) C 0J > d >'tio — �V1 �V1 0 c u v 5 _ ?: 0 0 O Q-Ln o Q) CL Q ° 0 '� �_ ° v > > 41 V E m U N N 0 O W 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-41 Att A Page 299 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 c c� a rn 0 N N t d +' N O C +J O L C.w d � L O w E Q 41 41 C w E a o -- u u 00 u 0 °c0 'a � N c u +� v O u U M H ns ns o- E *' N 0O U O Q E L +0.+ +�' +�.+ vi +�-' C U 00 N O (J O N a > N 7 u n j E +J '� N > Uf6 U U Y N m L O fN6 >, u -O f6 L U f6 UO =+ i O N vOi N u 00 Q a-+ N � O L L G O O N O N r6 -0 'n u O u v oo C v = m v °; m c > ° `�' v E a, +° m o a, > .Z5E > > •N E c c v > n3 o = v C t. *' c > c 0 v +� 0 O a0 u v a Co m c w c n v 3 O O > c c 3 +� O o0 +� n3 O +� d u °Ja 0 u 00 u °; v Q) � E *' o o v c O _ a 'o a, v w a v c o n3 > n M '- o- = n - L c v m u Y E v °�° c c a v o o v M o E v c na oa > c O .O O o - u M � a f 6 c ro C O Y v v a v a E o 5 0 > 'L (� O N `b "O "O v "O +0.+ v I C Y i n C +J 0 7 •— f6 O f6 N �n 00 N �n '� f6 7 C "O f6 "6 7 C N O '� 7 u p O O v :�O—, O Q N O 7, "O N � Q, O N .O > L O U N - L U — C N 0- N u iJ O L Q) Q) >� O > v -O 7 �O 00 f6 C +�.+ f�6 f6 Y >, E m N C r6 N C vOi }' u > U v "O "O O O v r6 -O "O .� .� O �n N C a E > >E Q) a, m v ao c o � > > " E n > •M - m E Q) o o a v •�-° o m Q, Y a a m o .E a 3 v o o v 0- E v ._ O v cC: - uc 5 c v c o ns ° • • • • • • • Q) E a>, a a>, ° Y v Q) Q) Q) L 0 0 _y � L d C. M M y v V Z � — d m i d E a E Vf L H +�+ N C d u Q CE 7 _ CL 0O o EA V a E-42 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 300 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 n3 ° -Oa 00 .I vOi - 00Oa C .0 c ns +' O c U a v —> u U •� N U •� N a w > o a w > p i � z o aC 3 � z o 0- c Q) •� oo c v •E o4 N N Q) N N N E - N 0JC0 c% Q E N w i O ,� O L O i �O C C .0 i �O N C Q Q L �n ns c a 7 > .0 C -0 O H N > .0 C O C O O � , O v ;, O u a+ C •� O •}, O QJ ate+ N •C 0J ate+ N •C t� 7 Vl "O C 7 Vl w "O E d n O 0 n O G >_ i = �' E Ou M t > v u m Ou M t > .0 H i H 0 "O H O H i H O "O 7 CL 00 N O N hC0 uC CM Q) -0 U O > UO •C f6 ° U Q Y 0J 0J O E C -a h0 O u >• O0 N •C v 0 O ON m >' C 0 'n U f6 vi O •0J O � N '� f6 C vi +�+ ;+, U "O 0J O 0J - O0 i •L �, +, ate+ L L 0) O U 2 E O 0) C �n U "O N '+, -0 i N I E m v m C 0 3 > M `n c v ° E 3 00 ao O v ° 0 v E v ° vi o m m m v E v ._ c L 6 . 0J n >T C 0 O0 N +0, U fl' C .V 0 C O0 L C — U �n L >` +' C O C C 7 O O0 .E > O a "O "a 0J oU -O N h0 = N O N Q) 0 C Q U 7 '� N > O Q N v C O0 O t +L, O0 ` X 7 O L Q w v >' — O N "O �-L >' 0J •� *, 0 0J "O •C "O C: N C U 00 0J L iJ O �n 'n L F i (� E �n - ?) 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C O) +� ._ 7 +� i 7 O) of 'vf U E +' C 0 E l]4 "a C m m Q j, N Q N a t dJ O O m O' L m m Vl Q E L C E +J O O o Cc O i a..+ H V) L 0 Co Q w +J m u L O O _y 41 W L L L of d d O , O r •� i+L E C C to O v1 C 0 d R 7 O N m '0 HL H H > > m 2 Ln 1 2 omC Z 0 v V d N N N N v) i i i s i 0 m a L a Q Q Q ::, .2 �- C E p m m m u a m m E v v v � n v H Vf L H QJ iC+ C O N > _ m r O N a OW0 0+� C w V Co H N > E-44 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 302 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 c c� a rn 0 N N d � N O p c Q QC E L O O L w E O Q L C Q E E a ° u c u � H CL 00 v -a -°_ 00 aJ m v ai m v N L N N Ln N U C L 0 .0 = ° 'n �n L i U N 0 7 0J L +L.+ 0J 0J 0 N U.O vii U L f 6 f 6 vOi +-+ U +O-+ �n f6 C h.0 00 �ri aL v N o m U E U - v v m +' u v v v v �_ E u E °� ai a LL E > +' f�6 L 0J -a .� > U 'N (v) U +-+ 0J f6 f�6 a 0J E , - c � v � a0o °� n -a v v a oa � .v - E aom *' °p � > � 00 °�° m 0 '� m *' c m L u- o u O o c 3 a U c CO 0 c •10 n -0 m m a N m a z o — +� c cn +� c " '� a a o •} a, a °� c �' u v :ao v � U° o o c v > v `° ELL' `n L 7 E ?) a - m 'Op i iJ m O E +Q) +L-+ N 00 �n '+J M — _° > +L-+ f�6 +f6.+ N +L-+ W �n O ?: +-+ 0J 0J L C C '— C f6 fl- U O -O 'aJ �n 0J tM E � _ o v 3 a iE N 2 v v _ v x ° m E v C E oo > o •� a � a -a `° M ' m y v C `° v °' °' E V a v 0 00 00 0 ,� 0 c v E v o N v u v o Q o v 6 00 ° m .Q a a C7 E ° o a u -0 N v m — E u 3 a .° a Qj N a E - +L-' U O ) E "a v U 'O N f�6 ° 0J +L+ O .'� u O U ate-+ ++ n f6 v +° N aao E c .v E c —Q' o o c v > E Com n3 +� E ° O 0- O i O ._ i >� M O O �n — r6 '— C vi 0J i +-+ C p U 0J L 0J O E C `� �n N *' 0J O N 0J f�U6 +�+ fC6 +�+ CO CO N u 0J O 'N aQ) 0J L f�6 C C +� 1� N +� O ._ C C N ._ -O 00 U 7 O L M C Qj ° 0J C -a 0J 0J N 0J 0J �n C f6 fU6 a 0J f6 Q +�-+ 7 f6 ++ N U 0J E oo �, a a — 'v U C7 E — m U a — 0 .E v a c c a > aao 0 o > c v M E M M �' °� v c > � 0 n3YL E o c c — _ �? a E o E - v aJ o � > ,ao Q) a o c E � >, 3 u ii v m u a Co c—n m LL v � ou 3 .E m v) m v o v) L 0 0 Cof6 +' 3 w L o H L d EAice+ v Q. N CL S 3 v y Z of v a_ N L ° i E d p a m o o E v w Vf L H C 0J w — E C CE CL o � U � 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-45 Att A Page 303 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Q) -a O C 0 +, d ago 'v O t O CU N U •0 m - L N aJ � O N a w > U a-+ 00 z o a 0 3 •� M C =a E p o c C O :S O N O o N v Q) ru vQi a E E Q) v o v) Q Q) •> d E E •� U r- .2 L O +-+ G O O O fl- 'E a_+ '� C U L N Q i m O aJ +—Q) aJ .O E O O C a) C m Q) m -O CL 7 >, >, •O C "O O H N m '� aJ C O O � .— O Q) -O O w +' aJ 7 7 V) f0 O O N L m aJ 00 Q) Ln N v E a > > EN o o Q) EE v 2 E 3 u C C: O C Q) aJ aJ 0- O — r) m m u m > v u mu m Q) +� v C _r_ Q) _r_.0 H H i H 0 "O H O U i +J 3 CL _ 00 OtlA C — N U N Q) aJ C .N ,E m X N a-+ N > N aU+ Co y `^ O u w N O Q) O_ 00 U O *' O L 0 aJ U 3 v u u O C y O +-� v v L p vmi N ° -6 Q aJ aJ °' ci u m •� ° v +t+ w "O O U Vim) � Q) 0 3 O m E C m a a� a m > C +� v a C u a E m -0 y o u a) O v v LL a u E O T a w r° o C o 0 L o ° � our > .� o u a) u v � � v E n n +� C N N •O a45� J v m u tip j y 0 N •E Q) t 00 > Z N C L C U +' ro C ate.+ •� u tlA aJ U N U w N .E U .� �n N N O O Q U y0 m U v w u O ate.+ L V) Q C aJ 'v� � 0- Q) m 'in �. 7 O 00 '^ C- y N `n v t v - u m w O H �n O a0-� Q C O aJ 0 0 aJ > aJ C .� = r-+ m > a.+ N — Q O w a-+ Q O V) C V) Q N f0 i i - > oA- t C O m �n Z U O a-+ '+J H O Q"O w Q N 3 C m -a C u u C u N 0 C v C O u'f •U `� , i m •� 7 Z --+ f0 C OU (CO C raj ° m y N O u m y u N rC0 O — mo w Vl C -r -, U +�.+ 'i X 00 L 'N N E 'O c aJ 'u Ln m co m m +-+ C �, ,v L '� Q) v O C N C a+ •++ +�+ N O u •� Ou .O O w u w U aJ vi C 'i ++ "O U �n N N N O U s y m v a O _ a m C V) � v a 04 v +� C 0 'x (, m 00 �j `_' y v O " aJ u y co -O O N U .N U C H U — m C U v E v t o C v v omu 9- c .ro E N o r�o v *' w o o er v a y 3 3 ._ t o y a '� a C a v *' o a z ° o O C y 3 v O � m v o v +� o O N C N C O > S2 aJ -r O > C a C 4; m 00 v L C U Q U .o u i '� = 3 t o u .o m .� O O C v o " C m Q) v c v y a m ' E v E o v v m ro C Q) a v o o v ° C C v E o �, a E C -a v E N i > v O s m ° u o � .o (7 _ Q o u °) o ~ o v io Y o v � m a y v y >t o v c°� ° u Q) v v E -0 `>' ao m a}`' c +, +� m o c m .y v o ou v m u +� o �' •� > v — - C E Q) •E h0 O Q v � •� y C 'a! E Y +�+ ° fC6 M -0 ate-+ N O aU+ •N U 'Ua M .� U _ v E > oo .0 z t E > v ._ o v) U E O v m � a v u u C +� v O m m a o t 3 c v v w v v oo m a 5 v °J °� > O C7 • m .+� U > E out w C y > 00 v Ou Q ) '� O r' ao v a) = a) a ;� .� a o o wu •O v) z v > C v 3 — " 3 '� m v v o o o v E m m o E a v —_ E in E E E ou y v y ; a 3 v m •+� E v E H 3 -00 � o L O 41 O _y _ V) 3 W L N L d rl 00 C > +�+ E N . a QN R 3 N tw v) t Z Q N Q Ol V V d N m N ro a L d Q Q Q E m Q) E v a v 3 Vf L � d m C c E m > d a.0 i Y U U Q 00 Q) O i EA a V Emv) aw' E-46 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 304 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 o C H o o z d Q) M v 3 —° _ C C O) +J N O O r 0 0 v m m m N — Q 00 t N + O N C U N O M v io o L aJ •� aJ m .S n CL w > U a v m N d E C � •+.+ 0 E O .N — L O U O O C L C U 00 UO N vv° =, 0- M � o ° o C C v m E v C E a Q v _a C o a I - E o -0 u u O v .0 H H ,� m O m 7 CL 00 — v c L v O ci 00 m L N ++ C of C U N Q) m OO + � C N N N + N N + +J > L u L = C > N — > t U 7 O 00 C O -0 U N +'0 Q) U v > -O "O i +J u \ O L O +J a-+ "O .O Q E O > Q"O O N L •� C N C N ) � 0 m m N L > 7 0 "O N � ' +' UJ Ln L N +L-+ 7 Q v f6 N ° N U N U C 7 > Q C N f�6 > � UJ C L 'n L ° O .0 L X N BUJ t ° N > "O 00 = N C N N O , O +' N U a, +� C O C 0 0 Q O +� '0 Fu 0 m = LL u u v o m o > ° E o v w m c u a o c Q c v O o f '� o -0 C o E 0 o m C c E S E fl C E E m - N *' O T ^ o o +° Q C 0 O +� °° = =° ! E v C v O ° U C � m x •° L wm x O o o a, �, 00 O m v a E fl U v ° ;° c o m aJ u u m a; U E C O C 0 C t N N N -0 N d > N LL N m m0 N 0 m L x u u U •u •° U u OCO v0i •+.+ 00 m +N.+ 0' +�.+ — C +� _° u L *' Q N OJ > m aJ m a E t O O m O O O m C t 0 aJ t m aJ Q .� O v0i m t O E -0 O Q H .� 2 v �n +-+ N d U O Q O -0 +� a H "O L "O m in �n 7 L VI L O O CoY w L- L- L d cI N tOnd d � N N i+ Ln Ln C. Q R 7 Q Q En S Z w V V N N N N m E d 0 m m E v v Vf L H C iC+ m m m m C E M o -a -a 01EA U LL LL I= 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-47 Att A Page 305 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 UQ) b.0-0 C � L +- •— Vf f6 U 'L VUl "C: > 7 -a N U N O u N !2 M X L C N U N N "a N O -00 N r6 O O Q) } Y t v v Z N O v C '� = O Ma +� OL "a fL6 fl' ate+ •N f6 +' C x C.w N 0 v� U O C N +U -O OU ° -a d N +' C Q L C C •� L 0) v •LL U ++ L C 41 E O C ++ ++ Q 7 ate-+ U N 7 U C N > .O +f 6�+ i+ N N N ° � ate-+ 0 C N Op i C Ln 0 O i E 7 ++ i� 4J N tio E !2 f6 Op Q vUi Op E fC6 -0 C C f6 1� �n U N '++ L v •+' C E m u N *' 'n U U Q V f6 OU "O L H U v v O H v 7 M h0 > v -O i C N 0 'O •aC—,, ,� t C O ;'V C 'O C -O }, O v C f0 O -O UJ .— f0 -O C CO i U fZ0 L v o N a *' 0 +� M C C f 0 C Q N 0 Q C 0- +� v L °°m C: o f ° *-' ° o E N t .o f 0 v � v f 0 v v -0 '*' v o N Y o C a ao o .� 'Q o f ° v v v = O C u ov O O 000 0 0- C m Q o ° ro Y C t a LO eo � +' E v e f0 U o o U z j O O Q '^ _ '+� 0 C to N N •C: m - +; .--, v> > = v to +� O O .— � twoLL UJ C C +O+ bA O °- UxJ O t E vUi N C t�0 UJ O L +� 'O 0 Q m .� N -C C —L•+oira U L � C >O tom 'CO ° O :� OO UO E E , M O v O v C O vv •— v O C U O U O O aU CO > EU o C o UJ oo Q -0 O > O ~ E YLO � m rNU0J Ln m O U UJ UJ U ° > U E E C U v v �}— '� v ° v o 0 0 0 >Ln Q) Ln a 0- ,— ° •O iJ iJ O t0 N Q Q = CO U U v t0 U *' �_ v J .hCO E � M v = 'O r0 0 r0 o C aJ C r0 v� O L v o M > + U o EA 4� U +� � -0 t0 ° N E i *' Y v N .. _ °U v o U C '�^ fu `~ 0 C C OJ +�+ C f0 i U vU 7 i +U+ E Q E C i U>J C +�+ m E o a eo v E m '� � > u �o t v � o z; , �o � T 0 �o � +, — v C � T E p o -O - C � +� v = v hC0 Q U U t0 h0 C C U +' tNo Q t0 C UJ 4. U C _ C '+•i LL C = C v +� o of C i i — f0 +� v v f0 C f0 Y_ u O U v v O t O v = Q O 'O C U E h0 N +� .0 i > h0 C f6 (6 OJ C f0 t UJ > f0 U f0 UJ U i UJ U E .N -O C ° i ° C C ° � � UE E Qc + E L 0 0 41 L N i+ Ln C. a 0s 7 Q- a Z V d N o L E a E U U Vf L H ice+ > > m m C M 'o♦ -a -a Gl U LL LL E-48 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 306 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 c Q) c� v o Q) N o a, N v aJ M M Q) Q) a d 0 >O N N O O L Q) Q) Q Q) Y L Q) N Q) E C 0 n3 d E a Q) E U o C C C Q) Q)Q) w E o _a -0 CL > Q) 41 C L f6 U m m L f6 L L Q) O C C E m O b.0n3 .O O > +� U U X Q) Q) V .... i Q) Q) Q) Q) t Q) t t t .0 7 CL 00 � N NQ) Lnm S '� O •� Q) p O N O i O L •b0 .0 �— O ro L S ° d i Q a, +, Q) O a' L C t rp 'a Ln v= 4-- dJ Ln .S U Q of Q) n5 O a' O •O > O Q O > E t10 O v > L C Q M 0 ++ Q) +� +' M U I C6, Q) v C U a - = U L — :+-� o ° O C C +J Vf C '> O ,F L L Vf (0 U •N L E (Cp L c ac °' f ° v O 4� m -a > ° o E o o C o v � E v o U t U o oa, a)o x ° O r6 +� ° ro > O v° ro O Q t t C Q) t -O t0 L a., L L E O n ro C v_ f0 O h0 Q Q v Q) O E aJ u Q O O OA E t0 +� C Q) O E O Q) +J i) O 7 t]Q Q) M t0 O i Q) ° v� C v� O > ° E V O O a E "a U W m W •+, X L 0 ro O +' m U aJ ) N OU t 4� O 110 > Q) V E O tL0 Q) •+, +' C v� m Q T LLJ Q) +' 7 4� O •L U O V C L .0 'O L +� Q) U) +�+ °' CC: v C 'O i Z f0 4� N 'O U *C) 0 •N x n3 � O v O � '+� � O .0 � � O •� � � .v � aJ � aJ N � O C O_ C _ D f0 +� -0 C C Q) v� QJ 0 N v' O n3 O t L O N ro aJ N >• = M — aJ _ O 75 vi E Q) O +�.+ Q) Q Q) f0 i +' C f0 f0 O Q Y -O U > f0 U E •+�+ °- ° > +�+ X _ •'n f6 > ` Q) Q) Q) cif t]Q > = Q) � ,n C .— U d -O E m Q) Q) +�+ "a L �n ++ — f�0 fN0 C C L C f�0 L L L Q) O O ° m U F +>+ E ° > -0 aJ Q) U O — L O U •n0 +� Y O ° U ,F Q) aJ U *' +'C C: •N �' C tCo C U 75 +' 75 10 '� v v Q ro U ro ro ro Q a O �O > E .� E aJ d 1 ro +� Q) LL n3 �n "a E = C U +� +� U U LL Q v� +� O L L N O L O 0 _y +' w L -zt r, r, t�ifd d b N N N N C Q. E Ln Ln Ln Ln Q R 3 Q Q Q Q H S Z v U d Lr Lri Lr Lr +U. m ♦1 L ♦1 Q Q Q Q E D m m m m E U Ulu U Vf L H ice+ > > > > n3 n3 n3 n3 o0Q) Q) Q) Q) CL '0♦ -a -a -a -a Q) U LL LL LL LL 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 307 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 Q) ab > C Q) m V U O C O dO L :� Q 0 Q C N ao CD N L d +�+ a C N O O O 0 L N C N •O C) Q N N E d 00 E O L N u O O L - L w E O � O Q 7 >� a-.+ >, a O N O E n -0 n E !2 > E > O � � u C C C u v -C v _r_ .0 H H CL 00 +� -c c t 0 U O N v O +� •+, v +) O w LL L Vl UJ E .O E v E M 0.0 U t0 °' N O 'O O L u O E -O ,0 O C u .E i v Q v -O '� v _ O T t C) > U fL6 t O L LO O L O L O UJ .E O C 0 00 v +' Q -O v� L O 3 Q N ro Q L +� 00 O Q cn +� M Q C •E > +� -0 ro C v N E 0 of v Q C _O vi t0 .N Q L T Y E of E L v ,> ro > O t w > t C o E > a 0 Q o m c 0 ° �° o ? ° N - L v u �o o �o o M > Q - ° ccQ) 0 f0 Q M E o C w N •� UJ �bA fU0 BUJ E O ,U 0 U C = 4' Y O 'O ° ° +�+ N ° 00 � U C s E +_' > C •° f0 L a ° *-' v :° aUo aUo °J aUo o O L +� o .� v ao v x ao c� v v U L > L L OYA C U .E j U O *' j° Ln =3 v� �.�j C UJ ° ° Q- U U1 L V L v O O N - C v O O ro O .f0 U O 00 f0 J Q Q C V +� O _ F U -0 rZ C L _ =3 '- V m m t]0 C UJ O C C f0 OD v f0 ° UJ UJ O v '� v v E E t > r`o p o v E U N U Q N ° oo ro ate+ O +� 3 v +J U LO >,v CO T CO U O O M .� Ln C -o w + v oO o > , W ` C :C C '+� (6 ° t N C v t0 t m U O v Q t0 .�° t0 t0 O Q' Co — C M w •— E :U Q) mQ ro ' E a N v v 0 -0 w a v o 0 Ln v M 0 E M vi T Q >, N T .v C 0.0 UJ to -O d .O UJ Q .N i to _'^ +� E +� ° +� +� f0 C Q +' v E C h0 of UJ .i -O >, E C '+� u O w 3 a U v U a U a '� v v v -q m Ln v +� o _ 0n O U O ro +� ro ro f0 E cc +� v � U ^ O U O t O " 0 t m O m O m t t f0 x O ° t In E w O c p 0 v O O p W E +� U 9_ � H U U U U U +� Q w 0- u H o ._ N ro 0- +� — ro O U ro a) U v L O O _y d o vOid 0 .0 m m 4' Ln Ln C. a R 3 a a En s Z w 0 U Lr Lr m E d D ro ro E v v ofO c �; >, 0 — m ° c L j d m ,° a *' c Fu v c °J O + Q) LO ++� CL C m y m G l V Li V) Q cn E-50 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 308 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 C m O O c a, v v c� Q) a > rn m N v v C a 0- a 0- t v v N O U ~ v ~ v C p L C C C Q Q) Q) Qf Y Q) Qf Y N E E 'u E 'u d E E m E m 6 O O O 0 O u O u L 7N 5 w E O N O O O O CL >� >� ._ O > ._ O a+ C i N i +-' Q i +-' 0- m N m N C O O O E O ~ O O O O O O O a o E E a , E .E EE . u "O O x O x u f6 m u m u m E v E v E CL >. e0 a, a, t C C - O .^� O �n L �n -a -O v o ° E E o o o v C .� 0i +� O v o - pU O N N fx6 L ° O C 00 Q +�.+ �vOi *O' O N O U 00 t E aJ aJ a C E °C° v o o v m E a a, a o o +, ro o 0 Ln .� o °J m 3 3 v o .� o v C o �° o a - a, Q `° a v o E o �°a a c o bf 0 v u '� .v `° O 0 'm m ° t o C *' 3 '} 00 °' 00 v ' o 00 i aEi m o o v 3 v a, ° .fl v m °�' v 'Z�-, > .o v ° E 7 u C m =3Y OJ •i Q) +�+ t N 'O -O m > C L C 7 p -° O N i iJ 00 >� +�+ 0 C i+ --0° •*—' CO m Q N h.0 N N N N m 0 7 a; N C Q ro '� a +� m e0 0 v > C m a '� O -0 : v 00 o m � O 3 ) CO '^ Q .O .E = Ou �°° M o •`° ° 2 :*C--' .° O CC0 m N U° � - > >, m E u N E >, a, = o -0 v .E 0 u a, m a M °� v °Q) m v N i L L O C) = U`� C C 7 -° O C E Op O o •j V L -O E +' C -O O L ri a-+ '° O -° >- v +�-+ .° U O fl'-O C Q fl- of ++ N -O ++ N O � C O N O ° m C m m u v +� +, m +� N dJ 0- m O N E a�0 w N C a� 7 N v) 0 p W of _ u 7 O O) u ++ C C 0 Q) ate-+ N f6 — = O m E "O +•i r,4 u o •u u m N N > +•i N O ate-+ •2 O N fl- C f�6 N N *' ° Q) =~ > L -° O) m `� N �' L N N O C � C O C L -O N — O O C N C m 7 -° O > V m N -° — m m N O W ++ C L 0- a+'+ N o L = f0 t O lD 'O L �n '+J O L >� N C N N d u > u H N m m C -O of m 'i E E T t +' O) O) N u ++ — N "O N ,� ?) > N U "° N O C u +) u E +J u a o v v = ~ v U0 v E N ° v m _ v C .v m O Q = +� 0 v m m C oo �, t •x a +� C — E H C H ~ U m o u ou O Q U u .S U NN m aJ E .s a m o O ou in L O 0 _y Y w L a L d Ln c > Q. Ln a � s 3 a a OU d Lr �D �D m d L d a a a E p m m m E v v v Vf L H C ice+ m o E o Gl V L U Y 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-51 Att A Page 309 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 O O O Q Q 0) N U U U Q) O v O v O d > >> N O~ v ~ v ~ v o L C L C L C L C.w v va> v v a> v v a> d a-+ m a-+ m a-+ m L L L i OQ O Q O Q O u O u O u Lm C m C m �n O �n O QJ E O �n Q > .0 O > .2 O > .2 O C O O O Q) 16 En n O O O O O O O O O O O a EE E E E E E . E . E u ou M ou M ou M .0 TE v E IE-Z v E 1E v E CL 00 " o E N *' NO .2 = fN0 O) f�LO C W m O �, 0 M �n +) N m +-+ Q O Q t _ O_ — 'n O C N 0 m 0 00 0J �� 0J O = N m hD +� a N fl C •L a0 0J N �' E h�0 LLI U i > m u "O U L L w C O C C 7 Q OD i 0J ' 0J 0J •in m N C N N .0 m C _ 0 L C "� +� O m Cr O .E — ro 0 +' L � O > N N O f6 •h°-0 I �" N O m 7 v �- m Q Q 0J ~ L m co X - - C: n m O o E =a c 0 m Q p —_ —U D f 6 m fl 16 o _ ) *� O M o _o t DO _ 0J 0J 0J m '� C C +� t Y C T L m U Q— C "O 0 0- Q) C "O m N a-+ ate-+ •0J i > E a s a v o ° °J o f6a " 0 0 = O E Em 3 m O M v m 0J C m N 0J 0J C E 0 +� E C N +J L O m 0 n J N O > i -0 O >O C f+ '� O 0 L +-r- L m °- m C � O L U �n >� �n m Q >� U — Q 0J vi O u m m + + +J O hD +� u 0 +J C O O + C 2 L n +' 0J C 0J d O v m •E Q Q 'Q fl o Q U —vm u - w v Q — N aL+ ° 0J N �' v N -O 'O O E •r, E OD U O Q`� C •� v N Ou N +t-+ E •m OA •� E .> > C N L 0J hD m — 0J hD +�-+ OD — �n m OD �n U > +-+ L °' 0J +0J-+ C Q = m +-+ �n N 0J L +-+ O) of m +� L .0 C vmi C "O C .N C +' '}, u O *' 0J m U v ao _ v o E ° o M a, C m Y o m 0 o m .E a m o E 0 Q N v u o L o a— E Q 3 ° a 0- Q) E m 3 C u ° E v v o N a ° o o aJ °J x a ao 16 x 0 v Ov Q) o — a c E v C O 4(+ *' C 0) X 0J O � 0 C m C 0J - Q — 0- `� — 0 0 OD U m W m -O O 'ma N •f6 +�+ ° W > v m ate+ "' 0J ate+ *' •0 C a v m m 'n '0 •C :+J .0 fC6 +vC ° —° E a, aE J N . C o w C L 0J 0 � p E O >, + w Q "O O vjbFDEO N O mE O ° ' ' O C O Vl 0 = N° Co o EC- O C v ° aoo v v o E > Q) a, ° o a,vn � C E Q' o o ° v 0 ° o m Q v v ° o o v o v o m �' °p +� E -O "a U +-+ 0J N m U +-+ Y 00 U m O L 0 0 Y w L � L d C. CL S 3 a vU d m d L d a a a E p m m m E v v v Vf L r 0J 0J E � > r0 o oa E M o o m a O Qjv E-52 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 310 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 c c� a rn 0 N 0) t d +' N O C +' O L C.w d � L w E Q 41 C C w E a o -- u u CL 00 .1 c aJ c ° w O C:c m m +� m N .� �O Q >, O iJ . 0 OC: n M �n Q V O L Q 0J - +' m W O l0 N L m 0J 0 fl- Y (J- v O t a �� w O 0 � c m O a >, U Ou U n aJ C i~ -O .0 vV'i > •m i= � + m O o o •0 Q u Q aJ 00 0J 0J Q) >`tioa p v > E u Y .� m o E m o o v Q Q N U .N > � - - c L c O o O c N c •° C C o a; o c - v E " ° r' 7 +v.+ N C +�.+ Z M .'� = Q *' - E CO 1E f�6 +�.+ m C ate., *' O 0 ' 0- a.., O LL.I °U 0J M '0 'n -O N V i O vl O O0 Q ° �n N m C L 0J —' d U m c m - m > v 3 > v Q) �' U w a v v v v �' v °N° 41 ° Vl Q O m Ln `� ° ^ N *�-' N v v U L -0 0 `•� U N > L 0J >. +' 0J �N Q N ++ L �n O O C 0J c-I C U C 0J m L V w O c v w � m V vCLO �v v fl o M = v �v0 ,N U o >m EY' c tw o o a ° v *� '+6 o o v - O 3 0 V) v ar N N c — +� v = a v 3 '+� O v°J c w u °' 'O 0J V m L C o X •� a a� m E C v ate+ Ln N O0 U C N 00 > 0J V1 0O 0J :� m O ++ 0J 0J Q "° N O L O M ° c-I 0J O �O N l0 > U O OU U -0 M d d c �' U -a Q c-I 7 -O bA_ 4J bA Q N �' m _ A In N c O O Q E m •�n — "O –1- 7 '° a C Fu C io 0 0J C i C = o f c 'x +� c O c v N c ° O v E `2 � E E c E v v o a '- m r ° ro U m v ao a o a a c •0 f6 f6 0 0 c a m t U m 1 () 0 u E cvl o c� c ?� Q v' O cvl v C m Q v o .2 m `�° v v u o v io .2 m o c a; v ��- E o o N v v m U _ n O Q O > O Q O N m m Q •+� Q Q 0 C � n 0J C i Q Q m � 0J 0J Y v O m O E 0J Q N Q 00 0 .E 0 0J Ov Ov T +�-+ '° +0-+ V 0 + N +�-+ +�-+ L 0 0 _y +' w L � L d C. CL 3 y v m Z � – d m 3 L d E ao E Vf L H C ice+ C � w d 7 C CL U a 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-53 Att A Page 311 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 O 0) o v N a a O O O > N O ~ v C.w 0J 0 N E -r- . d i O >? O v ++ _ Qj E O C CL > .� O L Q Qj N E CO 0J 0J O a E E u C Eox u u m Q2 E CL 00 > O +, U0 a ° E O 00 +� O v u V) C '� ao a C C �' +' 0 Eo Q N U O O Z m C a n — N O m l0 m = 7 m Ou Y 7 m m y +�.+ L m •� ° �0-, .� N 'L fl- 0J N O .° m m Ln C •0 ° U L C E 0J C O C E Q C o — .° o c � c � v N 0 ° =' v C f6 0 m c� U 'x '� v ° •2 v O m v — w Q E o *' Q) *' E m 0o E C O O v w L Q �, '� " O •, v o _ O 3 O O O •L •�, "O +.+ C 0J O +�.+ O m O +L.+ ° �O 0- 00 O +�.+ m c 7- Q) ci m — C O a Q) O E Q, ,�, _ — O v Z m u -- m v O r a, C a, o C +' Q 7 c-1 N 00 0J 'u .- = — C 'U m N n 0J u C �n Q) L M .2 .>_ Q O V c •C N ~v� m V) .� w O 4; 000 v0i `� O O � O n ar w m y °; v Y v v ° E > O Q) C: cl v a E ° °�° E o +I u o ° > a O C � C `�° o m > f6 ° v O Q) a v 0C: m Cm 0N0 ' �n 0 N C NH Co O E O � 0J 00 m Q M c , 00 7 Q) > uCO C o a vo oCQ) - > Qj CO .V .S X a0 -O 0J vO Q) ami 0- C 00 U Q C d O N Z 0J V) u a flm flv C oO mQ O v Q O OQ O 0 v ' Q) ° ° O + Ocj ~ u .� 0O m u L O O o n o> m OL v a C O 0 C Q O _ o v v v O t 0 HOv ut0 ° Q 0 �e u m0- a0 U L 0 0 Y 3 w L Qj L d Qj C. CL S 3 m E a 0 E v Vf L H C ice+ C d C y Co C L CL o a, z E-54 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 312 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 O Q) c o Q) Q) — ~ EQ) E 0 _ CF) A n m u �a U a O "a •� Q) O A +-' U +� Q) m N a t a 0 0) O +J O L C a O -r N N O m o i H Q) C ++ Q) aL-+ O 0 00 i 0- C i O.w + '� Q O 0J N C a ° n E — d N E m O G 0) v m 0 u O U C f6 — Qj C a-' "O O 0 �n Q 7 O m > .� O 41 Ca 0J L Q Qj L Q 0 C O 0J O N >. E •N u O +J E Q) 0 >_ .� V N L E N -- m OU MQ L M L H Ov aL-+ O H v 7 CL O N O O -r- .-L- _ — O +1 - > 0J = m 00 3 = v *' °�° o C _a C m Q) E ° v v o c o Q m a a a o °o •� o 0I0 Q) x C n -0i0 N OU a0 °� +° *' O ° _ +6 x0 LQ L >� 7 a-+ '— 'a 0J C -a Q) m Q) L U C m m m ° U C L VI —O 0i0 N U C >� >� O C U0 nN m ++ W C f+ m a, C:U *' O O o `�° 0 3 °- O E Q J C a aao 'N ° o a, f0 C ;0 +J L aJ aJ C 'N +-' C fU6 ,ten u m Q) C C ° O m +J m �n O d aJ m a m aJt10 t v +° �' + v ` 2 v E v m v O "a L E Q) +-+ — U X 00 ._ O a a, v o v E o v c o m ° - N Q) C � b.0 Q) V O m c °� v v > c Q •O ao v O ° o a s c ` Q) J .0 O C C � 0J �n C 00 O - +J N V) U — - — 0J m 7 c Ua o v .� o U o .N v c aCo o Q c O ' C o ° a `�° ° o v v v Q) o v Q) C: - � > c aJ �' m m O m '+� +� > m f6 Q) — +� Q O Q x m m U n : � C -0 v o o0 0 ,A C > _ 3 0 � ° .� N aCo a, 3 3 ai a, +� m O > H > C 0- w U C O m m O m m Q) m Y U _° ++ m C X U m i N = C 41 i 0 '+� N "a ,� 0J �O +� i t 0J C i O 0J C m 0 m .� QQjj N Q) >� m O U 7 L Q) 0 � — "a N > O aU+ C C }, m O "a -0 N = L Q) E ^ C f�6 i ° 0�0 a f�6 C Q •� f�6 U O O x x •� iE � O +L ?) U V E '� 3 v v c o v a +� E a aCo o v v +� m a v C � v o a _ U ° ir- 0 N °U u Q) N •}C—, L U N O U E • • • �' 00 L '� o m v ° o ° o o v v c Q) ° U ° v v E O 00 00 U — a H m ._ L U U U L L Y — _ -a m U ._ a m L O O _y Y � 0iS L Q. CL S 3 w vU d m E d p m m E v v a Vf L H C �+ � � 0J 7 � i E m U a m O m M O m Gj V U cn 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-55 Att A Page 313 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 O Q c °' _ 0) o vv N a Q O O O j N O ~ v C.w v v N E -c . d i O Q O v ++ _ C 41 EO ,n CL 7 .� O L Q Gl N E CO 0' 0' O a E E u c EoX u U M Q2 E CL o0 00 c v a' c °co c O U A° N .N O = o 00 N j CO > f6 O + 0' 0' +� f6 n L .E � � � +.+ E C "O E O0 0' r6 E 0 vCi O N •h0 L E E m N .z' - E > Q r6 ,n O N O0 c L 01 L 0 O 0n X C Qn i �O 00 O O C O �o +J 00 c E Q �, E O E u aco n -0 v c m 'E ax' E °co a c N c Q) o v u = v ao o ° a o � ma c° 0' O -O �p M1 7 f6 L >> f6 }' U 0' O 0' b.0"0 0' *' f6 f6 O Q -2 M1. "O L v v a, v -a m E E v > c .v v +, O 3 c C c - c (6 L - Q) O L Y 0 O ,H — E ° - O M a, E o c o �_ c n3 c a, a = c .E v 0 O ,n v E .'n ,n O0 vii •O0 > O '� .E � ,n +-+ L V '�, C ,n � aJ 3 O a' .� v O w O u O ao u v � o o E N a v a m m o O v o 3 -0 c +� v v v M � O Oa c v o0 0 0 °� c O v ao c v E _ c E v n3 C O E *' u n3C: UO E c a, � E o �' c E m .� m OM '� � o 00 'EA 0 O .E N 0' Q O O u O N 0' c H 1100 u - O c N Y +) N C *' y L C C a O0 n I L O E U c 0' C E m y +� o aco 0o u oo ~ 'u m °) m V V m v a; o f u E v c v 7 v v •c v - N - > c '+� o 3 v v E c ao v u � V U 'O E u � O "a -0 0' O N 0' 0' j .Q O C ,n M1. "a C O O 010 a � c ca ° a °' a o aco ° o > 0 3 E o u 0- E v E v v o v o o 0 O v 'E m Q o v o o v a = °�' z° V) v L 0 0 'n w L w L d o � d d c 3 Q. a a � s 0 w �_ V M E a 0 E v Vf L H r i0+ C � w 3 N c E O 0 Q i CL EA Q, U In E-56 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 314 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 O 0) o v N a Q O O O d +L+ L j N O ~ v 0.w v v N E L . d i O Q O v ++ _ C 41 EO �n CL > .� O 41 i Q Gl N 16 E 00 N N O a E E Z) C EoX u U M Q2 E CL 00N C +� � v � ov o N C 0 L O +�+ — >� L Q) ,� E C C - C O o0 —u i 00 >' i i r0 = O O C N — •� 7 `� C 'U C r6 N C� X C w N E 00 N O N a0+ 'O Q C —O i 0�0 E G v n3 v Q) E v v u V '^ � v v >• f6 0�0 LY N v v O ++ f6 > +L-+ = f6 N N m N m C E Qj 7 CO C V v aL0-+ •O N L C -a 'O - - 0 C CO M N C O> d Q) Qo a� v °' va N O E o c rn o o c o N V L E 3 0 d •� a '� C N ao m f6 Ln C L c-I aO+ O O N i Y E O Y N — T O > N rq L O .. L f6 Ln Ql N M N = >' N pp C i m G N +-+ O OA +-+ M O N Y H m 00 N 00 > C 0 a y E -o 3 +� �' O +� ri > u = L`0 00 c o E U a c Z o U m o - - m w o O Ln E o r' .0 � v O u O -0 Q 'v U fC6 O a u C N O-i v O 'O C -p J r6 N O 7 C w O = C r6 '^ E .0 = J fY6 L N L0 r6 O O r6 C m � "O O Y m O F O -O a+ .N .E O O -0 C L6 -w Vf = n m m � m � .E '0 C H rq 0 f0 _ i 0 3 N 00 i C i 'o C 7 00 U L N �n N v . N N r6 'O Gl rq '^ 0 Q O ai c M C N ) r6 c C O O "O n = N — r6 E Y "0 i 7 L Y •+�+ ,N O L C 0'L N -O L m bn L L C �n L �n N C O N H Y LO C = U +' f0 C �n ,� C N N J Gl f6 Y f6 Ln '0 "0_ c V1 c C Ql 41 E i 0 = Q C C a+ f0 m L N m C � ` C N �n C O O O f6 c-I E v *' c Y E o v o c v o_ c Y +' > v m L0 - o ++ _ i+ J E E °' °' L0 E - c m - `° 00 0 C o- C � _ u U N C m _ f6 u L U N L f0 41 O >, •f6 N ++ ate-+ a-+ N N O ate-+ Q L u 'i f6 = O E — >� — O U m 0- v L0 v c c n3 v o v m E m O t0 c 3 y c E v E n3 f6 C m •C 0 N ++ O C = v 0 0 X N L O N O O m O O i O N C N �0 E 00 _ ._ O U ._ -Fu -r- O U v -0 3 � v OC u ar v O v a LL 0- U L O O Y 3 w L Qj L d o d 0 .0 C Q. a a � s 3 0 L`0 E a 0 E v H L H C ��.. C � 41 3 N C E U O CL 0 Q > 0 a U Ln 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 E-$7 Att A Page 315 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 O O O Q Q Q 0) S f6 f6 f6 N U U U fl- a) v O v O v O d > > > N O ~ v ~ v ~ v CL a) v v v v v v E E E i OQ O Q O Q O U O U O U L 5 f6 5 f6 5 f6 wE O �n O n O �n Q > .� O > .� O > .2 O C 0r6 n O O r6 n w a O O O O O O O O O O O a E E E E E E .E E . E . u ou M ou M ou M 7 v E TE v E v E CL 00 v 00 N .� C N v 7 +� N O E m '° O Q v O O c O a Mv o N v > O - o ° E o a ao Q) v r o om E :+� o a) c v r0 3 - v v m -0 3 _ -0 o v c o m > m y 3 +� � -' v o v O m 3 m °� 3 -0 •N ago 7 +-+ +-+ O -O 'U `� -O N f6 r — N Q — O N N O N C � � O � � u °' v m v 0 m v v v -0 c H +� ° N v c O +, c a s v 5 0 -0 � o v U M v c v v - o C0 U f6 = f6 F N f6 L f6 7 ��., f6 N Q •+-' f6 •� f6 f6 C 0 f6 V0 v -0 c v v a°o � ° o v m > = Q a 0- v E 3 0 0 0 W v o O 3 E m e c :� v O - O v � m = o a O U 3 O - -0 O .E v v ° 3 = 0 - E _ v v +� u ° C o ao ° t >, m u Q) v v Y v vE . m v a N QE m ° o o °c O u E -0Q) O v -0 rd ov O v vo ° °o ° E0 Q) O c o N2 X - .o m > 0 c O O o v c v � u m u v v � E = a •� u a O - o c v - v v E o a c m E °� .E m aoo v v in a v o 3 o Q m f6 a Z v L O O _y +' 3 w L d L 0 0 O O d C. E O CL t 7 p m a L a Q Q Q E ro ro ro E v v v Vf L H r �+ C w ° C > d r O o E _ M o V Q U w E-58 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 316 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 O O O Q) Q C v = °J = °J d 7 = 7 = 7 = N O ro U U U m U Q fl- -a U Q U U U C U O m 00 NU U U Q v C O O O O O U O i � U ate-+ U U U f6 N N O ~ v ~ v ~ v t 'O L C +J 4-+ "O 4-+ "O 4-+ "O H U �n 0 L C L C L C L C CLw 0 0 0 0 0 0 C _ E E E > C C C O O O O UOUO U O U O U •O O O w E OC O Ca .0 O 2 vO >' 0 ° Q — Q • Q ° u C O O M L(OC6 O O N "O "a "a > E CO N U CO N U CO N N N E a E EE o uOux Ou mu v H v E H v E v E 5) E CL CO U L E N c-I X U aU+ Q) vi +� N O m N C C >• C L ° O U -0 N C O v� •O00 t +� L -a LL C > L *' C: Q v U 7 t0 i vOi vi •O Op vi N O Q� U +� m ° U .> E _ UJ m O +J iz Q m L U a-+ N L U O U — U 'n N U Q U O +.+ > �n +.+ 7 Q) O L C L ++ O Q) °- c ro o 71 O O C v m Q O v "O ,� v' n O ° +� Q- m E F � a n, +, C v 3 o U Q- �o x 00 > O° o v v° o °o> uc ° oo Q° uc a O C> v C Q) u OA 0 O N .E r6 a -O Q C > N ° E +�.+ lD L O L ++ +' O U +� _ 'pp L c C L E n C O E t v v C L U L C C N v O O 0 f6 E — O 6- U O L O •° O Co N N +' C E 'a L 0 C N O v *' t > U j v a0 v N ° f6 C v •p O Q N •O L +-+ Up > U -a C to Gl 110 -a l0 v m N :� +-+ N Ln S1 Qj r3 •0 O '� C ;� a.., f0 t]p ° 7 •N C O C Q ° "O "O N +�-' •'� C O Q,i i C '� (J "O ° i -a C U BUJ C L +� L N ° E > •0 u n C L a v L 3 ° v 'v o L E ao m O O ao a O z > N a - u " v u a .0 O v m f0 'x v Y U ° L +� a O 3 Q v n a v C v H °�° m C v ° +� _ n v - ro C LO a U OU � C � O Q °U m v - UUO 0- � E a � Y o c .E v U M > v •° E Z o o v -0 o m •X O L +: � - � 0 3 o C v 0 Ea C �, m v a a- 4 - N v 3 w c v M 0 ro u ro °�° _ t o 0 0 .� -a c E ° � o c v � m .� j ° � °° � � � Ua � _C � C � � E � � � � u m - 0 v LL L L S C L U o '> N *' ° ° ° E a m — Q O L a o m U L o v o a = a 3 0r x ._ o +� L O O _y Y Co L H 'L d O O O d E Q Q Q CL S 7 Y V V d m d L d Q Q Q E D E v v v Vf L H r d v E =3 c E > v M C v -aa EA V m °LL'00 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-59 Att A Page 317 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 c c� a rn 0 N N t d +' N O C +J O L C.w d � L w E Q 41 C C w E a o -- u u M v v DO U > -O hp > 0 tCo NO � tl — vi O (� O 00 O UJ .0 C UJ 0 O UJ O O UJ UJ w +� C U M 0 > O N O C v v O 'O ,� O L r0 +� L1 L L .� C v t0 C '^ v O L � Q O U Q v L � Pv Vf UU 0 U O Q 6 O O UJ +� '^ O •C >' T ro ° rL u +� Q ° N U `� • O v 'O O C v L H 0 O ° U00 O O 1 . E m M up Oi O v M v +� v v a E v a L —cr- U UJ O U 0 r0 +� 'O +'' UJ t _ of L f a.., Y Q v _ N -O "O LO Y O 'O r0 = - ° 7 O O +' H t •U iJ h0 r0 •� f0 Cru C t. o C _ ° ._ L C u E o T u C U L L U .L v r6 C — ro ro v� aJ ro �' L v� aJ v v 0 O u E O L E O v +� .0 hT0 UJ U UJ Ou U -aW Q NN C U U C 0 'O Q' UJ N N OA E Q L U T •� C O O O C v(10 U O r- Lo C: w u v v O Y O O '� t Q U C O -O Q t t• hp UJ 0- w vii i r0 — 7 LO 0m i N m 0 U U r0 C }, — O O L V v X — rup C UJ t]p +0., Q ° ° -O L r0 t Q O Q — r0 C U U l0 •v>—i v Q 7 'C U UXJ .� x 7 N u O U v vUi v Q O "a i ro - +� ro C .� L +� > v O E v C L Q) Q) v .� -0 o 'x v N E 00 o U a a L ? m a Q ° u1 O Q v ° v N .0 C NO Q u rru t v +; v U C v ro rn v rCo � E -O ro UJ O UJ u M N 0 UJ rLo •C ro v U +, UJ Y r0 u t O W M C v� C E �0 -O Q O C O W L v , U -a C C LO N C v eC0 +� U p u1 'L f0 +� O v C ° .T O rTo '*' ro O •� ro v ° LO C +, v� C ro UJ U C v — O X 'O 2 v '^ i U i UJ -p rLo -9 — 0 +� O — m C CL-0 UJ v ' r6 N p C _ roLO u C O U fL0 UJ v t v L U ��if +�+ L i +�+ '}, iJ U O U t U>J -O Ln E f6 UJ '^ -O U �h0 0 i = UJ a Q�0 j Q O v 'O Q- UJ O- v 0 v N E t ro v C > — L C +� v O t E ro ro ro UJ UJ t 0 O L > 0 E +� L U U ._ v t Q L r J H U U ._ o U E +� LL o H +� E t 0- +� ° u L O O � L d C. M M y v V Z 0C — d m i d E ao E Vf L H r ice+ C � Gl d 7 C CL U a E-60 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 318 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 O O Q 0) N U U a fl- a fl- Q) O v O d > > N O ~ v ~ v O c c c c CL Q) Q) Q) Q Q) Q E E E E i O O O O G O U O U .L wE O O O �n O �n Q 7 >, >, >, .0 O >, .0 O N N C Q) Q Q Q Q m 0 0 o a EE E u o 'x o 'x u U M U M H H 1E v E H v E CL +J +J C L N L f0 O v v = C ro �O 4� N v O O N c v E Q C � 0 = O O � C O N O 00' = v v v O — v 0 0 0 +� •_^ f0 0 O 'C C N O C n L — L = E 'M ro O O N '^ Q t v '^ O O d L O 0 d •> to O c u a) m —0 � c Lo 0 0 ro � 4' 'i v C N E Q U E N Q Q O 'U 3c- u +L+ N 'O U t Q N M •�, — •— +.+ UJ O UJ UJ -O v t0 pp L f6 O O C O_ L N f6 -0 U N N O L C U i .� Q N 4� O X UJ O "O E -O v O "O 7 N > L C L >� - .� O M Ln .S N 0 t i v T c U v v > i O > C (6 O t0 N C f6 > v a ro +� U v o v ULO 3 +' C U c Gl d u v f6 'U ro O Q � +� T Y T U Q "O C L '� +' L E Q r6 > ,� E O U v 0 m 0 +' - c 7 +� O c v C 0 0 U c m 0 -0 O on U ui +, c '+, a s t f0 v v v '+� u > O ao O 0 O O N U o C O c = 0 C +� +� v O v v X 0 ++ L C v) v_f O U O L 0 0 U o v E -a u O � m -0 f0 � 0 0 "' U �_ E E U 0 c L L A O U v - , -0 � T w o N 0 C O O O c ._ v ° U 0 " E > v E *' o E E c o E °' 0 > o E vUi M N E C N ) ro L '0 c p Y O +' pp to 41 O U , ro f6 L f6 N 7 .� •° .N > 0 +m+ 0 0" -O � U t C > = c C > L N N U E v Q) 'o 0 .0 w a .� o v o v ,, o �o •U 4 '— o M 0 (u a4 . o •EA U Op U O �n N j N t Q •+ v C N N Q i 'L v C — �, v +-+ C t .c 0 >• d ro C -O -O -O -O f6 f6 C 0 0 C > C = N N O ++ U a..i v U C C v U 0 i' C Q W ++ Q v •+•i 0 O C 4�A-Z E v E m v c 3 v m ° '— c c t +� c t +� c c o GU O C O i N O H O +� E c E O UJ O O vO N U C +V+ O C v a •• U 0 o U U 'c E o E E U E E +� O U M o v f6 L - +U+ +� N E L 0 E — v N i v v O .� C O v E 'V1 N O Q' f6 C UJ ULA E > cif +-+ X +-+ O -O 7 L t O M UJ UJ 'i UJ i v v O L O > O O (6 .*' C O E O — N L U m w N Q of of U i +.� i of U i•' U > U +� of UJ U L O 0 _y +' 3 w L d i d O O O O • ' E Q Q Q Q � M 7 m a L a Q Q Q Q E ro ro ro ro E U U U U Vf L H C N � 0O L L CE V) 0 ca ca CL O ro ro a V o E 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-61 Att A Page 319 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 O m v 00 v O O O > r6 u a v v v 'E v > u ° o � = u 'O V V V 0) .L N ate-+ O C C C O O C O C O U U U N (J v C u 0 4 0 4 0 4 N O ~ C n v r6 H N H N H N C L M '� UO O UO 4-; 4-+ "O 4-+ "O O O.w N N N N N > N N > N N > E � � L+YC =u E L+Y u=M E L+Y U E E E E E O O O O L ,OvEv - Ou Ou Ou •O O — OQJ E N n O O OC m C C O O +J a0tio- N 00 O O O O f6 f6 '� ,� N f0 O .� *L'' L O N C O 0N N CO N N CO N N E a > _ v u a a w >, > E .N >, E N >, E N O -- c v E 'Q a E E - E E - E E u C a O O C C C O x C O x C O x O c m m m m `-' C: Q) O � TE v E TE v E TE v E - m -0 - v) 0 — S- C f6 fC6 0 N .O L 3 C i L f6 >� 7 N D- Q) -O DO O f6 N - O ++ O L N W f6 C f6 L >? Q) N C C: vO t c M y v a E to 0_ v m O E c 3 W °� o c v o ° ) o oo u E E c w m u o f6 � c v E O o aJ a E 3a o t3 +, v C ^o N v v a m a O °' `� v C m >� O aO+ O L •� L N O C -a 7 O O vi m = v m O c i+ +L 0 0 n = 3 c u 3 v N O n 0 C O O v N _ °p N *' t u U n - — "O C N +' O OU ++ J L "a 2 N N ++ N f6 C L E N > 7 N C l0 'n "O f6 N .fl- - C O +, M L t10 Y _O E L N N O m C .� L i p C — N N >� N J m L O O +' +r C M a, +, .N a O o v +, Q O �, E _ �' oo O v v E c O o ro N c 3 v v t3 m o °J C�7 a °� v = v v E v c v O ro c C O 0) E 3 Q) -C -0 >, L V +� z o m .v E > c m O .� fl o rn O Q) v v o ° m � - Q) O 'N oo v v m m C u v v 3 v °; f6a v w v c v c 3 O E +� v v o M + v o E a c ar o o O v a c O c c 3 C �o v v O v a a v v v o _ v v' " v o v �° ° tico E �' n cn v oo v o .� E a, o f o °; ao u `° O •> °' E aCo 0 o a a N � *' 0 v o 0 r C) o e4 r- E2 E v v o o _ c v E o -°O c f6 c -0 O y v v N •�, >? O L L > O C •N C >? C f6 N m v > C f6 C f6 >? E c > aJ c E > u a a �' M E O v c v v N a �, O u C m E > o .c O c c a; c > O - •0 � o o c u v O +� C t - m u O m O Q) c m = �' oo u •� O O E c u aJ f0 a c E v E v u > v �, v O a; c a v v ao °c° o f +� v E c E m u aco v m v v v 3 v aco > o Y m E E m `E ao o E 3 v Y m a o v u 3 Y o L O O _y +' 3 w L d i d O O O O O O dCL CL t 7 i i i i i Q) to ♦1 L a >? >? >? >? >? E ro ro ro ro ro E v v v v v Vl L H r ��.. C N vl E N m u O ro C E m N O C C r6 CL o v E > Gl V m D Y cn E-62 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o-z8 Att A Page 320 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 O O Q 0) N U U a fl- a fl- Q) O v O d > > N O ~ v ~ v Q. N N Q) N ate+ d +� U — U E E i O Q O Q O uO u .L 0 C M � M w E O n O n Q 7 .� O .� O C O O w E tm O O O O O O O O a EE E E E . E ou m oU M Q2 E v E CL 00 O - v n o v N c 3 o v v o c 3 o v c c v 00 o a v v o vao m ° n O u v 3 E a ° ) E a v 3 E a Y o > ' '° o v =6 0 o .� O m 3 c v o 0�.' _ o O c Q) f6 00 o v 3 o c • f6 E o v f6 o v 3 v E O C: v °- v :+� o f ° f6 0- a°Jo -0 E � v ° v :+� o E 0 c E °� � 00 v a; 3 �, v E O O - v a0 0 .� v a; 3 �, v E 0J v o o c c C c o '� ° m 0 c -0a o o = c u o '� m O N -a a ac0 0 3 a Op +N.+ 00 "O i N .fl- C a Op +v.+ 00 f6 �' �n L 00 O L E .2 3 O C n N J -0 O O +J CJ O 3 O O C Op Q) u c aCo M v IE5 C --a v v � N �j > u E � °c° v v C O v o .� v c v ` � = v `-° > v O .� v ' c v - v E o0 •L V >_ +' C -O •C o ,� f6 -a L _ N +� > C +J C -O •c o O C' •V +�-+ v `0 v o -ao ° C: b.0 v av v E a o v° c N o 0 v H N C v f6 f6 'a U Q O �n "a N fl- O O N C v f6 f6 'a U O = i f6 .^� E .O a+ C OU V N N v 7 Q C +�+ L f6 L ++ -0 O C OU U N N v 7 Q Q L N o- F0 in w oa � o v .E `+`° v v c m o O `° E N f6a c v o E Ln O 3 E 0 v O v c o v o •� 0 3 E o � v v t m a) -a X E Op 'L = v V N L a� C C C �) f6 Q pp L - v V N_ = L L C W rz Q) v v Q p .E c a u vao v bD � � - v c v a .E o 'm H m O }' S O N ro 'C t vCi C CO .� Y *' O > O , C .0 v v O O E c .E m a v - .� .E .E c .E a E - +� o E o0 00 L 0 0 Y � 0iS L d L O O C Q. Q Q W M 7 41 V V t`0 E d D r0 r0 E v v Vf L b.0 H L N C N '- E o °a o a V Q 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-63 Att A Page 321 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 O O Q 0) N U U a fl- a fl- Q) O a, O d > > N O ~ aJ ~ aJ Q. N N Q) N ate+ d +� U — U E E i O Q O Q O u u O u .L wE O n O n Q 7 >, .� O >, .� O w 16 E O O O O O O O O a EE E E E . E oU M oU M Q2 E v E CL 0 Q, O • CO NL m - O ' > N O Q) O -r C N N E O c 0v .ava ao aJi 0 > m00 O 00 0 ° C m `° _ v n E o v -0 v N O v E o v °�' v 0 x U m E o0 v Y v v E O v v m O a, - 3 Y O m E Q0 0- ) o � m - v �J m +� U v E o m — a L m C 7 L +� "O -O L O O +� i � — N O C 7 -a .� J '^ L 00 N on E m a '> v o0 v v Fu N U > m v E u °�_° m a, ° v N -a Vm v •Q n >, 2 v � - > O .� aJ C O �n m v c m ° v •E .E W a ao + o v o E a ° a C o a; tao o v U ° U° m > - a a c m v U m O' E � a O v � � ° — � � E m a, 0- '0 oo m } ° N ° i cn v 00 iJ O + ._ N -° w �° >� N N ° i cn N Op L C C a� m E tioN m N .++ O C m ° V d m v N ate+ O u � a 0 =a a, a 0 0 6 C v m C m ° u Q 0 =a O m u C - +' m +� - J anl c NC °o C o u aaJ .aJ C aJ ° ° av � � v �v v o Ev ° a � °c° •°E x u a, O v E r � C °' Q) u ° o > m o m � UQ v aE 00 O m Op+ + a Q E c 3 Y - .� .E .E c .E m a °� .3 E � 3 Y ou o =a 3 v L 0 0 +' 3 w L Qj H L' O O d E Q Q M M 7 QJ V V zM N N m a Q Q E d 0 m m E v v Vf L H C ��.. > UO Q) O C z Q) 0 16c M m EA V = 0 E-64 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 Att A Page 322 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 O 0) o v N a a O O O j N O ~ v C.w v v N E -r- d i O Q O v ++ _ QJ E O C CL 7 .� O L Q Gl N E 0O N N O a E E u c EoX u u m .0 � v E CL o o v v N °' m = o °�' o o v N O N N N = O •� 00 O +� O >. .5 E u r- Q v v m +' m 0 = o v n O o v v a c 3 z `-° E 00 v m ° o a ° °� c o Y .E °' m E ° �°' a '} 7 -0 -a o v v; v m v v o v °J o U L v av °�' E -a a •- - a - a ooh � v a C t. o '5 O •Z O E ao O `°3: E o v E a Op 0 �O c c v O LC •O O .*' OCO EO C "O L =3 >- N _5 O O v .O 3 �O N C V O .- � m E vi O u Q) 0O 2 N � O '� N v ��- v °) i c E C °c° a 3 v v - Q; o = - O v ._ c a O O c tjo �, +� v a v �, c o U o v om Q) a aio v o o ai m au °' E a o -0 o mv - c c �, > v Q O C m O u ,� m a N m y 3 Q) C: o u o +° n v v ° Oa v a o o ai v c +� u v v v Q i n fl o u n c m +� o c 0 u v v v C 0 •00 v E v E ) > v v c � � o O 0 c a c > f6 v t - ° t U v bD M v C N O > O t t '� t t O N N tto U > m Y ate., o o j 0 E " u m a +, E H H m LL a) tt 2 - 3 Y u - .� .E .E C .E m Q n L O 0 _y o C Q. a a � s 3 0 m E a 0 E v Vf L H C ice+ w > d C 7 C + 0 m a V Q Q 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 E-65 Att A Page 323 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 c � c� N a ° Q 0) .� 0 N N > E M N O w C +J �; O O L C: C.w Q) M Q) E uO o u N O i N w E O CL .� C N �O O O) E O O t E a Q) u 0 � u n3 C Q L O fl H u m 7 CL 00 OCO �O v N QJ +-+ C L +' p 0 t6 Z5 p O O 'U = Q Q -O `� Q) U0 L u Q �,0 t C U u -Q ,�, Q Op "O Op Q) EZ5 C N QJ .0 a � Q� z Q�Ei Q O •u -r3 Q p Q L .'n V Op Q) 00 C C Q n QS n , tiz Qj Z5 13 + n 3: u r6 — i Lf6 E .� O QJ C QJ �, C .� ° C C m L Q) � Op QJ .Q U Q) QJ m C °U "O QJ QSJ ,Q C 'V �_ ,� QJ f6 N i f�6 L ° O 4 Q: O O L O � N 'Q) t "O C E U O i '�" O O C � +-' C Q) C Q 3 - oa Q) " .c ° QQ, Qs s ° v a u u �, a, o o a, Q) ° E u +� +, 3: tnQ O +, ° V E o m w c n u u c > ° 0 Q) n v Z) Q) M1. 6 n v n, c n Qs v Q) o 0 o v O o c Sao E s Q c *' m O . Q u - m +� C O � +� 0 3 .c v � o Q, c C E n Z5 ° v c *' °� C O o o 0 v ° 7 � Q, o Q) }�- a o c z ° - v o v c v u v a s ° Q ° C °o ns a c o m Z E a •>_ -0 a . m Q Q o E , . O a E � ooM1. o E v r Z5 a E ni i t Q) 0 EE � � vi m Q .00 +' ° 01 O Q O a-� N L i0 L 'i Q. = O C "O O U .E O Q� •� r_ LL ° .a .0 "O "O �, Q� C "a •L Q) L C C C m n a Q.t u � L EO -Q .� Q) t Q C QJ QJ f�6 t O W Q. O Qr o c 'o E �, �, = Z5 m Q) L �, Q X O C C L E J E } . 0 3 u Q u o Q. _ .- o Q. LL Q a, u m m L O O CoY w L- L- i d d d J3 Q. a a � M 3 0 a n V m E a 0 E v Vf L H r ��.. C � d H O Cv Q C O a V 0r E-66 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 324 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 O 0) o my N a Q O O O > N O ~ v C.w v v N E -r- . d i O Q O v ++ _ C QJE O �n CL 7 .� O 41 i Q Gl N E 0O 0 0 O a E E u c EoX u U M Q2 E CL Q) 00 00 C 000 a S C 00 a N o u E v o f6 v c O L ° r6 v f6° o Q 0- N v N V 0 L O O +� ° O *� O ii Q) c U v 3 000 a — > v > v o v U O 3 3 v f6 U c 'C m y f6 0 E v E 3 f6 v °� a 00 3 v v C .0 a0 v o v m +� ° > o N 3 Sao 0 ar ro c > LL °� E v O _ c ° i N N "O -0 0 0 O M 00 L .O Q O N 0 O r6 O +�+ L �n O Q Cf+ rU6 O 0 7 r_°6 �n `� r>6 L �' •L N O X110 N N V "O r6 > C 7 C OU 7 o N E v -0a - N N o `° o m v �_ Q) —=3 E ) v c E o L o 3 0 v ai m e o -0 � >, 00 ° v O m v - v v ., E ro N N o '� " E H = v iT C '0 w 00 a ,� a v W ON W C Q 0p +�-+ v j O h0 N 'v N � •+�_-+ Q +�-+ i — O •c No v .� ro ° E o v v Q c *' 0a t ° — c N t o � 0 N m � N N m 00 N = U , " v '� N O '� mc N — N O -t3 a_- N u = :O .2 O E C: "° rp '� C 0 "O i� 4J ++ U OL M 0 � 0 C � 0 -r O N O "O � � v O 0 0 -O � 'N > N ++ � -° O -O 0 � r 0 "O ++ V1 U 7 > >- m 4J Q H 0p 0 ._ C *' 0 0 `� 00 -0 C ate+ _ 0 +' 0 0 C L r6 N V1 y0 L N C > v — f6 L +c L r6 N O V 7 L O N QJ L + r6 OU u E o > v ° m E > E .° w .2 v .2 m rv. f6 v ' '� ° c v v L0 -a E m (D o w z Y ° °� o -0 Q E = a.0 E -00 0 m v v a w 3 L 0 0 o c Q. a a � M 3 0 a n V m E a 0 E U Vf L H r ice+ C � d H 0 Cv Q C ° a V 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2018 E-67 Att A Page 325 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 0 Q c °' _ 0) o v N a Q O O O > N O ~ v C.w v v �> N E -r- . d i O Q O v + _ Gl E O C CL 7 .� O L Q Gl N E CO N N O a E E u C EoX u U M Q2 E CL o v 00 G v m N C - ° o v °J �' 00 m a v v � C C m u C N i C C L E N N O N +' `� O '}, 0 7 L C L 0 L x N C N ~ E W >' m "O O M "O *' M1 +�'C Q `�° ! v °�-0 v a o0 0 o v v E > U �_ Q _ f6 0 ~ > N 2 f6 u N V1 > 7 00 N L V1 > L O N f6 f6 N O - 00 00 v E z a � c *' °' N Y a0 v �' •*' E v n0 Uate-+ f6 U N f6 00 O ate-+ j >, — N ,C UO +�+ f6 C �n fl' N "O f6 0 +�+ •0 f6 N N C M C `� L M f�6 N Op ++ L c N N v Q-0 0 N N EuQ) N 0 YE Q) O > v Y f6 C p 7 L O h0 '+J `� c-I .0 N N >� N 0O C N O Q) 2 y C U iE r6 N -O +-+ r6 — U V E X N E U N =� .'^ hC0 ; W .— W LU 00 W O 0 7 O �, C 0 L U -p 0 m O U v 0 N = C C N N O C Vl Z ++ C N C 0 7 G ,� v fl- E "0 0 O 'x v C *' v O O 0 aC0 u 0 >` c0 O O ro �n C N C �n 0-= O O +-+ C G N N v f6 O f6 Q N *' L +' ++ C 7 .� ++ E •— L C ++ •E L m L U N M C : aC�-+ O 0 O +�.+ — 7 .`-° f�6 _ 7 L — Ltio r_ C a"'' O U O0 0 0 2 L •> ate-+ U ++ Qr r6 0 CO a +.+ U +.+ +.+ t o0 N 0 C — +-� 0 t a O E � o 0 m v ° v -6 v N +, °�° 0 3 0 ajo o v v v o a •� 0 } ai a v 0 v • , > v v v •� +� .� C - C > v v u v0i C v0i C +�-+ v0i v O •C -Fu --2 v V U N N N � �h0 Z U C L -a 7 N f6 0 m .o o v v o C iE 3 v o v o m E v E v 3 _ C ._ +� o Z 3 H m U cn v H ri C C c i +� U - - L 0 0 o C Q. a a � s 3 0 Z � m E a 0 E U Vf L H C ice+ C � d H 0 3 v -0 Q C 0 E-68 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 326 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 o.0 C N Q) o � v O) O 0 +J o v N v o a� Q, •u E N O O u C L O O0 � v CL N N N N to E �_ v N Q E d E ` "O v v E N Ou E .^ O O O w E O O N E O O Q C i 0tio i O N C C O O N O E � u m f0 O m m O +J a O C: N > O m Q 0 u u c v m u v v = m t +' UO 0 t H O +J U H 7 CL O Op > N _ O O �n -0 Q) h0 O O N 000 i -° m -0 n +J }' N n _ C Op 110 00 tio O p E h0 u -° O Q O + H m m Lu U +m C L m Qj E '° O +� � N O w C C ?� h0 Op ° i > C O N fl- L v C h0 O E "O '� Y O > vi m o m ° ° u ao n Q) .� v c E e U — N — .° L N N m C m hD .0 N > ate-+ d .'� N N O 0o v v v *' v 3 b.0ao `+° *' ° v c U ~ >° O O ° m r° mac- _ Q °�° r° c E v m - c v v > ao m a *' v c .- ° '� .v b in E - C t. +6 v - v c ao a - o v m °�° = v E > w m v m C a0 Q O � mm vl v ° x d - ao c o f > E o .� E v co: c N o `-° °' E L E '� o _ v = o v 3 0 '� o cn ° a c 0 0 C 0 x E E E v o E � o v �° o o v E °�' E Q) ao o ) v ° = o = .v o .- a •� v° o v u `° m c o o v E moo J a � v Lo a; v a I v a m °� °c° m y v E E w a MO c C o 0 3 �' 3 0 v .E Z ao v c ca C •° •'� •f6 ++ Q) L "O N h0 N 0 O `� m C •� -0 > h0 -a N m G > vi m v 3 v � LIOv � v m c v �' o c v > c o E E o - O - c m H a 3 H O +� m Q 3 ._ cn U w 3 v w H m 0 L O O _y 'n w L Qj H LO O d rLn Q. Q Q CL w t 7 0 m E d 0 m m E v v Vf L H r ��.. C � E N E O O 00 v o0 0 H C 0 N O a V m o m 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 E-69 Att A Page 327 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 C V1 U °u Lu N �; v n f6 f6 it M CO +�+ 0 N i b. o- > 0) — - C d —O V i 1 Q SC Q Q) O m C C N L C �n U r_ Ln O a -Fu v C �n O >, L .� Ln N vii N C E N w O N N > 0 N Q) O t N i N a, v L O ° C Q +' N N L N f6 N O ~ "a O O N C 7 H Q 0 L C f6 > C E n C + fL6 0.w N C ° E n O C +O-+ 0 N > n N N E C f6 w ho O U O �n -0 N L d E .2 v vi C u o u ° EL i O vii N '� �n O N ° m N > E u O L E -0 N M ate-+ n Q aN+ L L a-+ N L 7 f6 a-+ m w m Q N nQj �n L L + O. j °j, �n (6 >, O L -0 +O+ ate'' a0'' tw >' +�-' a v O v v E -o v u a m O CO -O n n O "O N O un "O O d c > v u z ° n -0 N v u C N N "O C O � �n N C f6 N +C-+ w u O °� ° E n E ro > L 73 H ao v E Q *'4 m }' a CL o0 00 C >� C U V1 N n N O o Q) m O •0 +-+ ° N m N .E ,0 "C f6 ate+ n t N L f6 v > -° N C -O f6 ro ro C Q) w 'n ro CC0-O O m >' L u ro >, +� L .E O0 U O C ro '� O v vOi a c c ° w ? 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OU O f6 L� OU +�.+ C "C C C N �' O f6 •E ++ 110 m U0 E v v v U v W v v —S N Q) °e v � c*n E - Y L � o C o v ago � � � —u O o ao .0 a> N o> vv av ' a cvcv .ov M o c c o _ wL v o ov ° ` ° c: 6 Eb.0 a+ ++ O O N C ++ L C U f6 U f6 N O N C ON N H N N f6 E f6 Q .� -° N C O L fL6 +�-+ Ln +' N v Q C *' O vtaoii N "° vi 'n N N N D C C C +�-+ ca E E h0 +� > OCO _ >� Op .� U N v E vO '+J f6 > ?) O > N > ° N '� G O O O a° .N a m v v a�_o a�_o o °° m m N v `° v .� � m v n u o 0 m w v � o u E a ° E o v v v ao E v �°J a > ° u ° +� C a M > m U v C — > v v O v O — E Fu v — E f6 U N C O O O N C C C +-+ L f6 +, -O C N L L = L M O C L 7 7 Q ._ ro +� a u w > Q 5 ._ v m v H t ro ro w H Q H v Q t u ro H C L O O _y +' 3 w L d L O O O C ' E .Q Q Q EA S 7 p Y V V m a L IL 0- Q Q E D m E v v v Vf L H C ��.. C � 41 d H N m N m N O CL 0M ° M ° M ° N O N O N O EA V m Co Co E-70 2019 Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan-July 2o18 Att A Page 328 Ordinance 18893 Updated April 17,2019 00 � > O f0 L v C °U (�0 "O j, j O !2 ate+ N , m 0 N v 7 Cf +�.+ �' O O +J E — C m ry U 00 Ln C U m t "O 0 •� m Q v 0 O N N "a �n E 0 -an N i C m a) u1.Q) E vOr- Q) Ln ++ �n v m h0 N vCi N 7 Ql I a 0 3 E N N ~ n E > a-+ C ° o •E O E vNi m •0 CO - E m O o N u-a ° E 0 0 .� o v ° Q v N O N N i~ Dp ,— E N E i U C •QJ E O N i v > u O 7 0 N CL a+ C O i u C +J Dp N +-' N O w tmQ) E c Do °C° a a •- M n C = a a E I E W C: 60c� U 7 •N L U C d ate-+ CO C v d m N 00 C z +�.+ +�.+ O u a u tio 0 0- C m O m m m "a m L a-+ O Dp m U N 7 Q 00-i o > E a `-�° - ° C aao o c o °a E o O v C m O - m O a, C ° a N ° aao a, - -a +� U m a _ >, O C E a o C E E r 0 000 °po m o 0 - -°`a ao �' fl 3 '� E �a0 w w m > �_ m m 0 0 v u a C a > v - v m °0 v f 6 N O m m > a m a ) � a ° O E E v ao E E O ° v